An essential reference that discusses occupational exposure and the adverse health effects of engineered nanomaterials and highlights current and future biomedical applications of these nanomaterials in relation to nanosafety. Multi-authored book written by leading US and European experts on nanotoxicology and nanomedicine Discusses the health implications and a clinical translation of experimental data in this area Takes a schematic, non-exhaustive approach to summarize the most important research data in this field Includes a glossary, with a brief explanation of the term and with a reference to where the term or phrase has been used will be included within the book
Abstract: The emergence of nanotechnology has greatly impacted our daily lives. Multiple products, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, electronics and food, are produced with incorporation of nanomaterials (NMs). Nanotechnology has yielded many promising benefits, yet, there remains much uncertainty about the hazards of NMs to humans. Hence, it is important to ensure safety of the users. Although many invitro and invivo studies have been carried out on the potential toxicity generated by NMs in food, its effects on the microRNA genome (miRNome) involved in the regulation of gene expression have been poorly understood. Therefore, this review focuses on the types of commonly used NMs (containing silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, silver or zinc oxide) in food products and their potential toxic effects, including how NMs can induce epigenetic toxicity mediated via altered miRNA expression. Highlights: General toxicity and potential effects on the miRNome induced by SiO2 NPs, TiO2 NPs, AgNPs and ZnO NPs (commonly used in food) are discussed. Specific miRNAs are altered by the different types of NMs. There is a lack of studies on the epigenetic effects of NMs administered orally.
The Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature, methodologies, and translational and regulatory considerations in the field of nanoimmunotoxicology. The main subject is the immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Focus areas include interactions between engineered nanomaterials and red blood cells, platelets, endothelial cells, professional phagocytes, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, complement and coagulation systems, and plasma proteins, with discussions on nanoparticle sterility and sterilization. Each chapter presents a broad literature review of the given focus area, describes protocols and resources available to support research in the individual focus areas, highlights challenges, and outlines unanswered questions and future directions. In addition, the Handbook includes an overview of and serves a guide to the physicochemical characterization of engineered nanomaterials essential to conducting meaningful immunological studies of nanoparticles. Regulations related to immunotoxicity testing of materials prior to their translation into the clinic are also reviewed.The Handbook is written by top experts in the field of nanomedicine, nanotechnology, and translational bionanotechnology, representing academia, government, industry, and consulting organizations, and regulatory agencies. The Handbook is designed to serve as a textbook for students, a practical guide for research laboratories, and an informational resource for scientific consultants, reviewers, and policy makers. It is written such that both experts and beginners will find the information highly useful and applicable.
Engineered Nanoparticles: Structure, Properties and Mechanisms of Toxicity is an indispensable introduction to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. Although research in the area of pharmacology and toxicology of ENM is rapidly advancing, a possible correlation between their physicochemical properties and biomedical properties or toxicity is not yet fully understood. This understanding is essential to develop strategies for the safe applications and handling of ENM. The book comprehensively defines the current understanding of ENM toxicity, first describing these materials and their physicochemical properties, and then discussing the toxicological theory and methodology before finally demonstrating the potential impact of ENM on the environment and human health. It represents an essential reference for students and investigators in toxicology, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, medicine, and those in related disciplines who require an introduction to ENM and their potential toxicological effects. Provides state-of-the-art physicochemical descriptions and methodologies for the characterization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) Describes the potential toxicological effects of ENM and the nanotoxicological mechanisms of action Presents how to apply theory to practice in a public health and risk assessment setting
Nanomaterials - substances smaller than 100 nanometers in size - have been added in recent years to an increasing numbers of consumer products used in day-to-day life; in food packaging, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, odor-resistant textiles and household appliances. The extensive application of nanomaterials in a wide range of products for human use poses a potential for toxicity risk to human health and the environment. Such adverse effects of nanomaterials on human health have triggered the development of a new scientific discipline known as “nanotoxicity” – the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicity: From in vivo and in vitro Models to Health Risks provides up-to-date state-of-the-art information presented by recognized experts in this emerging new field in toxicology. It discusses the safety evaluation of nanomaterials in foods, drugs, medical devices, cosmetics and other regulated products and its use in risk analysis for potential regulatory use. Topics covered include: biomarkers for nanotoxicity assessment nanotoxicity assessment by gene expression analysis in vivo and in vitro models for nanotoxicity testing mechanisms of nanotoxicity pharmakokinetics of nanomaterials nanotoxicity of foods including food processing, food packaging and food safety nanotoxicity of drugs including drug development and drug delivery nanotoxicity of cosmetics and consumer products health and environmental impact of nanotoxicity safety evaluation of nanomaterials regulatory impact of nanomaterials Nanotoxicity: From in vivo and in vitro Models to Health Risks is a valuable authoritative source of information for readers from a wide range of disciplines such as toxicology, pharmacology, drug toxicity and food and environmental sciences. The book will be useful to the research community in academia, industry, hospitals and government, as well as to government regulators and risk assessors of foods, drugs and environmental and agricultural products.
This book provides a summary of the state-of-art knowledge on nanomaterials and nanoparticles. It examines toxicological issues, risk assessment and control measures, public participation and educational/ethical issues, as well as institutional mechanisms and status reports from various countries. Coverage also details collaborations in the field of nanotechnology regarding safe application and development.
Nanomaterials - structures with characteristic dimensions between 1 and 100 nm -exhibit a variety of unique and tunable chemical and physical properties that have made engineered nanoparticles central components in an array of emerging technologies. The use of nanotechnology is increasing; however its potential adverse effects on human health are not well understood. In order to accurately conduct hazard assessments, scientists need to understand the broad concepts that apply to pathways of dermal, oral, and respiratory exposure. This title is designed to elucidate those concepts and to examine the interaction of nanomaterials with the biological system, including membrane transfer, screening methods, and impact on major organs.