Search Results: a-problem-solving-approach-to-aquatic-chemistry

A Problem-Solving Approach to Aquatic Chemistry

Author: James N. Jensen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 585

View: 1325

This text provides a detailed introduction to aquatic equilibrium chemistry, calculation methods for systems at equilibrium, applications of aquatic chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Software designed especially for the text allows the reader to build complex models by applying equilibrium calculation principles. Important features include material-specific and integrated case studies, thought-provoking questions, key ideas, and historical sketches.

Water Chemistry

Author: Mark Benjamin,Mark M. Benjamin

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Europe

ISBN: 9780071202398

Category: Water chemistry

Page: 668

View: 7033

This book effectively conveys the key concepts of equilibrium chemistry, particularly as they apply to natural and engineered aquatic systems. The coverage is rigorous and thorough, but the author assumes little prior knowledge of chemistry on the part of the readers, and writes in a style that is easily accessible to students. The book integrates algebraic, graphical and computer approaches to solving equilibrium problems.

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420052691

Category: Science

Page: 1264

View: 8776

Written by an expert, using the same approach that made the previous two editions so successful, Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition expands the scope of book to include the strongly emerging areas broadly described as sustainability science and technology, including green chemistry and industrial ecology. The new edition includes: Increased emphasis on the applied aspects of environmental chemistry Hot topics such as global warming and biomass energy Integration of green chemistry and sustainability concepts throughout the text More and updated questions and answers, including some that require Internet research Lecturers Pack on CD-ROM with solutions manual, PowerPoint presentations, and chapter figures available upon qualifying course adoptions The book provides a basic course in chemical science, including the fundamentals of organic chemistry and biochemistry. The author uses real-life examples from environmetnal chemistry, green chemistry, and related areas while maintaining brevity and simplicity in his explanation of concepts. Building on this foundation, the book covers environmental chemistry, broadly defined to include sustainability aspects, green chemistry, industrial ecology, and related areas. These chapters are organized around the five environmental spheres, the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and the anthrosphere. The last two chapters discuss analytical chemistry and its relevance to environmental chemistry. Manahan’s clear, concise, and readable style makes the information accessible, regardless of the readers’ level of chemistry knowledge. He demystifies the material for those who need the basics of chemical science for their trade, profession, or study curriculum, as well as for readers who want to have an understanding of the fundamentals of sustainable chemistry in its crucial role in maintaining a livable planet.

Water Chemistry

Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439894345

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8214

Carefully crafted to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of water in the environment, Water Chemistry: Green Science and Technology of Nature's Most Renewable Resource examines water issues within the broad framework of sustainability, an issue of increasing importance as the demands of Earth’s human population threaten to overwhelm the planet’s carrying capacity. Renowned environmental author Stanley Manahan provides more than just basic coverage of the chemistry of water. He relates the science and technology of this amazing substance to areas essential to sustainability science, including environmental and green chemistry, industrial ecology, and green (sustainable) science and technology. The inclusion of a separate chapter that comprehensively covers energy, including renewable and emerging sources, sets this book a part. Manahan explains how the hydrosphere relates to the geosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthrosphere. His approach views Planet Earth as consisting of these five mutually interacting spheres. He covers biogeochemical cycles and the essential role of water in these basic cycles of materials. He also defines environmental chemistry and green chemistry, emphasizing water’s role in the practice of each. Manahan highlights the role of the anthrosphere, that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. He underscores its overwhelming influence on the environment and its pervasive effects on the hydrosphere. He also covers the essential role that water plays in the sustainable operation of the anthrosphere and how it can be maintained in a manner that will enable it to operate in harmony with the environment for generations to come. Written at an intermediate level, this is an appropriate text for the study of current affairs in environmental chemistry. It provides a review and grounding in basic and organic chemistry for those students who need it and also fills a niche for an aquatic chemistry book that relates the hydrosphere to the four other environmental spheres.

Environmental Chemistry, Tenth Edition

Author: Stanley Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498776949

Category: Science

Page: 784

View: 1975

With clear explanations, real-world examples and updated questions and answers, the tenth edition of Environmental Chemistry emphasizes the concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations in the field. The author follows the general format and organization popular in preceding editions, including an approach based upon the five environmental spheres and the relationship of environmental chemistry to the key concepts of sustainability, industrial ecology and green chemistry. This readily adaptable text has been revamped to emphasize important topics such as the world water crisis. It details global climate change to a greater degree than previous editions, underlining the importance of abundant renewable energy in minimizing human influences on climate. Environmental Chemistry is designed for a wide range of graduate and undergraduate courses in environmental chemistry, environmental science and sustainability as well as serving as a general reference work for professionals in the environmental sciences and engineering.

