An abstract elementary class is a class of structures of the same vocabulary (like a class of rings, or a class of fields), with a partial order that generalizes the relation "A is a substructure (or an elementary substructure) of B." The requirements are that the class is closed under isomorphism, and that isomorphic structures have isomorphic (generalized) substructures; we also require that our classes share some of the most basic properties of elementary classes, like closure under unions of increasing chains of substructures. We would like to classify this general family; in the sense of proving dichotomies: either we can understand the structure of all models in our class or there are many to some extent. More specifically we would like to generalize the theory about categoricity and superstability to this context.

In recent years, mathematical logic has developed in many directions, the initial unity of its subject matter giving way to a myriad of seemingly unrelated areas. The articles collected here, which range from historical scholarship to recent research in geometric model theory, squarely address this development. These articles also connect to the diverse work of Väänänen, whose ecumenical approach to logic reflects the unity of the discipline.

1. The ?rst edition of this book was published in 1977. The text has been well received and is still used, although it has been out of print for some time. In the intervening three decades, a lot of interesting things have happened to mathematical logic: (i) Model theory has shown that insights acquired in the study of formal languages could be used fruitfully in solving old problems of conventional mathematics. (ii) Mathematics has been and is moving with growing acceleration from the set-theoretic language of structures to the language and intuition of (higher) categories, leaving behind old concerns about in?nities: a new view of foundations is now emerging. (iii) Computer science, a no-nonsense child of the abstract computability theory, has been creatively dealing with old challenges and providing new ones, such as the P/NP problem. Planning additional chapters for this second edition, I have decided to focus onmodeltheory,the conspicuousabsenceofwhichinthe ?rsteditionwasnoted in several reviews, and the theory of computation, including its categorical and quantum aspects. The whole Part IV: Model Theory, is new. I am very grateful to Boris I. Zilber, who kindly agreed to write it. It may be read directly after Chapter II. The contents of the ?rst edition are basically reproduced here as Chapters I–VIII. Section IV.7, on the cardinality of the continuum, is completed by Section IV.7.3, discussing H. Woodin’s discovery.

Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.

Hardbound. In this research monograph, the author's work on classification and related topics are presented. This revised edition brings the book up to date with the addition of four new chapters as well as various corrections to the 1978 text.The additional chapters X - XIII present the solution to countable first order T of what the author sees as the main test of the theory. In Chapter X the Dimensional Order Property is introduced and it is shown to be a meaningful dividing line for superstable theories. In Chapter XI there is a proof of the decomposition theorems. Chapter XII is the crux of the matter: there is proof that the negation of the assumption used in Chapter XI implies that in models of T a relation can be defined which orders a large subset of mM. This theorem is also the subject of Chapter XIII.

Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as "undoubtedly a major addition to the literature of mathematical logic," this volume examines the essential topics and theorems of mathematical reasoning. No background in logic is assumed, and the examples are chosen from a variety of mathematical fields. Starting with an introduction to symbolic logic, the first eight chapters develop logic through the restricted predicate calculus. Topics include the statement calculus, the use of names, an axiomatic treatment of the statement calculus, descriptions, and equality. Succeeding chapters explore abstract set theory—with examinations of class membership as well as relations and functions—cardinal and ordinal arithmetic, and the axiom of choice. An invaluable reference book for all mathematicians, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Numerous exercises make it particularly appropriate for classroom use.

In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning expressive power of several variants of dependence logic with different sets of logical connectives and generalized dependence atoms; connections between inclusion logic and the least-fixed point logic; an overview of dependencies in databases by addressing the relationships between implication problems for fragments of statistical conditional independencies, embedded multivalued dependencies, and propositional logic; various Markovian models used to characterize dependencies and causality among variables in multivariate systems; applications of dependence logic in social choice theory; and an introduction to the theory of secret sharing, pointing out connections to dependence and independence logic.

This volume outlines current developments in model theory and combinatorial set theory and presents state-of-the-art research. Well-known researchers report on their work in model theory and set theory with applications to algebra. The papers of J. Brendle and A. Blass present one of the most interesting areas of set theory. Brendle gives a very detailed and readable account of Shelah's solution for the long-standing problem of $\mathrm{Con}(\mathfrak{d}<\mathfrak{a})$.It could be used in an advanced graduate seminar on set theory. Papers by T. Altinel, J. T. Baldwin, R. Grossberg, W. Hodges, T. Hyttinen, O. Lessmann, and B. Zilber deal with questions of model theory from the viewpoint of stability theory. Here, Zilber constructs an $\omega$-stable complete theory of 'pseudo-analytic' structures on algebraically closed fields. This result is part of his program of the model-theoretic study of analytic structures by including Hrushovski's method in the analytic context. The book presents this and further developments in model theory. It is geared toward advanced graduate students and researchers interested in logic and foundations, algebra, and algebraic geometry.

Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract harmonic analysis of combinational switching functions; the theory of universal logic modules, methods of their construction, and upper bounds on the input terminals; and cellular logic are also considered. The book further tackles the systematic techniques for the realization of multi-output logic function by means of multirail cellular cascades; the programmable cellular logic; and the logical design of programmable arrays. Electrical engineers, electronics engineers, computer professionals, and student taking related courses will find the book invaluable.

*Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition*

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309131979

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 8091

This classic undergraduate treatment examines the deductive method in its first part and explores applications of logic and methodology in constructing mathematical theories in its second part. Exercises appear throughout.

Modern model theory began with Morley's categoricity theorem: A countable first-order theory that has a unique (up to isomorphism) model in one uncountable cardinal (i.e., is categorical in cardinality) if and only if the same holds in all uncountable cardinals. Over the last 35 years Shelah made great strides in extending this result to infinitary logic, where the basic tool of compactness fails. He invented the notion of an Abstract Elementary Class to give a unifying semantic account of theories in first-order, infinitary logic and with some generalized quantifiers. Zilber developed similar techniques of infinitary model theory to study complex exponentiation. This book provides the first unified and systematic exposition of this work. The many examples stretch from pure model theory to module theory and covers of Abelian varieties. Assuming only a first course in model theory, the book expounds eventual categoricity results (for classes with amalgamation) and categoricity in excellent classes. Such crucial tools as Ehrenfeucht - Mostowski models, Galois types, tameness, omitting-types theorems, multi-dimensional amalgamation, atomic types, good sets, weak diamonds, and excellent classes are developed completely and methodically. The (occasional) reliance on extensions of basic set theory is clearly laid out. The book concludes with a set of open problems.

The Many Sides of Logic'' is a volume containing a selection of the papers delivered at three simultaneous events held between 11-17 May 2008 in Paraty, RJ, Brazil, continuing a tradition of three decades of Brazilian and Latin-American meetings and celebrating the 30th anniversary of an institution congenital with the mature interest for logic, epistemology and history of sciences in Brazil: CLE 30 - 30th Anniversary of the Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) XV EBL -15th Brazilian Logic Conference XIV SLALM - 14th Latin-American Symposium on Mathematical Logic Several renowned logicians, philosophers and mathematicians gathered in colonial Paraty, a historic village on the Brazilian coast founded in the 17th Century and surrounded by the luscious Atlantic rain forest to deliver lectures and talks celebrating the many sides of logic: the philosophical, the mathematical, the computational, the historical, and the multiple facets therein. The topics of the joint conferences, well represented here, included philosophical and mathematical Logic and applications with emphasis on model theory and proof theory, set theory, non-classical logics and applications, history and philosophy of logic, philosophy of the formal sciences and issues on the foundations of mathematics. The events have been preceded by a Logic School planned for students and young researchers held at the UNICAMP campus in Campinas, SP.

Category theory is a branch of abstract algebra with incredibly diverse applications. This text and reference book is aimed not only at mathematicians, but also researchers and students of computer science, logic, linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy, and any of the other fields in which the ideas are being applied. Containing clear definitions of the essential concepts, illuminated with numerous accessible examples, and providing full proofs of all important propositions and theorems, this book aims to make the basic ideas, theorems, and methods of category theory understandable to this broad readership. Although assuming few mathematical pre-requisites, the standard of mathematical rigour is not compromised. The material covered includes the standard core of categories; functors; natural transformations; equivalence; limits and colimits; functor categories; representables; Yoneda's lemma; adjoints; monads. An extra topic of cartesian closed categories and the lambda-calculus is also provided - a must for computer scientists, logicians and linguists! This Second Edition contains numerous revisions to the original text, including expanding the exposition, revising and elaborating the proofs, providing additional diagrams, correcting typographical errors and, finally, adding an entirely new section on monoidal categories. Nearly a hundred new exercises have also been added, many with solutions, to make the book more useful as a course text and for self-study.

Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.

Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. Admissible set theory is a major source of interaction between model theory, recursion theory and set theory, and plays an important role in definability theory. In this volume, the seventh publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, Jon Barwise presents the basic facts about admissible sets and admissible ordinals in a way that makes them accessible to logic students and specialists alike. It fills the artificial gap between model theory and recursion theory and covers everything the logician should know about admissible sets.

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this treatment examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, more. 1960 edition.