Search Results: atomic-assistance

Atomic Assistance

How “Atoms for Peace” Programs Cause Nuclear Insecurity

Author: Matthew Fuhrmann

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801465311

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 3722

Nuclear technology is dual use in nature, meaning that it can be used to produce nuclear energy or to build nuclear weapons. Despite security concerns about proliferation, the United States and other nuclear nations have regularly shared with other countries nuclear technology, materials, and knowledge for peaceful purposes. In Atomic Assistance, Matthew Fuhrmann argues that governments use peaceful nuclear assistance as a tool of economic statecraft. Nuclear suppliers hope that they can reap the benefits of foreign aid-improving relationships with their allies, limiting the influence of their adversaries, enhancing their energy security by gaining favorable access to oil supplies-without undermining their security. By providing peaceful nuclear assistance, however, countries inadvertently help spread nuclear weapons. Fuhrmann draws on several cases of "Atoms for Peace," including U.S. civilian nuclear assistance to Iran from 1957 to 1979; Soviet aid to Libya from 1975 to 1986; French, Italian, and Brazilian nuclear exports to Iraq from 1975 to 1981; and U.S. nuclear cooperation with India from 2001 to 2008. He also explores decision making in countries such as Japan, North Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, and Syria to determine why states began (or did not begin) nuclear weapons programs and why some programs succeeded while others failed. Fuhrmann concludes that, on average, countries receiving higher levels of peaceful nuclear assistance are more likely to pursue and acquire the bomb-especially if they experience an international crisis after receiving aid.

Atomic Soldiers

American Victims of Nuclear Experiments

Author: Howard L. Rosenberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Atomic bomb

Page: 192

View: 2272

China Builds the Bomb

Author: John Wilson Lewis,Litai Xue

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804718417

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 6583

A pioneering political-scientific history. . . . Lucidly composed, meticulously documented, and handsomely presented. The Annals A fascinating and compelling story of the beginnings of the Chinese nuclear weapon program. Arms Control Today"

Israel and the Bomb

Author: Avner Cohen

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231104839

Category: Political Science

Page: 470

View: 3947

Cohen focuses on a two-decade period from about 1950 until 1970, during which David Ben-Gurion's vision of making Israel a nuclear-weapon state was realized. He weaves together the story of the formative years of Israel's nuclear program, from the founding of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission in 1952, to the alliance with France that gave Israel the sophisticated technology it needed, to the failure of American intelligence to identify the Dimona Project for what it was, to the negotiations between President Nixon and Prime Minister Meir that led to the current policy of secrecy. Cohen also analyzes the complex reasons Israel concealed its nuclear program - from concerns over the Arab reaction and the negative effect of the debate at home to consideration of America's commitment to nonproliferation.

China and International Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

Strategic Assistance

Author: Henrik Stålhane Hiim

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351026046

Category: History

Page: 246

View: 1214

This book explores China’s approach to the nuclear programs in Pakistan, Iran, and North Korea. A major power with access to nuclear technology, China has a significant impact on international nuclear weapons proliferation, but its attitude towards the spread of the bomb has been inconsistent. China’s mixed record raises a broader question: why, when and how do states support potential nuclear proliferators? This book develops a framework for analyzing such questions, by putting forth three factors that are likely to determine a state’s policy: (1) the risk of changes in the nuclear status or military doctrines of competitors; (2) the recipient’s status and strategic value; and (3) the extent of pressure from third parties to halt nuclear assistance. It then demonstrates how these factors help explain China’s policies towards Pakistan, Iran, and North Korea. Overall, the book finds that China has been a selective and strategic supporter of nuclear proliferators. While nuclear proliferation is a security challenge to China in some settings, in others, it wants to help its friends build the bomb. This book will be of much interest to students of international security, nuclear proliferation, Chinese foreign policy and International Relations in general.

