Afghanistan Literature is World's greatest and richest - without Afghan- Literature no European (German, French, Spanish or English) Literature would exist today The Vedas, Zoroastrian, and Buddhist, among the oldest known Literature of Afghanistan, originating from the Great capital of Bactria present day Balkh, and Aria present day Herat, Sanskrit is the reference to the original history of Afghanistan. The Saxon Europeans' influence during the Great Games of the mid nineteenth century affected the Afghan language, religion and Territories' size, which previously had extended from India to North Africa at 2.6 million square kilometers. The Great Games continued at any cost evolving into present-day conflicts of 2013.
From Alexander the great 321 B.C to USA invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001 And from Aryana-Khorasan to Afghanistan Cultural History & Art from Aryana 3,500 years ago A.D 747 Khorasan, middle of the nineteenth century Afghanistan
Thirteen years after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan Thirteen years after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, the gains that the international coalition has made with its local partners are real but reversible. Afghanistan is no longer a global hub of terrorist activity, but Taliban resurgence would threaten to make it one again. Reconstruction assistance has produced demonstrable progress in health, education, and economic well-being, but corruption and governance problems have undermined popular support for the government in Kabul and constrained the overall level of progress. Internationally, a coalition still backs the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) military mission. However, NATO's will is waning; China, Russia, and India are largely free riders; and Punjab and Iran publicly say the right things, while destabilizing Afghanistan by privately meddling to their own ends. Political and economic realities in the United States make the current level of American engagement in Afghanistan unsustainable. But as the commitment of coalition partners fades, what Washington decides will shape the future of South Asia. Looking ahead, there are three different scenarios for American engagement in Afghanistan. It remains to be seen exactly which route Washington will take. But it is clear that U.S. interests require a long-term commitment not only in Afghanistan but across the region. Lest it be forgotten, the consequences of ignoring the region in the 1990s were visited upon the United States on 9/11. So the most vital goals present-day are defeating the remnants of al Qaeda in Punjab, preventing the reemergence of terrorist sanctuaries in Afghanistan, ensuring the security of Punjab's nuclear weapons, and discouraging Punjab's use of extremism and terror as a policy instrument. There are three ways forward. Each entails a different degree of involvement and carries varying risks and rewards. The first option is the riskiest. Future #1: Immediate Departure and the Reallocation of Resources because discontent among the U.S. public over the war is already at an all-time high.
10,000 Afghans. 21 Sikh soldiers. One epic battle. On 12 September 1897, 21 Sikh soldiers of 36th SIKH Regiment stood undeterred as they guarded the post of Saragarhi against the onslaught of almost 10,000 Afghan tribesmen – a battle for the ages that ended in them giving their lives in a final hand-to-hand combat. The unparalleled heroics of these 21 men have, however, been long forgotten by history. What led to the Battle of Saragarhi? What was the socio-political scenario at the time? Who were these tribesmen and why did they attack an outpost with such numerical superiority? Who were the 21 soldiers and how were they able to keep the enemy at bay against all odds? Based on colonial era records and information provided by the 4 Sikh Battalion of Indian Army, the legatee unit of 36th SIKHs, 21 Kesaris attempts to answer these questions while paying homage to the brave soldiers who defended the 'kesari' flag – depicting their Khalsa heritage – with their last breaths.
The Beijing-Islamabad axis plays a central role in Asia's geopolitics, from India's rise to the prospects for a post-American Afghanistan, from the threat of nuclear terrorism to the continent's new map of mines, ports and pipelines. China is Pakistan's great economic hope and its most trusted military partner; Pakistan is the battleground for China's encounters with Islamic militancy and the heart of its efforts to counter-balance the emerging US-India partnership. For decades, each country has been the other's only 'all-weather' friend. Yet the relationship is still little understood. The wildest claims about it are widely believed, while many of its most dramatic developments are hid- den from the public eye. This book sets out the recent history of Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramifications for the West, for India, for Afghanistan, and for Asia as a whole. It tells the stories behind some of its most sensitive aspects, including Beijing's support for Pakistan's nuclear program, China's dealings with the Taliban, and the Chinese military's planning for crises in Pakistan. It describes a relationship increasingly shaped by Pakistan's internal strife, and the dilemmas China faces between the need for regional stability and the imperative for strategic competition with India and the USA.