Search Results: a-framework-for-assessing-effects-of-the-food-system

A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030930783X

Category: Medical

Page: 444

View: 9424

How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309310164

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 6773

Historically, regulations governing chemical use have often focused on widely used chemicals and acute human health effects of exposure to them, as well as their potential to cause cancer and other adverse health effects. As scientific knowledge has expanded there has been an increased awareness of the mechanisms through which chemicals may exert harmful effects on human health, as well as their effects on other species and ecosystems. Identification of high-priority chemicals and other chemicals of concern has prompted a growing number of state and local governments, as well as major companies, to take steps beyond existing hazardous chemical federal legislation. Interest in approaches and policies that ensure that any new substances substituted for chemicals of concern are assessed as carefully and thoroughly as possible has also burgeoned. The overarching goal of these approaches is to avoid regrettable substitutions, which occur when a toxic chemical is replaced by another chemical that later proved unsuitable because of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or other concerns. Chemical alternative assessments are tools designed to facilitate consideration of these factors to assist stakeholders in identifying chemicals that may have the greatest likelihood of harm to human and ecological health, and to provide guidance on how the industry may develop and adopt safer alternatives. A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives develops and demonstrates a decision framework for evaluating potentially safer substitute chemicals as primarily determined by human health and ecological risks. This new framework is informed by previous efforts by regulatory agencies, academic institutions, and others to develop alternative assessment frameworks that could be operationalized. In addition to hazard assessments, the framework incorporates steps for life-cycle thinking - which considers possible impacts of a chemical at all stages including production, use, and disposal - as well as steps for performance and economic assessments. The report also highlights how modern information sources such as computational modeling can supplement traditional toxicology data in the assessment process. This new framework allows the evaluation of the full range of benefits and shortcomings of substitutes, and examination of tradeoffs between these risks and factors such as product functionality, product efficacy, process safety, and resource use. Through case studies, this report demonstrates how different users in contrasting decision contexts with diverse priorities can apply the framework. This report will be an essential resource to the chemical industry, environmentalists, ecologists, and state and local governments.

Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food:

Workshop Summary

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309265800

Category: Medical

Page: 106

View: 9467

The U.S. food system provides many benefits, not the least of which is a safe, nutritious and consistent food supply. However, the same system also creates significant environmental, public health, and other costs that generally are not recognized and not accounted for in the retail price of food. These include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, air pollution, and their environmental consequences, the transfer of antibiotic resistance from food animals to human, and other human health outcomes, including foodborne illnesses and chronic disease. Some external costs which are also known as externalities are accounted for in ways that do not involve increasing the price of food. But many are not. They are borne involuntarily by society at large. A better understanding of external costs would help decision makers at all stages of the life cycle to expand the benefits of the U.S. food system even further. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a public workshop on April 23-23, 2012, to explore the external costs of food, methodologies for quantifying those costs, and the limitations of the methodologies. The workshop was intended to be an information-gathering activity only. Given the complexity of the issues and the broad areas of expertise involved, workshop presentations and discussions represent only a small portion of the current knowledge and are by no means comprehensive. The focus was on the environmental and health impacts of food, using externalities as a basis for discussion and animal products as a case study. The intention was not to quantify costs or benefits, but rather to lay the groundwork for doing so. A major goal of the workshop was to identify information sources and methodologies required to recognize and estimate the costs and benefits of environmental and public health consequences associated with the U.S. food system. It was anticipated that the workshop would provide the basis for a follow-up consensus study of the subject and that a central task of the consensus study will be to develop a framework for a full-scale accounting of the environmental and public health effects for all food products of the U.S. food system. Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food: Workshop Summary provides the basis for a follow-up planning discussion involving members of the IOM Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and others to develop the scope and areas of expertise needed for a larger-scale, consensus study of the subject.

