How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.
A report by the night level panel of experts on food security and nutrition of the commitee on world food security. September 2017
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Category: Social Science
Presented at the 44th Committee on Food Security in October 2017, this report looks at the links between access to food and people's nutritional status. It calls for policies that promote adequate food access for all and strengthen consumers's information on healthy products.
The report describes a framework that can be used to identify the most important trade-offs in ecosystem based fisheries management. The framework contains a description of how to identify the border between the science and policy domains, how to identify objectives and set goals for management, and how to communicate the management advice. Consultations with stakeholders showed that multi-species management advice needs to be precautionary, provide yields close to MSY, be in accordance with ecosystem constraints and be possible to communicate clearly to managers and policymakers. The use of the framework is demonstrated through examples from three different ecosystems: the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea.
It is as yet uncertain how the Gulf of Mexico oil spill will affect the health of clean-up workers and volunteers, residents, and visitors in the Gulf. The IOM recommends that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services focus on researching psychological and behavioral health, exposure information to oil and dispersants, seafood safety, communication methods for health studies, and methods for conducting research in order to better understand and mitigate the effects on human health for this oil spill and for future disasters.
Developing countries have a major stake in the outcome of trade negotiations conducted under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO). 'Agriculture and the WTO: Creating a Trading System for Development' explores the key issues and options in agricultural trade liberalization from the perspective of these developing countries. Leading experts in trade and agriculture from both developed and developing countries provide key research findings and policy analyses on a range of issues that includes market access, domestic support, export competition, quota administration methods, food security, biotechnology, intellectual property rights, and agricultural trade under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Material is covered in summary and in comprehensive detail with supporting data, a substantial bibliography, and listings of online resources. This book will be of interest to policymakers and analysts in the fields of development economics and commodities pricing and trade.
The aim of this manual is to help policy analysts improve their understanding of the concept of food security and the problems related to it. Food security is defined as availability of, stability of and access to food by each human being. The food system, including the production and transformation of food, is studied with a view to understanding the causes of food insecurity. The manual then shows how international, macro-level and agricultural-sector policies affect the food system and how national and international policies that could improve food security can be identified.
This report outlines a three-step framework for considering the safety of dietary supplement ingredients. The first two steps in the process, "screening/flagging" and "priority setting," are designed to categorize dietary supplement ingredients based on theoretical or possible concern, and therefore the immediacy of the need for in-depth evaluation of safety, the third step of the process.