Grundwasserchemie

Praxisorientierter Leitfaden zur numerischen Modellierung von Beschaffenheit, Kontamination und Sanierung aquatischer Systeme

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 366207611X

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 4584

Die Autoren konzentrieren sich in ihrem Werk auf die Lösung praxisorientierter hydrogeochemischer Fragestellungen und schließen damit eine Lücke im Bereich anwendungsorientierter Lehrbücher. Ein erster Teil fasst dabei die Theorie soweit zusammen, daß es auch Neulingen im Bereich der Modellierung und Nichtchemikern leicht gemacht wird, das anspruchsvolle Thema zu erfassen. Akademikern mit hydrogeologischer oder chemischer Grundausbildung sowie Studenten höherer Semester in den relevanten Fachgebieten erlaubt das Buch, anhand der beschriebenen Beispiele und Lösungen, eine eigenständige Erarbeitung der Sachverhalte. Die beiliegende CD-ROM ermöglicht zudem eine rasche Überprüfung der Ergebnisse, bzw. das Nachvollziehen aller Aufgaben und Lösungen anhand der beigefügten PhreeC-Eingabedateien. Da das Programm PhreeC kostenfrei verfügbar ist und mit Windows-Oberfläche auf der CD-ROM vorhanden ist, kann sofort mit der Modellierung begonnen werden.

Integrated Approach to Environmental Data Management Systems

Author: Nilgun B. Harmanciogammalu,M.N. Alpaslan,S.D. Ozkul,V.P. Singh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401156166

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 546

View: 575

An integrated approach to environmental data management is necessitated by the complexity of the environmental problems that need to be addresses, coupled with the interdisciplinary approach that needs to be adopted to solve them. Agenda 21 of the Rio Environmental Conference mandated international programmes and organizations to take steps to develop common data and information management plans, and steps have been taken in this direction. The key word that defines the framework of the present book is `integration'. The book establishes the basics of integrated approaches and covers environmental data management systems within that framework, covering all aspects of data management, from objectives and constraints, design of data collection networks, statistical and physical sampling, remote sensing and GIS, databases, reliability of data, data analysis, and the transformation of data into information.

Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems

Author: Robert P. Mason

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111827458X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 5444

This book provides a detailed examination of the concentration, form and cycling of trace metals and metalloids through the aquatic biosphere, and has sections dealing with the atmosphere, the ocean, lakes and rivers. It discusses exchanges at the water interface (air/water and sediment/water) and the major drivers of the cycling, concentration and form of trace metals in aquatic systems. The initial chapters focus on the fundamental principles and modelling approaches needed to understand metal concentration, speciation and fate in the aquatic environment, while the later chapters focus on specific environments, with case studies and research highlights. Specific examples deal with metals that are of particular scientific interest, such as mercury, iron, arsenic and zinc, and the book deals with both pollutant and required (nutrient) metals and metalloids. The underlying chemical principles controlling toxicity and bioavailability of these elements to microorganisms and to the aquatic food chain are also discussed. Readership: Graduate students studying environmental chemistry and related topics, as well as scientists and managers interested in the cycling of trace substances in aqueous systems Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/mason/tracemetals.

Freshwater Field Tests for Hazard Assessment of Chemicals

Author: Ian R. Hill,Fred Heimbach,Peter Leeuwangh,Peter Matthiessen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780873719407

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 6272

Freshwater field tests are an integral part of the process of hazard assessment of pesticides and other chemicals in the environment. This book brings together international experts on microcosms and mesocosms for a critical appraisal of theory and practice on the subject of freshwater field tests for hazard assessment. It is an authoritative and comprehensive summary of knowledge about freshwater field tests, with particular emphasis on their optimization for scientific and regulatory purposes. This valuable reference covers both lotic and lentic outdoor systems and addresses the choice of endpoints and test methodology. Instructive case histories show how to extrapolate test results to the real world.

