Author: Ruud van Dijk,William Glenn Gray,Svetlana Savranskaya,Jeremi Suri,Qiang Zhai
Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual tensions arose, developed, and was resolved. This work examines the military, economic, diplomatic, and political evolution of the conflict as well as its impact on the different regions and cultures of the world. Using a unique geopolitical approach that will present Russian perspectives and others, the work covers all aspects of the Cold War, from communism to nuclear escalation and from UFOs to red diaper babies, highlighting its vast-ranging and lasting impact on international relations as well as on daily life. Although the work will focus on the 1945–1991 period, it will explore the roots of the conflict, starting with the formation of the Soviet state, and its legacy to the present day.
Category: Business & Economics
Auf der Basis einer Analyse von Wirkungen der anbieterseitigen Koordination und deren Einfluss auf die Auswahlentscheidungen der Nachfrager entwickelt der Autor ein Modell zur Identifikation, Auswahl und Steuerung von Kooperationspartnern.
Author: K. Weisbrode
Category: Political Science
In historical terms, the Old Diplomacy is not really that old many of its concepts and methods date to the mid-nineteenth century while the practices of New Diplomacy emerged only a couple of generations later. Moreover, "Diplomacy 2.0" and other variants of the post-Cold War era do not depart significantly from their twentieth-century predecessor: their forms, particularly in technology, have changed, but their substance has not. In this succinct overview, historian Kenneth Weisbrode reminds us that to understand diplomatic transformations and their relevance to international affairs is to see diplomacy as an entrepreneurial art and that, like most arts, it is adapted and re-adapted with reference to earlier forms. Diplomatic practice is always changing, and always continuous.
Human Rights and the Politics of Global Order
Author: Nicolas Guilhot
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
Has the international movement for democracy and human rights gone from being a weapon against power to part of the arsenal of power itself? Nicolas Guilhot explores this question in his penetrating look at how the U.S. government, the World Bank, political scientists, NGOs, think tanks, and various international organizations have appropriated the movement for democracy and human rights to export neoliberal policies throughout the world. His work charts the various symbolic, ideological, and political meanings that have developed around human rights and democracy movements. Guilhot suggests that these shifting meanings reflect the transformation of a progressive, emancipatory movement into an industry, dominated by "experts," ensconced in positions of power. Guilhot's story begins in the 1950s when U.S. foreign policy experts promoted human rights and democracy as part of a "democratic international" to fight the spread of communism. Later, the unlikely convergence of anti-Stalinist leftists and the nascent neoconservative movement found a place in the Reagan administration. These "State Department Socialists," as they were known, created policies and organizations that provided financial and technical expertise to democratic movements, but also supported authoritarian, anti-communist regimes, particularly in Latin America. Guilhot also traces the intellectual and social trajectories of key academics, policymakers, and institutions, including Seymour M. Lipset, Jeane Kirkpatrick, the "Chicago Boys," including Milton Friedman, the National Endowment for Democracy, and the Ford Foundation. He examines the ways in which various individuals, or "double agents," were able to occupy pivotal positions at the junction of academe, national, and international institutions, and activist movements. He also pays particular attention to the role of the social sciences in transforming the old anti-Communist crusades into respectable international organizations that promoted progressive and democratic ideals, but did not threaten the strategic and economic goals of Western governments and businesses. Guilhot's purpose is not to disqualify democracy promotion as a conspiratorial activity. Rather he offers new perspectives on the roles of various transnational human rights institutions and the policies they promote. Ultimately, his work proposes a new model for understanding the international politics of legitimate democratic order and the relation between popular resistance to globalization and the "Washington Consensus."
Critical realism and the Nordic Contributions
Author: Roy Bhaskar,Petter Naess,Karl Georg Høyer
Category: Social Science
Building on its origins at a seminar in Oslo organized by two of the editors, this book combines classic texts of Nordic ecophilosophy and the original contributions of those influenced by this tradition to present the view that critical realism is indeed a worthy intellectual tradition to carry forward and further develop the work of the founders of Nordic ecophilosophy. It was clear at the seminar that there was a promising convergence of interests and themes in the two approaches; while at the same time, within the Nordic ecophilosophical tradition, there was appreciation of the capacity of critical realism, with its provision of a robust philosophical ontology and generation of totalizing immanent critiques of Western philosophy, to provide an expansive and secure home for the development of ecophilosophical work generally. If there is a single overarching theme of critical realist philosophy, it surely must be that of the unity of theory and practice, which Bhaskar, following Hegel, has also called "seriousness". This makes the applicability, relevance and actionability of critical realism key considerations for critical realists. There can be no doubt that this concern was shared fully by the Nordic ecophilosophers; and this quality of "seriousness" is a striking feature of the Nordic contributions presented in this book.