A Sustainability Challenge:

Food Security for All: Report of Two Workshops

Author: Committee on Food Security for All as a Sustainability Challenge,Science and Technology for Sustainability Program,Policy and Global Affairs,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030922263X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 261

View: 7319

The National Research Council's Science and Technology for Sustainability Program hosted two workshops in 2011 addressing the sustainability challenges associated with food security for all. The first workshop, Measuring Food Insecurity and Assessing the Sustainability of Global Food Systems, explored the availability and quality of commonly used indicators for food security and malnutrition; poverty; and natural resources and agricultural productivity. It was organized around the three broad dimensions of sustainable food security: (1) availability, (2) access, and (3) utilization. The workshop reviewed the existing data to encourage action and identify knowledge gaps. The second workshop, Exploring Sustainable Solutions for Increasing Global Food Supplies, focused specifically on assuring the availability of adequate food supplies. How can food production be increased to meet the needs of a population expected to reach over 9 billion by 2050? Workshop objectives included identifying the major challenges and opportunities associated with achieving sustainable food security and identifying needed policy, science, and governance interventions. Workshop participants discussed long term natural resource constraints, specifically water, land and forests, soils, biodiversity and fisheries. They also examined the role of knowledge, technology, modern production practices, and infrastructure in supporting expanded agricultural production and the significant risks to future productivity posed by climate change. This is a report of two workshops.

Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price Crisis:

Workshop Summary

Author: Board on Global Health,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309140188

Category: Medical

Page: 200

View: 856

In 2007 and 2008, the world witnessed a dramatic increase in food prices. The global financial crisis that began in 2008 compounded the burden of high food prices, exacerbating the problems of hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. The tandem food price and economic crises struck amidst the massive, chronic problem of hunger and undernutrition in developing countries. National governments and international actors have taken a variety of steps to mitigate the negative effects of increased food prices on particular groups. The recent abrupt increase in food prices, in tandem with the current global economic crisis, threatens progress already made in these areas, and could inhibit future efforts. The Institute of Medicine held a workshop, summarized in this volume, to describe the dynamic technological, agricultural, and economic issues contributing to the food price increases of 2007 and 2008 and their impacts on health and nutrition in resource-poor regions. The compounding effects of the current global economic downturn on nutrition motivated additional discussions on these dual crises, their impacts on the nutritional status of vulnerable populations, and opportunities to mitigate their negative nutritional effects.

Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development

Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development

Author: Sieglinde Snapp,Barry Pound

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128020954

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 558

View: 5338

Agricultural Systems, Second Edition, is a comprehensive text for developing sustainable farming systems. It presents a synthetic overview of the emerging area of agroecology applications to transforming farming systems and supporting rural innovation, with particular emphasis on how research can be harnessed for sustainable agriculture. The inclusion of research theory and examples using the principles of cropping system design allows students to gain a unique understanding of the technical, biological, ecological, economic and sociological aspects of farming systems science for rural livelihoods. This book explores topics such as: re-inventing farming systems; principles and practice of agroecology; agricultural change and low-input technology; ecologically-based nutrient management; participatory breeding for developing improved and relevant crops; participatory livestock research for development; gender and agrarian inequality at the local scale; the nature of agricultural innovation; and outreach to support rural innovation. The extensive coverage of subjects is complemented with integrated references and a companion website, making this book essential reading for courses in international agricultural systems and management, sustainable agricultural management, and cropping systems. This book will be a valuable resource for students of agricultural science, environmental engineering, and rural planning; researchers and scientists in agricultural development agencies; and practitioners of agricultural development in government extension programs, development agencies, and NGOs. Provides students with an enhanced understanding of how research can be harnessed for sustainable agriculture Incorporates social, biological, chemical, and geographical aspects important to agroecology Addresses social and development issues related to farming systems

Improving Data to Analyze Food and Nutrition Policies

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Enhancing the Data Infrastructure in Support of Food and Nutrition Programs, Research, and Decision Making

