How did a sleepy New England fishing village become a gay mecca? In this dynamic history, Karen Christel Krahulik explains why Provincetown, Massachusetts--alternately known as “Land's End,” “Cape-tip,” “Cape-end,” and, to some, “Queersville, U.S.A”--has meant many things to many people. Provincetown tells the story of this beguiling coastal town, from its early history as a mid-nineteenth century colonial village to its current stature as a bustling gay tourist destination. It details the many cultures and groups—Yankee artists, Portuguese fishermen, tourists—that have comprised and influenced Provincetown, and explains how all of them, in conjunction with larger economic and political forces, come together to create a gay and lesbian mecca. Through personal stories and historical accounts, Provincetown reveals the fascinating features that have made Provincetown such a textured and colorful destination: its fame as the landfall of the Mayflower Pilgrims, charm as an eccentric artists’ colony, and allure as a Dionysian playground. It also hints at one of Provincetown’s most dramatic economic changes: its turn from fishing village to resort town. From a history of fishing economies to a history of tourism, Provincetown, in the end, is as eclectic and vibrant as the city itself.
Children at War is the first comprehensive book to examine the growing and global use of children as soldiers. P.W. Singer, an internationally recognized expert in twenty-first-century warfare, explores how a new strategy of war, utilized by armies and warlords alike, has targeted children, seeking to turn them into soldiers and terrorists. Singer writes about how the first American serviceman killed by hostile fire in Afghanistan—a Green Beret—was shot by a fourteen-year-old Afghan boy; how suspected militants detained by U.S. forces in Iraq included more than one hundred children under the age of seventeen; and how hundreds who were taken hostage in Thailand were held captive by the rebel "God's Army," led by twelve-year-old twins. Interweaving the voices of child soldiers throughout the book, Singer looks at the ways these children are recruited, abducted, trained, and finally sent off to fight in war-torn hot spots, from Colombia and the Sudan to Kashmir and Sierra Leone. He writes about children who have been indoctrinated to fight U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; of Iraqui boys between the ages of ten and fifteen who had been trained in military arms and tactics to become Saddam Hussein's Ashbal Saddam (Lion Cubs); of young refugees from Pakistani madrassahs who were recruited to help bring the Taliban to power in the Afghan civil war. The author, National Security Fellow at the Brookings Institution and director of the Brookings Project on U.S. Policy Towards the Islamic World, explores how this phenomenon has come about, and how social disruptions and failures of development in modern Third World nations have led to greater global conflict and an instability that has spawned a new pool of recruits. He writes about how technology has made today's weapons smaller and lighter and therefore easier for children to carry and handle; how one billion people in the world live in developing countries where civil war is part of everyday life; and how some children—without food, clothing, or family—have volunteered as soldiers as their only way to survive. Finally, Singer makes clear how the U.S. government and the international community must face this new reality of modern warfare, how those who benefit from the recruitment of children as soldiers must be held accountable, how Western militaries must be prepared to face children in battle, and how rehabilitation programs can undo this horrific phenomenon and turn child soldiers back into children.
This book provides a critical appraisal of the treatment of war in children's reading during the 20th century, covering World War I, World War II and subsequent wars, including Vietnam, the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans.
Child Soldiers as Victims and Participants in the Sudan Civil War
Author: Christine Emily Ryan
Category: Political Science
The use of child soldiers in the Sudan Civil War has shattered the accepted understanding of why children join armies. Thousands of children signed up to participate in Africa’s longest running civil war, yet so far the international community and the academic world have viewed them as victims rather than participants. In this groundbreaking new study, Christine Emily Ryan challenges preconceptions which have held back aid work and reconstruction in the Sudan region. Using face-to-face testimonies of former child soldiers, Ryan illuminates the multi-dimensional motivations which children have for joining the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, and unravels the complexity of their political participation. At the same time, interviews with NGO personnel illustrate the gap that exists between the West and the reality of conflict in Africa. With over 100 interviews with former child soldiers and NGO workers, and based on extensive and independent fieldwork in Sudan itself, Children of War posits a new way of approaching both the concept of the child in conflict zones, and empowers the child soldiers themselves as actors and participants in history. Children of War provides a powerful critique of the position taken by the international community, NGOs and academia to the phenomenon of child soldiers, and calls for a new approach to conflict resolution in Africa.
Their frightened, angry faces are grim reminders of the reach of war. They are millions of children, orphaned, displaced, forced to flee or to fight. And just as they have myriad possibilities for trauma, their lives also hold great potential for recovery. The Handbook of Resilience in Children of War explores these critical phenomena at the theoretical, research, and treatment levels, beginning with the psychosocial effects of exposure to war. Narratives of young people's lives in war zones as diverse as Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Columbia, and Sudan reveal the complexities of their experiences and the meanings they attach to them, providing valuable keys to their rehabilitation. Other chapters identify strengths and limitations of current interventions, and of constructs of resilience as applied to youth affected by war. Throughout this cutting-edge volume, the emphasis is on improving the field through more relevant research and accurate, evidence-based interventions, in such areas as: An ecological resilience approach to promoting mental health in children of war. Child soldiers and the myth of the ticking time bomb. The Child Friendly Spaces postwar intervention program. The role of education for war-zone immigrant and refugee students. Political violence, identity, and adjustment in children. The Handbook of Resilience in Children of War is essential reading for researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in diverse fields including clinical child, school, and developmental psychology; child and adolescent psychiatry; social work; counseling; education; and allied medical and public health disciplines.
Provides interviews with twenty-three young Iraqi children who have moved away from their homeland and tells of their fears, challenges, and struggles to rebuild their lives in foreign lands as refugees of war.
The Children's Civil War is an exploration of childhood during our nation's greatest crisis. James Marten describes how the war changed the literature and schoolbooks published for children, how it affected children's relationships with absent fathers and brothers, how the responsibilities forced on northern and especially southern youngsters shortened their childhoods, and how the death and destruction that tore the country apart often cut down children as well as adults.