Fate and Effects of Sediment-Bound Chemicals in Aquatic Systems

Proceedings of the Sixth Pellston Workshop, Florissant, Colorado, August 12-17, 1984

Author: Kenneth L. Dickson,Alan W. Maki,William A. Brungs

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483148122

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 3700

Fate and Effects of Sediment-Bound Chemicals in Aquatic Systems presents the proceedings of the Sixth Pellston Workshop, held in Florissant, Colorado on August 12–17, 1984. This book presents the development of scientific inquiry of hazards to the aquatic environment. Organized into 27 chapters, this compilation of papers begins with an overview of water quality significance of sediment-associated contaminants to aquatic life. This text then addresses the topic of the role of suspended and settled sediments in regulating the effects of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Other chapters consider the nature and extent of partitioning and bioavailability, which are key elements in research efforts toward assessing the effects of sediments on water quality. This book discusses as well the regulatory and management strategies for chemicals entering public water supplies. The final chapter deals with conclusions and recommendations identified during the workshop. This book is a valuable resource for biologists and environmental scientists.

Water Chemistry

An Introduction to the Chemistry of Natural and Engineered Aquatic Systems

Author: Patrick Brezonik,William Arnold

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019981354X

Category: Science

Page: 808

View: 4714

Water Chemistry provides students with the tools necessary to understand the processes that control the chemical species present in waters of both natural and engineered systems. After providing basic information about water itself and the chemical composition of water in environmental systems, the text covers the necessary theory (thermodynamics, activity, and kinetics) and background material to solve problems. It emphasizes that both equilibrium and kinetic processes are important in aquatic systems. The book does not merely focus on inorganic constituents, but also on the fate and reactions of organic chemicals. The solving of quantitative equilibrium and kinetic problems using mathematical, graphical, and computational tools is emphasized throughout presentations on acid-base chemistry, complexation of metal ions, solubility of minerals, and oxidation-reduction reactions. The use of these problem-solving tools is then extended in the presentation of topics relevant to natural systems, including dissolved oxygen, nutrient chemistry, geochemical controls on chemical composition, photochemistry, and natural organic matter. The kinetics and equilibria relevant to engineered systems (e.g., chlorination and disinfection chemistry, sorption and surface chemistry) and organic contaminant chemistry are also discussed. Numerous in-chapter examples that show the application of theory and demonstrate how problems are solved using algebraic, graphical, and computer-based techniques are included. Examples are relevant to both natural waters and engineered systems.

Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

Author: Lorraine Maltby,Dave Arnold,Gertie Arts,Jo Davies,Fred Heimbach,Christina Pickl,Veronique Poulsen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439822131

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 3166

Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. An integration of regulatory and research information from key specialists in the area of environmental regulation, Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides provides a state-of-the-art guide to ecotoxicological risk assessment. Written by well-known experts in the field of aquatic risk assessment, this book is a practical reference for the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquatic macrophytes. The book supplies a concise, coherent, and science-based view from influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists. They address the selection of additional species, critical regulatory endpoints, and assessing the risk of plant protection products to aquatic macrophytes. They also present a clear description of key issues in macrophyte risk assessment, information on macrophyte test methods, suitable measurement endpoints, and data evaluation and interpretation. Filled with recommendations distilled from existing regulatory experiences of aquatic macrophyte risk assessment, the book includes case studies to identify issues, data gaps, and inadequacies in study design. It also identifies improvements to risk assessment that could be implemented immediately and those for which further research is needed. An authoritative resource, the book points the way to an improved approach to aquatic macrophyte risk assessment.

Assessing the Hazard of Metals and Inorganic Metal Substances in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems

Author: William J. Adams,Peter M. Chapman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420044416

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 7806

Current procedures used for hazard identification and classification are based on persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity measurements. Assessing the Hazard of Metals and Inorganic Metal Substances in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems provides the basis for improvements to the current model for hazard assessment. The book reviews the scientific underpinnings of the use of persistence as applied to metals, including bioavailability, and the use of bioaccumulation to evaluate aquatic species and aquatic-linked food chains. It also examines toxicity procedures as used within PBT approaches and measurements for metals in terrestrial ecosystems. The book brings together a multidisciplinary and international group of scientists, managers, and policy makers from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States to discuss various means for assessing the environmental hazard posed by metals and inorganic metal substances. The contributors include representatives from regulatory and nonregulatory government agencies, academia, industry, environmental groups, and consulting firms involved in assessment, management, and basic research of metals and metal substances. They provide a focused discussion of the fate and effects of metals in the environment, incorporating important advances developed over the past decade.

Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie

Wie man neue Märkte schafft, wo es keine Konkurrenz gibt

Author: W. Chan Kim,Renée Mauborgne

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446448470

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 8741

Das Buch ist ein globales Phänomen. Es wurde 3,5 Millionen Mal verkauft, in rekordverdächtigen 43 Sprachen publiziert und ist auf 5 Kontinenten zum Bestseller geworden. Nun ist es in einer aktualisierten und erweiterten Auflage neu erschienen. - Der internationale Bestseller: Jetzt mit neuem Vorwort, neuen Kapiteln und aktualisierten Fallstudien - Ein Bestseller auf 5 Kontinenten - Weltweit mehr als 3,5 Millionen Bücher verkauft - In 43 Sprachen übersetzt - Ein Wall-Street-Journal-, Businessweek- und Fast-Company-Bestseller Der von Organisationen und Branchen auf der ganzen Welt hochgeschätzte Bestseller stellt alles in Frage, was wir bisher über die Voraussetzungen strategischen Erfolgs zu wissen glaubten. Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie, vertritt die Ansicht, dass ein brutaler Konkurrenzkampf nur dazu führt, dass sich die Konkurrenten in einem blutrot gefärbten Ozean um rapide schwindende Gewinnmöglichkeiten streiten. Basierend auf der Untersuchung von mehr als 150 strategischen Schachzügen (im Lauf von mehr als 100 Jahren und in mehr als 50 Branchen) vertreten die Autoren die Ansicht, dass nachhaltiger Erfolg nicht auf verschärftem Konkurrenzkampf, sondern auf der Eroberung »Blauer Ozeane« beruht: der Erschließung neuer Märkte mit großem Wachstumspotenzial. Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie präsentiert einen systematischen Ansatz, wie man Konkurrenz irrelevant macht, und legt Prinzipien und Methoden vor, mit der jede Organisation ihre eigenen Blauen Ozeane erobern kann. Diese erweiterte Auflage enthält: - Ein neues Vorwort der Autoren: Hilfe! Mein Ozean färbt sich rot. - Aktualisierungen der in dem Buch behandelten Fälle und Beispiele, indem ihre Geschichte bis in die Gegenwart weitervorfolgt wird. - Zwei neue Kapitel und ein erweitertes drittes Kapitel: Ausrichtung, Erneuerung und Red Ocean Traps. Sie behandeln die wichtigsten Fragen, die die Leser in den vergangenen zehn Jahren gestellt haben. Der bahnbrechende Bestseller stellt das bisherige strategische Denken auf den Kopf und entwirft einen kühnen neuen Weg in die Zukunft. Hier können Sie lernen, wie man neue Märkte erschließt, auf denen Konkurrenz noch keine Rolle spielt. "Das ist ein extrem wertvolles Buch." Nicolas G. Hayek, Verwaltungsratpräsident, Swatch Group "Ein Muss für Manager und Wirtschaftsstudenten." Carlos Ghosn, President und CEO, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. "Die Strategien von Kim und Mauborgne sind nicht nur neu, sondern auch praxisnah. Wir haben sie in unserem Unternehmen mit großem Erfolg umgesetzt." Patrick Snowball, Chief Executive, Norwich Union Insurance Wenn Sie mehr über die innovative Kraft des Buches wissen wollen, besuchen Sie blueoceanstrategy.com. Dort finden Sie alle Mittel, die Sie brauchen: praktische Ideen und Fallbeispiele aus staatlichen Unternehmen und der Privatindustrie, Lehrmaterial, Mobile Apps, aktuelle Updates sowie Tipps und Tools, mit denen Sie Ihre Reise auf dem Blauen Ozean erfolgreich gestalten können.

Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen,Jose Galizia Tundisi,Takako Matsumura Tundisi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439845255

Category: Nature

Page: 430

View: 3071

Combining background knowledge and practical tools, Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management gives you an overview of how to manage inland waters in a holistic manner. It examines the problems that threaten aquatic inland water ecosystems and presents a set of toolboxes for solving them. The book focuses on lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, wetlands, lagoons, and estuaries, including the predominant freshwater ecosystems as well as saline and brackish ecosystems. Understand Ecosystem Properties and Ecological Processes The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews the basic scientific knowledge needed in the environmental and ecological management of aquatic ecosystems, from limnology and ecology of inland water ecosystems to environmental physics and chemistry. It emphasizes the interacting processes that characterize all inland aquatic ecosystems and explains the scientific considerations behind the conservation principles and their applications. Define the Problems and Quantify Their Sources The second part of the book presents toolboxes that you can apply to achieve more holistic environmental and ecological management. After an overview of the environmental problems of inland aquatic ecosystems and their sources, the book examines toolboxes to help you identify the problem, namely mass balances, ecological indicators, and ecological models. It also discusses toolboxes that can be used to find an environmental management solution to the problem: environmental technology, cleaner technology, and ecotechnology. Integrate Science and Practical Toolboxes to Manage Inland Waters More Effectively This book shows you how to integrate biology, ecology, limnology, and chemistry with the toolboxes in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. It provides a powerful framework for identifying ecological mechanisms that interact with global environmental problems threatening inland aquatic ecosystems.

