An Inquiry Into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique
Author: William Minter
Publisher: William Minter
Of all the many violent chapters in recent Southern African history, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique since independence in 1975 have been the most protracted, complex and deadly for millions of civilians. William Minter argues that they represent a new kind of non-conventional warfare characteristic of the 'contra' period - neither classic guerrilla warfare nor straightforward external aggression, but comprising elements of civil war dominated by regional and global external powers. He examines the Unita and Renamo social structures, external interventions, patterns of military recruitment, conditioning, logistics and strategy, and the mistakes made by the Angolan and Mozambican states.
The past two decades have witnessed the end of several civil wars and authoritarian regimes. The global media brings the height of the conflicts to an international audience, but as the wars end and tensions resolve the media turns away, neglecting the often painful and slow process of reconciliation. In this volume, experts with both practical and policy experience in international conflict explore how societies confront and negotiate a repressive past characterized by gross human-rights violations. Grounding readers in theoretical approaches, the book explores contemporary experiences of reconciliation in Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia.
Young people have been at the forefront of political conflict in many parts of the world, even when it has turned violent. In some of those situations, for a variety of reasons, including coercion, poverty, or the seductive nature of violence, children become killers before they are able to grasp the fundamentals of morality. It has been only in the past ten years that this component of warfare has captured the attention of the world. Images of boys carrying guns and ammunition are now commonplace as they flash across television screens and appear on the front pages of newspapers. Less often, but equally disturbingly, stories of girls pressed into the service of militias surface in the media. A major concern today is how to reverse the damage done to the thousands of children who have become not only victims but also agents of wartime atrocities. In Child Soldiers in Africa, Alcinda Honwana draws on her firsthand experience with children of Angola and Mozambique, as well as her study of the phenomenon for the United Nations and the Social Science Research Council, to shed light on how children are recruited, what they encounter, and how they come to terms with what they have done. Honwana looks at the role of local communities in healing and rebuilding the lives of these children. She also examines the efforts undertaken by international organizations to support these wartime casualties and enlightens the reader on the obstacles faced by such organizations.
John Kiyaga-Nsubuga focuses on Yoweri Museveni and his National Resistance Movement regime's attempt to bring peace to Uganda. John Prendergast and Mark Duffield look at Ethiopia's long civil war and the role of liberation politics and external engagement. Bruce Jones studies the ethnic roots of the civil war in Rwanda. Elwood Dunn explores political manipulation and ethnic differences as causes of civil strife in Liberia. John Saul examines the role of Western powers in establishing peace in Mozambique. Hussein Adam describes the collapse of the authoritarian regime in Somalia and the subsequent rise of inter-clan and sub-clan rivalry. Taisier Ali and Robert Matthews argue that the forty-year conflict in Sudan is much more complex than the usual view that it results from the pitting of the Arab, Islamic North against the African, Christian South.
The preamble to the post-apartheid South African constitution states that ‘South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity’ and promises to ‘lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law’ and to ‘improve the quality of life of all citizens’. This would seem to commit the South African government to, amongst other things, the implementation of policies aimed at fostering a common sense of South African national identity, at societal dev- opment and at reducing of levels of social inequality. However, in the period of more than a decade that has now elapsed since the end of apartheid, there has been widespread discontent with regard to the degree of progress made in connection with the realisation of these constitutional aspirations. The ‘limits to liberation’ in the post-apartheid era has been a theme of much recent research in the ?elds of sociology and political theory (e. g. Luckham, 1998; Robins, 2005a). Linguists have also paid considerable attention to the South African situation with the realisation that many of the factors that have prevented, and are continuing to prevent, effective progress towards the achievement of these constitutional goals are linguistic in their origin.
Race, Memory and the Apartheid Archive: Towards a Transformative Psychosocial Praxis draws on a psychosocial approach that is uniquely suited to the socio-historical and psychical analysis of racism. The book relies mainly on the memories, stories and narratives of ordinary people living in apartheid South Africa.
Kings, Christians, and Cosmopolitans in Catholic Youth Songs
Author: Wendi A. Haugh
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Political Science
This book explores how young people living in a former ethnic homeland in post-apartheid Namibia imagine the nation through songs they compose and perform. The author argues that these Oshiwambo-speaking youth draw on conflicting ideologies—hierarchical and egalitarian, nationalist and cosmopolitan—to construct a complex sense of national identity.