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309181440

Category: Medical

Page: 146

View: 7392

Several changes in the United States over the past two decades have implications for diet, nutrition, and food safety, including patterns of food consumption that have produced an increase in overweight and obese Americans and threats to food safety from pathogens and bioterrorism. The changes raise a number of critical policy and research questions: How do differences in food prices and availability or in households' time resources for shopping and food preparation affect what people consume and where they eat? How do factors outside of the household, such as the availability of stores and restaurants, food preparation technology, and food marketing and labeling policies, affect what people are consuming? What effects have food assistance programs had on the nutritional quality of diets and the health of those served by the programs? Where do people buy and consume food and how does food preparation affect food safety? To address these and related questions, the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) asked the Committee on National Statistics to convene a panel of experts to provide advice for improving the data infrastructure on food consumption and nutrition. The panel was charged to review data needs to support research and decision making for food and nutrition policies and programs in USDA and to assess the adequacy of the current data infrastructure and recommend enhancements to improve it. The primary basis for the panel's deliberations, given limited resources, was a workshop on Enhancing the Data Infrastructure in Support of Food and Nutrition Programs, Research, and Decision Making, which the panel convened on May 27-28, 2004. This report is based on the discussions at the workshop and the deliberations of the panel. The report outlines key data that are needed to better address questions related to food consumption, diet, and health; discusses the available data and some limitations of those data; and offers recommendations for improvements in those data. The panel was charged to consider USDA data needs for policy making and the focus of the report is on those needs.

Introduction to the US Food System

Public Health, Environment, and Equity

Author: Roni Neff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118063384

Category: Medical

Page: 576

View: 3181

The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture

Managing Systems at Risk

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136498877

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 5902

The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture is FAO's first flagship publication on the global status of land and water resources. It is an 'advocacy' report, to be published every three to five years, and targeted at senior level decision makers in agriculture as well as in other sectors. SOLAW is aimed at sensitizing its target audience on the status of land resources at global and regional levels and FAO's viewpoint on appropriate recommendations for policy formulation. SOLAW focuses on these key dimensions of analysis: (i) quantity, quality of land and water resources, (ii) the rate of use and sustainable management of these resources in the context of relevant socio-economic driving factors and concerns, including food security and poverty, and climate change. This is the first time that a global, baseline status report on land and water resources has been made. It is based on several global spatial databases (e.g. land suitability for agriculture, land use and management, land and water degradation and depletion) for which FAO is the world-recognized data source. Topical and emerging issues on land and water are dealt with in an integrated rather than sectoral manner. The implications of the status and trends are used to advocate remedial interventions which are tailored to major farming systems within different geographic regions.

Ten Steps to a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation System

A Handbook for Development Practitioners

Author: Jody Zall Kusek,Ray C. Rist

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821389076

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 8795

This Handbook provides a comprehensive ten-step model that will help guide development practitioners through the process of designing and building a results-based monitoring and evaluation system.

Methods in Stream Ecology

Volume 1: Ecosystem Structure

Author: F. Richard Hauer,Gary A. Lamberti

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124165788

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 2343

Methods in Stream Ecology provides a complete series of field and laboratory protocols in stream ecology that are ideal for teaching or conducting research. This two part new edition is updated to reflect recent advances in the technology associated with ecological assessment of streams, including remote sensing. Volume focusses on ecosystem structure with in-depth sections on Physical Processes, Material Storage and Transport and Stream Biota. With a student-friendly price, this Third Edition is key for all students and researchers in stream and freshwater ecology, freshwater biology, marine ecology, and river ecology. This text is also supportive as a supplementary text for courses in watershed ecology/science, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and landscape ecology. Provides a variety of exercises in each chapter Includes detailed instructions, illustrations, formulae, and data sheets for in-field research for students Presents taxonomic keys to common stream invertebrates and algae Includes website with tables and a link from Chapter 22: FISH COMMUNITY COMPOSITION to an interactive program for assessing and modeling fish numbers Written by leading experts in stream ecology

