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Basic Geometry

Author: George David Birkhoff

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 294

View: 726

Offers a sound mathematical development ... and at the same time enables the student to move rapidly into the heart of geometry. --The Mathematics Teacher Should be required reading for every teacher of geometry. --The Mathematical Gazette In this highly recommended high school text by two eminent scholars, the authors deduce plane Euclidean geometry by utilizing only five fundamental postulates. Incorporation of the system of real numbers in three of the five postulates of this geometry gives these assumptions great breadth and power. They lead the reader at once to the heart of geometry. It is because of the underlying power, simplicity, and compactness of this geometry that the authors called the book Basic Geometry. The book is designed for a one-year course in plane geometry. For advanced students, the authors incorporated certain material from three-dimensional and so-called modern geometry. A rich variety of exercises as well as many illustrations applying the abstract geometrical concepts to real life provide an excellent source of teaching material.

Elementary Geometry

Author: Ilka Agricola

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 243

View: 213

Elementary geometry provides the foundation of modern geometry. For the most part, the standard introductions end at the formal Euclidean geometry of high school. Agricola and Friedrich revisit geometry, but from the higher viewpoint of university mathematics. Plane geometry is developed from its basic objects and their properties and then moves to conics and basic solids, including the Platonic solids and a proof of Euler's polytope formula. Particular care is taken to explain symmetry groups, including the description of ornaments and the classification of isometries by their number of fixed points. Complex numbers are introduced to provide an alternative, very elegant approach to plane geometry. The authors then treat spherical and hyperbolic geometries, with special emphasis on their basic geometric properties. This largely self-contained book provides a much deeper understanding of familiar topics, as well as an introduction to new topics that complete the picture of two-dimensional geometries. For undergraduate mathematics students the book will be an excellent introduction to an advanced point of view on geometry. For mathematics teachers it will be a valuable reference and a source book for topics for projects. The book contains over 100 figures and scores of exercises. It is suitable for a one-semester course in geometry for undergraduates, particularly for mathematics majors and future secondary school teachers.

Euclidean and Transformational Geometry: A Deductive Inquiry

Author: Shlomo Libeskind

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 371

View: 522

Ideal for mathematics majors and prospective secondary school teachers, Euclidean and Transformational Geometry provides a complete and solid presentation of Euclidean geometry with an emphasis on solving challenging problems. The author examines various strategies and heuristics for approaching proofs and discusses the process students should follow to determine how to proceed from one step to the next through numerous problem solving techniques. A large collection of problems, varying in level of difficulty, are integrated throughout the text and suggested hints for the more challenging problems appear in the instructor's solutions manual and can be used at the instructor's discretion.

Euclidean Geometry and its Subgeometries

Author: Edward John Specht

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 527

View: 645

In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of these, including all that are needed for this development, are available online at the homepage for the book at www.springer.com. Supplementary material is available online covering construction of complex numbers, arc length, the circular functions, angle measure, and the polygonal form of the Jordan Curve theorem. Euclidean Geometry and Its Subgeometries is intended for advanced students and mature mathematicians, but the proofs are thoroughly worked out to make it accessible to undergraduate students as well. It can be regarded as a completion, updating, and expansion of Hilbert's work, filling a gap in the existing literature.

Basic Geometry

Answer Book

Author: George David Birkhoff

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 76

View: 563

Basic Geometry

Manual for Teachers

Author: George David Birkhoff

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 160

View: 275

The Foundations of Geometry

Author: Gerard Venema

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 432

View: 110

This text comfortably serves as a bridge between lower-level mathematics courses (calculus and linear algebra) and upper-level courses (real analysis and abstract algebra). It fully implements the latest national standards and recommendations regarding geometry for the preparation of high school mathematics teachers. Foundations of Geometry particularly teaches good proof-writing skills, emphasises the historical development of geometry, and addresses certain issues concerning the place of geometry in human culture.

Geometry and the Imagination

Author: David Hilbert

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 429

This remarkable book has endured as a true masterpiece of mathematical exposition. There are few mathematics books that are still so widely read and continue to have so much to offer - even after more than half a century has passed! The book is overflowing with mathematical ideas, which are always explained clearly and elegantly, and above all, with penetrating insight. It is a joy to read, both for beginners and experienced mathematicians. 'Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen' is full of interesting facts, many of which you wish you had known before. It's also likely that you have heard those facts before, but surely wondered where they could be found. The book begins with examples of the simplest curves and surfaces, including thread constructions of certain quadrics and other surfaces.The chapter on regular systems of points leads to the crystallographic groups and the regular polyhedra in $\mathbb{R}^3$. In this chapter, they also discuss plane lattices. By considering unit lattices, and throwing in a small amount of number theory when necessary, they effortlessly derive Leibniz's series: $\pi/4 = 1 - 1/3 1/5 - 1/7 - \ldots$. In the section on lattices in three and more dimensions, the authors consider sphere-packing problems, including the famous Kepler problem.One of the most remarkable chapters is 'Projective Configurations'. In a short introductory section, Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen give perhaps the most concise and lucid description of why a general geometer would care about projective geometry and why such an ostensibly plain setup is truly rich in structure and ideas. Here, we see regular polyhedra again, from a different perspective. One of the high points of the chapter is the discussion of Schlafli's Double-Six, which leads to the description of the 27 lines on the general smooth cubic surface. As is true throughout the book, the magnificent drawings in this chapter immeasurably help the reader.A particularly intriguing section in the chapter on differential geometry is Eleven Properties of the Sphere. Which eleven properties of such a ubiquitous mathematical object caught their discerning eye and why? Many mathematicians are familiar with the plaster models of surfaces found in many mathematics departments. The book includes pictures of some of the models that are found in the Gottingen collection. Furthermore, the mysterious lines that mark these surfaces are finally explained!The chapter on kinematics includes a nice discussion of linkages and the geometry of configurations of points and rods that are connected and, perhaps, constrained in some way. This topic in geometry has become increasingly important in recent times, especially in applications to robotics. This is another example of a simple situation that leads to a rich geometry. It would be hard to overestimate the continuing influence Hilbert-Cohn-Vossen's book has had on mathematicians of this century. It surely belongs in the 'pantheon' of great mathematics books.

Lectures on Differential Geometry

Author: Shlomo Sternberg

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN:

Category: Mathematics

Page: 442

View: 818

This book is based on lectures given at Harvard University during the academic year 1960-1961. The presentation assumes knowledge of the elements of modern algebra (groups, vector spaces, etc.) and point-set topology and some elementary analysis. Rather than giving all the basic information or touching upon every topic in the field, this work treats various selected topics in differential geometry. The author concisely addresses standard material and spreads exercises throughout the text. His reprint has two additions to the original volume: a paper written jointly with V. Guillemin at the beginning of a period of intense interest in the equivalence problem and a short description from the author on results in the field that occurred between the first and the second printings.

Geometry of Manifolds

Author: Richard L. Bishop

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Geometry, Differential

Page: 290

View: 513

First published in 1964, this book served as a text on differential geometry to several generations of graduate students all over the world. The first half of the book (Chapters 1-6) presents basics of the theory of manifolds, vector bundles, differential forms, and Lie groups, with a special emphasis on the theory of linear and affine connections. The second half of the book (Chapters 7-11) is devoted to Riemannian geometry. Following the definition and main properties of Riemannian manifolds, the authors discuss the theory of geodesics, complete Riemannian manifolds, and curvature. Next, the.

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