Congressional Record

Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress

Author: United States. Congress

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 1060

The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)

Eating Grass

The Making of the Pakistani Bomb

Author: Feroz Khan

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804784809

Category: Political Science

Page: 552

View: 6279

The history of Pakistan's nuclear program is the history of Pakistan. Fascinated with the new nuclear science, the young nation's leaders launched a nuclear energy program in 1956 and consciously interwove nuclear developments into the broader narrative of Pakistani nationalism. Then, impelled first by the 1965 and 1971 India-Pakistan Wars, and more urgently by India's first nuclear weapon test in 1974, Pakistani senior officials tapped into the country's pool of young nuclear scientists and engineers and molded them into a motivated cadre committed to building the 'ultimate weapon.' The tenacity of this group and the central place of its mission in Pakistan's national identity allowed the program to outlast the perennial political crises of the next 20 years, culminating in the test of a nuclear device in 1998. Written by a 30-year professional in the Pakistani Army who played a senior role formulating and advocating Pakistan's security policy on nuclear and conventional arms control, this book tells the compelling story of how and why Pakistan's government, scientists, and military, persevered in the face of a wide array of obstacles to acquire nuclear weapons. It lays out the conditions that sparked the shift from a peaceful quest to acquire nuclear energy into a full-fledged weapons program, details how the nuclear program was organized, reveals the role played by outside powers in nuclear decisions, and explains how Pakistani scientists overcome the many technical hurdles they encountered. Thanks to General Khan's unique insider perspective, it unveils and unravels the fascinating and turbulent interplay of personalities and organizations that took place and reveals how international opposition to the program only made it an even more significant issue of national resolve. Listen to a podcast of a related presentation by Feroz Khan at the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation.

The Nuclear Renaissance and International Security

Author: Adam N. Stulberg,Matthew Fuhrmann

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804785309

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 6806

Interest in nuclear energy has surged in recent years, yet there are risks that accompany the global diffusion of nuclear power—especially the possibility that the spread of nuclear energy will facilitate nuclear weapons proliferation. In this book, leading experts analyze the tradeoffs associated with nuclear energy and put the nuclear renaissance in historical context, evaluating both the causes and the strategic effects of nuclear energy development. They probe critical issues relating to the nuclear renaissance, including if and how peaceful nuclear programs contribute to nuclear weapons proliferation, whether the diffusion of nuclear technologies lead to an increase in the trafficking of nuclear materials, and under what circumstances the diffusion of nuclear technologies and latent nuclear weapons capabilities can influence international stability and conflict. The book will help scholars and policymakers understand why countries are pursuing nuclear energy and evaluate whether this is a trend we should welcome or fear.

Robert Oppenheimer

A Life Inside the Center

Author: Ray Monk

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0385722044

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 825

View: 5103

Explores the complex intellectual life of the innovator of the atomic bomb, providing coverage of such topics as his sympathy toward Communism, his lead over the Manhattan Project, and his Jewish faith.

Nuclear Weapons and Coercive Diplomacy

Author: Todd S. Sechser,Matthew Fuhrmann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110710694X

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 458

Are nuclear weapons useful for coercive diplomacy? This book argues that they are useful for deterrence but not for offensive purposes.

Exporting the Bomb

Technology Transfer and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

Author: Matthew Kroenig

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 080145767X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3805

In a vitally important book for anyone interested in nuclear proliferation, defense strategy, or international security, Matthew Kroenig points out that nearly every country with a nuclear weapons arsenal received substantial help at some point from a more advanced nuclear state. Why do some countries help others to develop nuclear weapons? Many analysts assume that nuclear transfers are driven by economic considerations. States in dire economic need, they suggest, export sensitive nuclear materials and technology-and ignore the security risk-in a desperate search for hard currency. Kroenig challenges this conventional wisdom. He finds that state decisions to provide sensitive nuclear assistance are the result of a coherent, strategic logic. The spread of nuclear weapons threatens powerful states more than it threatens weak states, and these differential effects of nuclear proliferation encourage countries to provide sensitive nuclear assistance under certain strategic conditions. Countries are more likely to export sensitive nuclear materials and technology when it would have the effect of constraining an enemy and less likely to do so when it would threaten themselves. In Exporting the Bomb, Kroenig examines the most important historical cases, including France's nuclear assistance to Israel in the 1950s and 1960s; the Soviet Union's sensitive transfers to China from 1958 to 1960; China's nuclear aid to Pakistan in the 1980s; and Pakistan's recent technology transfers, with the help of "rogue" scientist A. Q. Khan, from 1987 to 2002. Understanding why states provide sensitive nuclear assistance not only adds to our knowledge of international politics but also aids in international efforts to control the spread of nuclear weapons.