The European Nitrogen Assessment

Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives

Author: Mark A. Sutton,Clare M. Howard,Jan Willem Erisman,Gilles Billen,Albert Bleeker,Peringe Grennfelt,Hans van Grinsven,Bruna Grizzetti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139501372

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8999

Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction to the nitrogen cycle processes. Issues of upscaling from farm plot and city to national and continental scales are addressed in detail with emphasis on opportunities for better management at local to global levels. The five key societal threats posed by reactive nitrogen are assessed, providing a framework for joined-up management of the nitrogen cycle in Europe, including the first cost-benefit analysis for different reactive nitrogen forms and future scenarios. Incorporating comprehensive maps, a handy technical synopsis and a summary for policy makers, this landmark volume is an essential reference for academic researchers across a wide range of disciplines, as well as stakeholders and policy makers. It is also a valuable tool in communicating the key environmental issues and future challenges to the wider public.

Nutrigenomics and the Future of Nutrition

Proceedings of a Workshop

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Food and Nutrition Board,Food Forum

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309477646

Category: MEDICAL

Page: 154

View: 8582

On December 5, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop titled Nutrigenomics and the Future of Nutrition in Washington, DC, to review current knowledge in the field of nutrigenomics as it relates to nutrition. Workshop participants explored the influence of genetic and epigenetic expression on nutritional status and the potential impact of personalized nutrition on health maintenance and chronic disease prevention. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills A New Framework for Assessment

A New Framework for Assessment

Author: OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264173129

Category:

Page: 84

View: 8130

A New Framework for Assessment, the first volume in the PISA series, provides the conceptual framework on which the PISA 2000 assessment is based.

Food and Nutrition Economics

Fundamentals for Health Sciences

Author: Elena L. Serrano

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199379114

Category:

Page: 272

View: 7937

As the importance of food and nutrition becomes more widely recognized by practitioners and researchers in the health sciences, one persisting gap in the knowledge base remains: what are the economic factors that influence our food and our health? Food and Nutrition Economics offers a much-needed resource for non-economists looking to understand the basic economic principles that govern our food and nutritional systems. Comprising both a quick grounding in nutrition with the fundamentals of economics and expert applications to food systems, it is a uniquely accessible and much-needed bridge between previously disparate scholarly and professional fields. This book is intended for upper level undergraduates, graduate students, and health professionals with no background in economics who recognize that economics affects much of their work. Concerned because previous encounters with economics have been hampered by math hurdles? Don't be; this book offers a specialized primer in consumer economics (including behavioral economics of food consumption), producer economics, market-level analysis, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit analysis, all in an accessible and conversational manner that requires nothing more than middle-school math acumen. Grounding these lessons in contemporary issues such as soft drink taxes, food prices, convenience, nutrition education programs, and the food environment, Food and Nutrition Economics is an innovative and needed entry in the rapidly expanding universe of food studies, health science, and their related fields.

Food and Faith

A Theology of Eating

Author: Norman Wirzba

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521195500

Category: Religion

Page: 244

View: 6541

A comprehensive theological framework for assessing the significance of eating, demonstrating that eating is of profound economic, moral and theological significance.

Ecosystems and Human Well-being

A Framework for Assessment

Author: Joseph Alcamo,Elena M. Bennett,Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program)

