Search Results: a-vast-machine-computer-models-climate-data-and-the-politics-of-global-warming-infrastructures

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

Author: Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262290715

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 546

View: 8008

Global warming skeptics often fall back on the argument that the scientific case for global warming is all model predictions, nothing but simulation; they warn us that we need to wait for real data, "sound science." In A Vast Machine Paul Edwards has news for these skeptics: without models, there are no data. Today, no collection of signals or observations -- even from satellites, which can "see" the whole planet with a single instrument -- becomes global in time and space without passing through a series of data models. Everything we know about the world's climate we know through models. Edwards offers an engaging and innovative history of how scientists learned to understand the atmosphere -- to measure it, trace its past, and model its future.

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

Author: Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262518635

Category: Computers

Page: 518

View: 412

Edwards argues that all our knowledge about climate change comes from three kinds of computer models: simulation models of weather and climate; reanalysis models, which recreate climate history from historical weather data; and data models, used to combine and adjust measurements from many different sources.

A Vast Machine

Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

Author: Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262013925

Category: Computers

Page: 518

View: 4121

The science behind global warming, and its history: how scientists learned tounderstand the atmosphere, to measure it, to trace its past, and to model its future.

Fixing the Sky

The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control

Author: James Rodger Fleming

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023114413X

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 3237

Weaving together stories from elite science, cutting-edge technology, and popular culture, Fleming examines issues of health and navigation in the 1830s, drought in the 1890s, aircraft safety in the 1930s, and world conflict since the 1940s.

Science on the Run

Information Management and Industrial Geophysics at Schlumberger, 1920-1940

Author: Geoffrey C. Bowker,Geoffrey C. (Professor and Director Bowker, VID Laboratory University of California Irvine),Professor and Director VID Laboratory Geoffrey C Bowker,W. Bernard Carlson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262023672

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 191

View: 1310

In this engaging account, Geoffrey Bowker reveals how Schlumberger devised a method of testing potential oil fields, produced a rhetoric, and secured a position that allowed it to manipulate the definition of what a technology is. This is the story of how one company created and codified a new science "on the run," away from the confines of the laboratory. By construing its service as scientific, Schlumberger was able to get the edge on the competition and construct an enviable niche for itself in a fast-growing industry.In this engaging account, Geoffrey Bowker reveals how Schlumberger devised a method of testing potential oil fields, produced a rhetoric, and secured a position that allowed it to manipulate the definition of what a technology is. Bowker calls the heart of the story "The Two Measurements That Worked," and he renders it in the style of a myth. In so doing, he shows seamlessly how society becomes embedded even in that most basic and seemingly value-independent of scientific concepts: the measurement.Bowker describes the origins and peregrinations of Schlumberger, details the ways in which the science developed in the field was translated into a form that could be defended in a patent court, and analyzes the company's strategies within the broader context of industrial science.Inside Technology series

Changing the Atmosphere

Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance

Author: Clark A. Miller,Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262632195

Category: Political Science

Page: 385

View: 1480

Incorporating historical, sociological, and philosophical approaches, Changing the Atmosphere presents detailed empirical studies of climate science and its uptake into public policy.

Masters of Uncertainty

Weather Forecasters and the Quest for Ground Truth

Author: Phaedra Daipha

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022629868X

Category: Science

Page: 271

View: 3258

"In Masters of Uncertainity, Phaedra Daipha offers a new framework for understanding decision-making practice after spending years immersed in a northeastern office of the National Weather Service. Arguing that forecasters have made a virtue of the unpredictability of the weather, Daipha shows how they enlist an onmivorous appetite for information and improvisational collage techniques to create a locally meaningful forecast on their computer screens. This richly detailed and lucidly written book advances a theory of decision making that foregrounds the pragmatic and situated nature of expert cognition and casts new light on how we make decisions in the digital age"--Page {4] of cover.

The Closed World

Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America

Author: Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262550284

Category: Computers

Page: 440

View: 8830

The Closed World offers a radically new alternative to the canonical histories of computers and cognitive science. Arguing that we can make sense of computers as tools only when we simultaneously grasp their roles as metaphors and political icons, Paul Edwards shows how Cold War social and cultural contexts shaped emerging computer technology--and were transformed, in turn, by information machines. The Closed World explores three apparently disparate histories--the history of American global power, the history of computing machines, and the history of subjectivity in science and culture--through the lens of the American political imagination. In the process, it reveals intimate links between the military projects of the Cold War, the evolution of digital computers, and the origins of cybernetics, cognitive psychology, and artificial intelligence. Edwards begins by describing the emergence of a "closed-world discourse" of global surveillance and control through high-technology military power. The Cold War political goal of "containment" led to the SAGE continental air defense system, Rand Corporation studies of nuclear strategy, and the advanced technologies of the Vietnam War. These and other centralized, computerized military command and control projects--for containing world-scale conflicts--helped closed-world discourse dominate Cold War political decisions. Their apotheosis was the Reagan-era plan for a " Star Wars" space-based ballistic missile defense. Edwards then shows how these military projects helped computers become axial metaphors in psychological theory. Analyzing the Macy Conferences on cybernetics, the Harvard Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, and the early history of artificial intelligence, he describes the formation of a "cyborg discourse." By constructing both human minds and artificial intelligences as information machines, cyborg discourse assisted in integrating people into the hyper-complex technological systems of the closed world. Finally, Edwards explores the cyborg as political identity in science fiction--from the disembodied, panoptic AI of 2001: A Space Odyssey, to the mechanical robots of Star Wars and the engineered biological androids of Blade Runner--where Information Age culture and subjectivity were both reflected and constructed. Inside Technology series