Nagasaki

Life After Nuclear War

Author: Susan Southard

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698195558

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 9718

“[A] reminder of just how horrible nuclear weapons are.”—The Wall Street Journal “A devastating read that highlights man’s capacity to wreak destruction, but in which one also catches a glimpse of all that is best about people.”—San Francisco Chronicle “A poignant and complex picture of the second atomic bomb’s enduring physical and psychological tolls. Eyewitness accounts are visceral and haunting. . . . But the book’s biggest achievement is its treatment of the aftershocks in the decades since 1945.” —The New Yorker The enduring impact of a nuclear bomb, told through the stories of those who survived: necessary reading as the threat of nuclear war emerges again. On August 9, 1945, three days after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, a small port city on Japan’s southernmost island. An estimated 74,000 people died within the first five months, and another 75,000 were injured. Nagasaki takes readers from the morning of the bombing to the city today, telling the first-hand experiences of five survivors, all of whom were teenagers at the time of the devastation. Susan Southard has spent years interviewing hibakusha (“bomb-affected people”) and researching the physical, emotional, and social challenges of post-atomic life. She weaves together dramatic eyewitness accounts with searing analysis of the policies of censorship and denial that colored much of what was reported about the bombing both in the United States and Japan. A gripping narrative of human resilience, Nagasaki will help shape public discussion and debate over one of the most controversial wartime acts in history. WINNER of the J. Anthony Lukas Book Prize and the Dayton Literary Peace Prize FINALIST for the Ridenhour Book Prize • Chautauqua Prize • William Saroyan International Prize for Writing • PEN Center USA Literary Award NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The Economist • The Washington Post • American Library Association • Kirkus Reviews

Assistance through exchange of nuclear scientists

opportunities for training and research through the Exchange Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 8

View: 9923

Power Versus Prudence

Why Nations Forgo Nuclear Weapons

Author: T. V. Paul,Teleglobe Raoul-Dandurand Chair of Strategic and Diplomatic Studies,Université du Québec à Montréal. Centre d'études des politiques étrangères et de sécurité

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 0773520864

Category: History

Page: 227

View: 8868

With the end of the Cold War, nuclear non-proliferation has emerged as a central issue in international security relations. While most existing works on nuclear proliferation deal with the question of nuclear acquisition, T.V. Paul explains why some states have decided to forswear nuclear weapons even when they have the technological capability or potential capability to develop them, and why some states already in possession of nuclear arms choose to dismantle them.

Fukushima: Dispossession or Denuclearization?

Author: Nadesan/Boys/McKillop/Wilcox (Editors)

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 131249817X

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 8731

The Fukushima nuclear power plant explosions and the Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombings are intimately connected events, bound together across time by a nuclear will to power that holds little regard for life. In Fukushima: Dispossession or Denuclearization? contributors document and explore diverse dispossession effects stemming from this nuclear will to power, including market distortions, radiation damage to personal property, wrecked livelihoods, and transgenerational mutations potentially eroding human health and happiness. Liberal democratic capitalism is itself disclosed as vulnerable to the corrupting influences of the nuclear will to power. Contributors contend that denuclearization stands as the only viable path forward capable of freeing humans from the catastrophic risks engineered into global nuclear networks. They conclude that the choice of dispossession or denuclearization through the pursuit of alternative technologies will determine human survival across the twenty-first century.

French Nuclear Diplomacy

Author: Wilfred L. Kohl

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400869889

Category: Political Science

Page: 428

View: 8443

Wilfred Kohl analyzes the development of France's atomic force, focusing on the role of nuclear weapons in de Gaulle's policies and its impact on French relations with NATO, her key alliance partners (the United States, Great Britain, and West Germany), and the U.S.S.R. He emphasizes the discontinuity between de Gaulle's grandiose designs and the more modest programs envisaged by cither the preceding governments of the Fourth Republic or the succeeding Pompidou government. Originally published in 1972. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Chemistry

An Atoms-Focused Approach

Author: Thomas R. Gilbert,Rein V. Kirss,Natalie Foster

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393912345

Category: Science

Page: 978

View: 4446

The authors, who have more than two decades of combined experience teaching an atoms-first course, have gone beyond reorganizing the topics. They emphasize the particulate nature of matter throughout the book in the text, art, and problems, while placing the chemistry in a biological, environmental, or geological context. The authors use a consistent problem-solving model and provide students with ample opportunities to practice.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: N.A

View: 2484

Hearings and reports on atomic energy

Author: United States. Congress. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 5244

Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy

International Political Problems

Author: Rudolf Frederick Wagner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nuclear nonproliferation

Page: 394

View: 7466

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