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559634038

Category: Nature

Page: 245

View: 9457

Ecosystems and Human Well-being is the first product of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), a four-year international work program designed to meet the needs of decision-makers for scientific information on the links between ecosystem change and human well-being. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is modeled on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and will provide information requested by governments, through four international conventions, as well as meeting needs within the private sector and civil society. Ecosystems and Human Well-being offers an overview of the assessment, describing the conceptual framework that is being used, defining its scope and providing a baseline of understanding that all participants need to move forward. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment focuses on how humans have altered ecosystems, and how changes in ecosystems have affected human well-being. The assessment also evaluates how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades and what responses can be adopted at local, national, or global scales to improve ecosystem management and thereby contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation. The assessment was launched by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in June 2001, and the primary assessment reports will be released by Island Press in 2005. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment series is an invaluable new resource for professionals and policy-makers concerned with international development, environmental science, environmental policy, and related fields. It will help both in choosing among existing options and in identifying new approaches for achieving integrated management of land, water, and living resources while strengthening regional, national, and local capacities. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment series will also improve policy and decision-making at all levels by increasing collaboration between natural and social scientists, and between scientists and policy-makers. Ecosystems and Human Well-being is an essential introduction to the program.

Tools for Institutional, Political, and Social Analysis of Policy Reform

A Sourcebook for Development Practitioners

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821368915

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 5189

"Analysis of the distributional impact of policy reforms plays an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing and transitional countries, promoting evidence-based policy choices and fostering debate on policy reform options. International agencies and national partners are increasingly encouraging a more systematic application of policy reform analysis. Requisite to a systematic application is capacity building within countries as well as within donor agencies." "Tools for Institutional, Political, and Social Analysis of Policy Reform: A Sourcebook for Development Practitioners contributes to this agenda by introducing a framework and a set of practical tools that analyze the institutional, political, and social dimensions of policy design and implementation. The authors fill a perceived gap in knowledge of the application of social tools and complement existing guidance on conventional economic analysis of distributional impacts of reform." "This book will be of interest to commissioners and practitioners working in policy analysis in a range of areas - including macroeconomic, sectoral, and public sector policy - that are subject to ongoing policy reform discussions."--BOOK JACKET.

A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309392659

Category: Medical

Page: 172

View: 9175

The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life.†These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies, and political systems. In an era of pronounced human migration, changing demographics, and growing financial gaps between rich and poor, a fundamental understanding of how the conditions and circumstances in which individuals and populations exist affect mental and physical health is imperative. Educating health professionals about the social determinants of health generates awareness among those professionals about the potential root causes of ill health and the importance of addressing them in and with communities, contributing to more effective strategies for improving health and health care for underserved individuals, communities, and populations. Recently, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to develop a high-level framework for such health professional education. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health also puts forth a conceptual model for the framework’s use with the goal of helping stakeholder groups envision ways in which organizations, education, and communities can come together to address health inequalities.

Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders

A Framework for Establishing Evidence-Based Standards

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Developing Evidence-Based Standards for Psychosocial Interventions for Mental Disorders

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309316979

Category: Medical

Page: 176

View: 5167

Mental health and substance use disorders affect approximately 20 percent of Americans and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a wide range of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are currently in use, most consumers of mental health care find it difficult to know whether they are receiving high-quality care. Although the current evidence base for the effects of psychosocial interventions is sizable, subsequent steps in the process of bringing a psychosocial intervention into routine clinical care are less well defined. Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders details the reasons for the gap between what is known to be effective and current practice and offers recommendations for how best to address this gap by applying a framework that can be used to establish standards for psychosocial interventions. The framework described in Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders can be used to chart a path toward the ultimate goal of improving the outcomes. The framework highlights the need to (1) support research to strengthen the evidence base on the efficacy and effectiveness of psychosocial interventions; (2) based on this evidence, identify the key elements that drive an intervention's effect; (3) conduct systematic reviews to inform clinical guidelines that incorporate these key elements; (4) using the findings of these systematic reviews, develop quality measures - measures of the structure, process, and outcomes of interventions; and (5) establish methods for successfully implementing and sustaining these interventions in regular practice including the training of providers of these interventions. The recommendations offered in this report are intended to assist policy makers, health care organizations, and payers that are organizing and overseeing the provision of care for mental health and substance use disorders while navigating a new health care landscape. The recommendations also target providers, professional societies, funding agencies, consumers, and researchers, all of whom have a stake in ensuring that evidence-based, high-quality care is provided to individuals receiving mental health and substance use services.

Find eBook