The discussion on arsenic in the environment is complex and must grasp the importance of very many, mostly unrelated works on individual aspects. This volume represents one of the first comprehensive and interdisciplinary examinations into arsenic's behaviour in air, water, soils, sediments, plants and the human body. Based on state-of-the-art investigations into the global arsenic cycle, the related human toxicology and available remediation technologies, arsenic is assessed holistically in all the environmental compartments. Using the results of primary research, the authors offer concrete suggestions for risk reduction and management of environmental pollution that allow the reader to successfully tackle similar problems and find sustainable solutions. The book consists of three essential parts: Review of the current knowledge of arsenic behaviour in the environment (global biogeochemical cycles), toxicology, remediation techniques, immobilization technologies and environmental legislation Case studies for mining-related arsenic problems Discussion of mitigation and remediation technologies and approaches such as environmental education, hygiene training, backed by real experience and successful implementation in the study area In a highly coherent manner, the book makes use of 120 tables and figures, a large number of literature citations, and very detailed subject index (that encompasses references) to provide rapid and up-to-date access to all relevant information. Cross-references provide a great manoeuvrability between the chapters. The book delivers very insightful and hands-on approaches for graduate students and professionals working on arsenic questions not only in environmental science, but also in the fields of environmental engineering, medicine and social science.
With contributions from world-renowned experts in the field, this book explores developments in the transport kinetics, seasonal cycling, accumulation, geochemistry, transformation, and toxicology of arsenic. It details advances in the prevention and control of arsenic and arsenic compounds in the air, soil, and water and offers analytical methods for the detection and study of arsenic in the environment and human body. Providing bioremediation techniques for effective treatment of contaminated water supplies, the book discusses factors that influence the removal of arsenic from water as well as diurnal and seasonal variations in the arsenic concentration of surface water supplies.
This text presents analytical techniques for the determination of heavy metals in air particles, water, soil and biological samples. It details experimental studies to reduce the occurance of disease, remediate contaminated sites and establish acceptable range of oral intakes (AROI) guidelines.
"Arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements in the environment. This book brings together the current knowledge on arsenic contamination worldwide, reviewing the field, highlighting common themes and pointing to key areas needing future research. Contributions discuss methods for accurate identification and quantification of individual arsenic species in a range of environmental and biological matrices and give an overview of the environmental chemistry of arsenic. Next, chapters deal with the dynamics of arsenic in groundwater and aspects of arsenic in soils and plants, including plant uptake studies, effects on crop quality and yield, and the corresponding food chain and human health issues associated with these exposure pathways. These concerns are coupled with the challenge to develop efficient, cost effective risk management and remediation strategies: recent technological advances are described and assessed, including the use of adsorbants, photo-oxidation, bioremediation and electrokinetic remediation.
"Originally developed to help staff, clients, and consultants prepare and implement operations supported by the Bank Group, this Handbook updates and replaces the Environmental Guidelines issued in 1988 and reflects changes both in technology and in pollution management policies and practices. It focuses attention on the environmental and economic benefits of preventing pollution and emphasizes cleaner production and good management techniques."--BOOK JACKET.
"Molecular Environmental Soil Science at the Interfaces in the Earth's Critical Zone" presents contributions from the 1st International Symposium of Molecular Environmental Soil Science at the Interfaces in the Earth's Critical Zone held in Hangzhou, China. It introduces new ideas, findings, methods, and experience on above new and emerging subject areas. A broad range of topics are covered: the role of mineral colloids in carbon turnover and sequestration and the impact on climate change, biogeochemical interfacial reactions and dynamics of vital and toxic elements, ecotoxicology of anthropogenic organics, environmental nanoparticles and their impacts, and ecosystem health. The book will be a valuable reference for researchers in soil chemistry, environmental chemistry, mineralogy, microbiology, ecology, ecotoxicology, and physics. Jianming Xu is a Professor at the Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, China. Pan Ming Huang is a Professor at the Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
Groundwater resources naturally contain high levels of arsenic in many parts of the world. Over the last two decades, the As-containing groundwater in South-East Asia has received much attention, but the situation is just as crucial in Latin America, where the number of studies is still relatively low, and the extent and severity of As-exposure in the populations has yet to be fully evaluated. This book aims to promote knowledge of the occurrence and genesis of As-rich groundwater in Latin America. It deals with constraints on the mobility of As in groundwater, As-uptake from soil and water by plants, As-propagation through the food chain, human health impacts, and As-removal technologies. Case studies are presented from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru, amongst others, and are viewed against the background of experience from other world regions. The book is a state-of-art overview of arsenic research in Latin America. It aims to create interest within the Latin American countries affected by the presence of arseniferous aquifers and to increase awareness among administrators, policy makers and company executives. It will also serve to inform the international scientific community, and improve international cooperation on arsenic in groundwater.
Effect of Contaminants from Oil Well Produced Water
Author: J.M. Neff
Large volumes of produced water are generated and discharged to the coastal and ocean waters worldwide from offshore oil and gas production facilities. There is concern that the chemicals in the produced water may harm marine ecosystems. This book summarizes the bioavailability and marine ecotoxicology of metal and organic contaminants that may occur in oil well produced water at concentrations significantly higher than those in ambient seawater. The contaminants of concern include arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, radium isotopes, zinc, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. The first part of the book is a detailed discussion of the chemical composition of produced water from offshore oil wells worldwide and its fates following discharge to the ocean. The remaining chapters of the book summarize the current scientific literature on the sources and distributions in the ocean of each of the contaminants of concern and their bioaccumulation and toxicity to marine organisms. This book will be of value to: environmental scientists in the oil and gas industry; marine toxicologists and ecological risk assessors in academia, government, and industry; government regulatory agencies concerned with marine environmental protection. The book advances the concept that bioavailability evaluation must be included in all ecological risk assessments and other environmental assessments of chemical contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 22-27 July 2012, Cairns, Australia
Author: Jack C. Ng
Publisher: CRC Press
The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for arsenic research aimed at practical solutions of problems with considerable social impact, as well as focusing on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical and other specific issues on arsenic on a broader environmental realm. The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" was first organized in Mexico City (As 2006) followed by As 2008 in Valencia, Spain and As 2010 in Tainan, Taiwan. The 4th International Congress As 2012 was held in Cairns, Australia from July 22-27, 2012 entitled Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic. The session topics comprised: 1. Geology and hydrogeology of arsenic; 2. Medical and health issues of arsenic; 3. Remediation and policy; 4. Analytical methods for arsenic; and 5. Special topics on "Risk assessment of arsenic from mining", "Geomicrobiology of arsenic", "Geothermal arsenic", "Rice arsenic and health perspectives", "Sustainable mitigation of arsenic: from field trials to policy implications", and "Biogeochemical processes of high arsenic groundwater in inland basins" Hosting this congress in Australia was welcome and valued by the local scientific communities. Australia is a mineral rich country where mining has generated significant economic benefit to its people. Unfortunately historical mining for base metals, gold and arsenic had led to environmental contamination of arsenic. Locally produced arsenical compounds were widely used as pesticides and in timber preservation. It is known that there are several thousands of cattle- and sheep-dip sites contaminated with arsenic in Australia. However, commonly observed symptoms of chronic arsenic poisonings such as those found in endemic-blackfoot areas are seemingly absent from these types of environmental contamination due to good quality of potable water supply. Does this fall in the classic argument of "the dose makes the poison"? This congress theme of "understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic" will advance our knowledge in minimising the risk posted by this so-called number one prioritised contaminant – arsenic.