Refining Expertise

How Responsible Engineers Subvert Environmental Justice Challenges

Author: Gwen Ottinger

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814762611

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 8244

Winner of the 2015 Rachel Carson Prize presented by the Society for Social Studies of Science Residents of a small Louisiana town were sure that the oil refinery next door was making them sick. As part of a campaign demanding relocation away from the refinery, they collected scientific data to prove it. Their campaign ended with a settlement agreement that addressed many of their grievances—but not concerns about their health. Yet, instead of continuing to collect data, residents began to let refinery scientists' assertions that their operations did not harm them stand without challenge. What makes a community move so suddenly from actively challenging to apparently accepting experts' authority? Refining Expertise argues that the answer lies in the way that refinery scientists and engineers defined themselves as experts. Rather than claiming to be infallible, they began to portray themselves as responsible—committed to operating safely and to contributing to the well-being of the community. The volume shows that by grounding their claims to responsibility in influential ideas from the larger culture about what makes good citizens, nice communities, and moral companies, refinery scientists made it much harder for residents to challenge their expertise and thus re-established their authority over scientific questions related to the refinery's health and environmental effects. Gwen Ottinger here shows how industrial facilities' current approaches to dealing with concerned communities—approaches which leave much room for negotiation while shielding industry's environmental and health claims from critique—effectively undermine not only individual grassroots campaigns but also environmental justice activism and far-reaching efforts to democratize science. This work drives home the need for both activists and politically engaged scholars to reconfigure their own activities in response, in order to advance community health and robust scientific knowledge about it.

Rethinking Expertise

Author: Harry Collins,Robert Evans

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226113620

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 9359

What does it mean to be an expert? In Rethinking Expertise, Harry Collins and Robert Evans offer a radical new perspective on the role of expertise in the practice of science and the public evaluation of technology. Collins and Evans present a Periodic Table of Expertises based on the idea of tacit knowledge—knowledge that we have but cannot explain. They then look at how some expertises are used to judge others, how laypeople judge between experts, and how credentials are used to evaluate them. Throughout, Collins and Evans ask an important question: how can the public make use of science and technology before there is consensus in the scientific community? This book has wide implications for public policy and for those who seek to understand science and benefit from it. “Starts to lay the groundwork for solving a critical problem—how to restore the force of technical scientific information in public controversies, without importing disguised political agendas.”—Nature “A rich and detailed ‘periodic table’ of expertise . . . full of case studies, anecdotes and intriguing experiments.”—Times Higher Education Supplement (UK)

Kick the Habit

A UN Guide to Climate Neutrality

Author: Alex Kirby

Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint

ISBN: 9789280729269

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 200

View: 9169

This publication is written by experts from many disciplines and various countries, with leading research organizations involved in preparing and reviewing the publication. It presents solutions--from reducing consumption and increasing energy efficiency to offsetting emissions via carbon trading schemes--for individuals, businesses, cities and countries plus other groups that have similar characteristics such as NGO and intergovernmental organizations. The book contains case studies, illustrations, maps and graphics and serves also as reference publication.--Publisher's description.

A Cold Welcome

The Little Ice Age and Europe’s Encounter with North America

Author: Sam White

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674971922

Category: History

Page: 361

View: 1152

When Europeans arrived in North America, the average global temperature had dropped to lows unseen in millennia and its effects—famine, starvation, desperation, and violence—were stark among colonists unprepared to fend for themselves. This history of the Little Ice Age in North America reminds us of the risks of a changing and unfamiliar climate.

Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock

A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 925107920X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 115

View: 6144

Greenhouse gas emissions by the livestock sector could be cut by as much as 30 percent through the wider use of existing best practices and technologies. FAO conducted a detailed analysis of GHG emissions at multiple stages of various livestock supply chains, including the production and transport of animal feed, on-farm energy use, emissions from animal digestion and manure decay, as well as the post-slaughter transport, refrigeration and packaging of animal products. This report represents the most comprehensive estimate made to-date of livestocks contribution to global warming as well as the sectors potential to help tackle the problem. This publication is aimed at professionals in food and agriculture as well as policy makers.