Author: M. Hjort
Using case studies from Nigeria, Qatar, the United States, the West Indies, and others, the contributors to this volume examine aspects such as audience response, film education for children, and the impact on crime in the various studios, clubs, film festivals, NGOs, peripatetic workshops, and alternative film schools where filmmaking is taught.
The Ultimate Threat to Nations
Author: Fred Charles Iklé
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
In this eloquent and impassioned book, defense expert Fred Iklé predicts a revolution in national security that few strategists have grasped; fewer still are mindful of its historic roots. We are preoccupied with suicide bombers, jihadist terrorists, and rogue nations producing nuclear weapons, but these menaces are merely distant thunder that foretells the gathering storm. It is the dark side of technological progress that explains this emerging crisis. Globalization guarantees the spread of new technologies, whether beneficial or destructive, and this proliferation reaches beyond North Korea, Iran, and other rogue states. Our greatest threat is a cunning tyrant gaining possession of a few weapons of mass destruction. His purpose would not be to destroy landmarks, highjack airplanes, or attack railroad stations. He would annihilate a nation's government from within and assume dictatorial power. The twentieth century offers vivid examples of tyrants who have exploited major national disasters by rallying violent followers and intimidating an entire nation. To explain how we have become so vulnerable, Iklé turns to history. Some 250 years ago, science was freed from political and religious constraints, causing a cultural split in which one part of our culture remained animated by religion and politics while the other became guided by science. Since then, technological progress and the evolving political order march to different drummers. Science advances at an accelerating pace while religion and politics move along a zigzag course. This divergence will widen and endanger the survival of all nations. Drawing on his experience as a Washington insider, Iklé outlines practical measures that could readily be implemented to help us avert the worst disaster.
An Anthology of the Writings of Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum
Author: Marc H. Tanenbaum
Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
Rabbi, writer, teacher, activist, and organizer, Marc H. Tanenbaum was for more than three generations at the center of the struggle for religious understanding and human rights. As a pioneer in ecumenical dialogue, Tanenbaum left an indelible mark on many communities of faith. This rich collection of Tanenbaum's most influential writings underscores his contributions to civil and human rights, international affairs and - above all - the development of Jewish-Christian understanding andmutual respect. Special features of this book include a biographical essay and introductions to the major issues and the essays.
Ein Ausblick auf die Künftige Entwicklung der Menschheit
Author: Charles Galton Darwin
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Wenn jemand es unternimmt, über einen Gegenstand zu schreiben, mit dem er sich bisher beruflich noch nicht beschäftigt hat, so sollte er eigentlich damit beginnen, sehr viel zu les en und sich über das Gelesene sorgfältige Notizen zu machen. Eine solche V orbereitung auf einen so gewaltigen Gegenstand aber, wie es das Thema dieses Buches ist, kann gut und gern zehn Jahre dauern. Als ich mir vornahm, dieses Buch zu schreiben, war ich schon mehr als 61 J ah re alt, und ich kann getrost sagen, daB ich es nie geschrieben hätte, wenn ich so verfahren wäre. Da mir nun aber doch sehr daran lag, es zu schreiben, so blieb mir nichts anderes übrig, als den Gedanken an eine sorgfältige V orbereitung aufzugeben und mich nur al'. f meine Erinnerung an ein sehr ausgedehntes unsystematisches Buchstudium und vieles Nachdenken über den Gegenstand zu stützen. Ein so entstan denes Buch kann natürlich keinen Anspruch auf die gleiche Autorität erheben wie eines, das auf Grund vorhergehender erschöpfender Studien entstanden ist. lch fürchte, daB das Fehlen von Hinweisen auf Quellen meinen Lesern einiges Unbehagen verursachen wird. lch könnte zwar einige Quellen nennen, aber viele - und sogar einige besonders wichtige - nicht, 50 daB es ein falsches Bild gäbe, wenn ich nur diejenigen anführte, derer ich mich noch genau erinnere.
Author: Arran Gare
Postmodernism and the Environmental Crisis is the only book to combine cultural theory and environmental philosophy. In it, Arran Gare analyses the conjunction between the environmental crisis, the globalisation of capitalism and the disintegration of the culture of modernity. It explains the paradox of growing concern for the environment and the paltry achievements of environmental movements. Through a critique of the philosophies underlying approaches to the environmental crisis, Arran Gare puts forward his own, controversial theory of a new postmodern world view. This would be the foundation for the environmental movement to succeed. Arran Gare's work will be a vital reading for advanced students of environmental studies, as well as for environmental philosophers and cultural theorists.