Exotic Animal Formulary

Author: James W. Carpenter

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437722636

Category: Medical

Page: 744

View: 2296

A quick, concise reference to the drugs and dosages used to treat exotic animals, Exotic Animal Formulary, 4th Edition addresses the most common questions and medical situations you encounter in clinical practice. Species covered include birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, primates, wildlife, and all kinds of small mammals and "pocket pets." This edition is updated with a new chapter on invertebrates, information on the latest drugs, and a colorful new design. Written by clinical and research veterinarian James Carpenter, this book is the only drug formulary on the market created solely for the treatment of exotic animals. Nearly 200 drug tables provide clear, current recommendations on drugs, indications, and dosages used in treating exotic animals, including biological tables with details on therapies and diets, normal blood parameters of common species, venipuncture sites, differential diagnosis, and medical protocols for common conditions. All drug information is reviewed for accuracy, ensuring that this reference remains authoritative and current. Easy-to-use organization divides drug monographs into quick-reference chapters including: Invertebrates, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Sugar Gliders, Hedgehogs, Rodents, Rabbits, Ferrets, Miniature Pigs, Primates, and Wildlife. Additional drug topics include antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. More than 20 expert authors contribute to this edition. References in each chapter provide resources for further research and study. Convenient appendices provide a single source for information such as classes of drugs used to treat specific exotic animal conditions; efficacy of selected agents used to treat exotic animals; location of select laboratories to perform procedures; normal lab values; conversions; and equivalents. New Invertebrates chapter has been added. New two-color design makes information easier to access at a glance, with drug and biological tables shaded differently for fast lookup. Updated information includes coverage of the latest drugs introduced into the market. Electronic access is available via Pageburst, making it easy to search topics and drugs. Sold separately.

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 2115

Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.

Fluid Mechanics

Author: Frank Mangrom White,Rhim Yoon Chul

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789814720175

Category: Fluid mechanics

Page: 773

View: 432

Transdisciplinary Public Health

Research, Education, and Practice

Author: Debra Haire-Joshu,Timothy D. McBride

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118415345

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 2665

"This book makes a great leap in the conceptualization oftransdisciplinary approaches, as well as provides concrete examplesin practice, teaching, policy, and research." —From the Foreword by Edward F. Lawlor, dean and theWilliam E. Gordon Distinguished Professor, the Brown School; andfounding director, Institute for Public Health at WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis The complexity of public health and social problems is becomingmore challenging. Understanding and designing solutions for theseproblems requires perspectives from multiple disciplines and fieldsas well as cross-disciplinary research and practice teams.Transdisciplinary Public Health fills a void in theliterature and offers a comprehensive text that introducestransdisciplinary methods as a means for providing an innovativetool set for problem-solving in public health research andpractice. With contributions from leading experts, TransdisciplinaryPublic Health offers an understanding of interactions among thebiological, behavioral, social, and public health sciences; shareddisciplinary frameworks in analyzing health problems; and theintegration and evaluation of transdisciplinary solutions toalleviate complex public health issues. Use of this importantresource will promote transdisciplinary research and practice,resulting in novel solutions that positively impact humanhealth.

Modelling of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk

Author: Jan B.H.J. Linders

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401008841

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 1771

Mathematical models are being increasingly used to estimate the concentrations of a wide range of substances in the environment for a variety of reasons, including government control and legislation, and risk and hazard estimation. Exposure assessment has to be performed for many types of substances, including pesticides, industrial chemicals, pollutants, accidental discharges, etc. The interpretation of the results of model equations should always bear in mind the purpose for which the model used was built in the first place. Further, models are always an abstraction of reality, requiring simplifying assumptions to keep the models within the restraints posed by computer performance and/or scientific knowledge. The present book treats the theme of modelling chemical exposure and risk in terms of four main topics: model characteristics, applications, comparison of estimated with measured concentrations, and modelling credibility.

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