The Politics of Invisibility

Public Knowledge about Radiation Health Effects After Chernobyl

Author: Olga Kuchinskaya

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262027690

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 4923

Before Fukushima, the most notorious large-scale nuclear accident the world had seen was Chernobyl in 1986. The fallout from Chernobyl covered vast areas in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Europe. Belarus, at the time a Soviet republic, suffered heavily: nearly a quarter of its territory was covered with long-lasting radionuclides. Yet the damage from the massive fallout was largely imperceptible; contaminated communities looked exactly like noncontaminated ones. It could be known only through constructed representations of it. In The Politics of Invisibility, Olga Kuchinskaya explores how we know what we know about Chernobyl, describing how the consequences of a nuclear accident were made invisible. Her analysis sheds valuable light on how we deal with other modern hazards -- toxins or global warming -- that are largely imperceptible to the human senses.Kuchinskaya describes the production of invisibility of Chernobyl's consequences in Belarus -- practices that limit public attention to radiation and make its health effects impossible to observe. Just as mitigating radiological contamination requires infrastructural solutions, she argues, the production and propagation of invisibility also involves infrastructural efforts, from redefining the scope and nature of the accident's consequences to reshaping research and protection practices. Kuchinskaya finds vast fluctuations in recognition, tracing varyingly successful efforts to conceal or reveal Chernobyl's consequences at different levels -- among affected populations, scientists, government, media, and international organizations. The production of invisibility, she argues, is a function of power relations.

Changing Life

Genomes, Ecologies, Bodies, Commodities

Author: Peter J. Taylor,Saul E. Halfon,Paul N. Edwards

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816630134

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 9776

In laboratories all over the world, life -- even the idea of life -- is changing. And with these changes, whether they result in square tomatoes or cyborgs, come transformations in our social order -- sometimes welcome, sometimes troubling. Changing Life offers a close look at how the mutable forms and concepts of life link the processes of science to those of information, finance, and commodities. These essays -- about planetary management and genome sequencing, ecologies and cyborgs -- address actual and imagined transformations at the center and at the margins of transnational relations, during the post-Cold War era and in times to come.

Cloud Computing in Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

Author: Tiffany C. Vance,Nazila Merati,May Yuan,Chowei Yang

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128031926

Category:

Page: 432

View: 4472

Cloud Computing in Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences provides the latest information on this relatively new platform for scientific computing, which has great possibilities and challenges, including pricing and deployments costs and applications that are often presented as primarily business oriented. In addition, scientific users may be very familiar with these types of models and applications, but relatively unfamiliar with the intricacies of the hardware platforms they use. The book provides a range of practical examples of cloud applications that are written to be accessible to practitioners, researchers, and students in affiliated fields. By providing general information on the use of the cloud for oceanographic and atmospheric computing, as well as examples of specific applications, this book encourages and educates potential users of the cloud. The chapters provide an introduction to the practical aspects of deploying in the cloud, also providing examples of workflows and techniques that can be reused in new projects. Provides real examples that help new users quickly understand the cloud and provide guidance for new projects Presents proof of the usability of the techniques and a clear path to adoption of the techniques by other researchers Includes real research and development examples that are ideal for cloud computing adopters in ocean and atmospheric domains

Program Earth

Environmental Sensing Technology and the Making of a Computational Planet

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781452950181

Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Page: 357

View: 2207

Inventing Atmospheric Science

Bjerknes, Rossby, Wexler, and the Foundations of Modern Meteorology

Author: James Rodger Fleming

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262033941

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 7561

How scientists used transformative new technologies to understand the complexities of weather and the atmosphere, told through the intertwined careers of three key figures.

Simulating Nature

A Philosophical Study of Computer-Simulation Uncertainties and Their Role in Climate Science and Policy Advice, Second Edition

Author: Arthur C. Petersen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466500670

Category: Mathematics

Page: 224

View: 1311

Computer simulation has become an important means for obtaining knowledge about nature. The practice of scientific simulation and the frequent use of uncertain simulation results in public policy raise a wide range of philosophical questions. Most prominently highlighted is the field of anthropogenic climate change—are humans currently changing the climate? Referring to empirical results from science studies and political science, Simulating Nature: A Philosophical Study of Computer-Simulation Uncertainties and Their Role in Climate Science and Policy Advice, Second Edition addresses questions about the types of uncertainty associated with scientific simulation and about how these uncertainties can be communicated. The author, who participated in the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) plenaries in 2001 and 2007, discusses the assessment reports and workings of the IPCC. This second edition reflects the latest developments in climate change policy, including a thorough update and rewriting of sections that refer to the IPCC.

The Revenge of Gaia

Earth's Climate Crisis & The Fate of Humanity

Author: James Lovelock

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465008666

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 6644

The key insight of Gaia Theory is that the entire Earth functions as a single living super-organism. But according to James Lovelock, the theory's originator, that organism is now sick. It is running a fever born of increased atmospheric greenhouse gases. Earth will adjust to these stresses, but the human race faces a severe test. It is already too late, Lovelock says, to prevent the global climate from “flipping” into an entirely new equilibrium that will threaten civilization as we know it. But we can do much to save humanity. In the tradition of Silent Spring, this is a call to address a major threat to our collective future.

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