Search Results: deterrence-by-diplomacy

Deterrence by Diplomacy

Author: Anne E. Sartori

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849446

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 2264

Why are countries often able to communicate critical information using diplomacy? Why do countries typically use diplomacy honestly, despite incentives to bluff? Why are they often able to deter attacks using merely verbal threats? International relations theory is largely pessimistic about the prospects for effective diplomacy, yet leaders nevertheless expend much time and energy trying to resolve conflicts through verbal negotiations and public statements. Deterrence by Diplomacy challenges standard understandings of deterrence by analyzing it as a form of talk and reaches conclusions about the effectiveness of diplomacy that are much more optimistic. Anne Sartori argues that diplomacy works precisely because it is so valuable. States take pains to use diplomacy honestly most of the time because doing so allows them to maintain reputations for honesty, which in turn enhance their ability to resolve future disputes using diplomacy rather than force. So, to maintain the effectiveness of their diplomacy, states sometimes acquiesce to others' demands when they might have been able to attain their goals through bluffs. Sartori theorizes that countries obtain a "trade" of issues over time; they get their way more often when they deem the issues more important, and concede more often when they deem the issues less important. Departing from traditional theory, this book shows that rather than always fighting over small issues to show resolve, states can make their threats more credible by sometimes honestly acquiescing over lesser issues--by not crying "wolf."

Complex Deterrence

Strategy in the Global Age

Author: T. V. Paul,Patrick M. Morgan,James J. Wirtz

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226650049

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 6493

As the costs of a preemptive foreign policy in Iraq have become clear, strategies such as containment and deterrence have been gaining currency among policy makers. This comprehensive book offers an agenda for the contemporary practice of deterrence—especially as it applies to nuclear weapons—in an increasingly heterogeneous global and political setting. Moving beyond the precepts of traditional deterrence theory, this groundbreaking volume offers insights for the use of deterrence in the modern world, where policy makers may encounter irrational actors, failed states, religious zeal, ambiguous power relationships, and other situations where the traditional rules of statecraft do not apply. A distinguished group of contributors here examines issues such as deterrence among the Great Powers; the problems of regional and nonstate actors; and actors armed with chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. Complex Deterrence will be a valuable resource for anyone facing the considerable challenge of fostering security and peace in the twenty-first century.

Post-Cold War Conflict Deterrence

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Naval Studies Board

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309175104

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 1574

Deterrence as a strategic concept evolved during the Cold War. During that period, deterrence strategy was aimed mainly at preventing aggression against the United States and its close allies by the hostile Communist power centers--the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies, Communist China and North Korea. In particular, the strategy was devised to prevent aggression involving nuclear attack by the USSR or China. Since the end of the Cold War, the risk of war among the major powers has subsided to the lowest point in modern history. Still, the changing nature of the threats to American and allied security interests has stimulated a considerable broadening of the deterrence concept. Post-Cold War Conflict Deterrence examines the meaning of deterrence in this new environment and identifies key elements of a post-Cold War deterrence strategy and the critical issues in devising such a strategy. It further examines the significance of these findings for the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. Quantitative and qualitative measures to support judgments about the potential success or failure of deterrence are identified. Such measures will bear on the suitability of the naval forces to meet the deterrence objectives. The capabilities of U.S. naval forces that especially bear on the deterrence objectives also are examined. Finally, the book examines the utility of models, games, and simulations as decision aids in improving the naval forces' understanding of situations in which deterrence must be used and in improving the potential success of deterrence actions.

Principles of International Politics

Author: Bruce Bueno de Mesquita

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452202982

Category: Political Science

Page: 566

View: 1683

Renowned scholar Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, who set the standard for the scientific approach to international relations and transformed the field, has returned with a reformulated fifth edition based on extensive reviewer feedback and guided by an emphasis on questions about the causes and consequences of war, peace, and world order. More than ever before, the strategic perspective in international relations is examined with complete clarity, precision, and accessibility. What hasn't changed is Bueno de Mesquita's commitment to covering the fundamentals of IR. The foundational topics and examination are all there: the major theories of war, the domestic sources of international politics, an exploration of the democratic peace, the problems of terrorism, the role of foreign aid, democratization, international political economy, globalization, international organizations, international law, and the global environment. The first part of the book, "Foundations" offers highly accessible coverage of key concepts, introducing students to different ways to think about the national interest and showing them how to use game theory and the strategic perspective/selectorate theory to better understand what happens in all aspects of international affairs. This section uses debate over North Korea's nuclear weapons development as an ongoing example to build concepts and build confidence in the student's how of basic modeling ideas. Also covered is a basic, intuitive introduction to game theory and other evidence and logic based tools for analyzing international relations. Part II, "War," next provides a more thorough evaluation of how domestic political incentives and the domestic institutions of governance shape choices about conflict initiation, escalation, and termination. It also surveys major theories of war and conflict, working through hypotheses derived from constructivism, neo-realism, liberalism and selectorate theory and evaluating them against the evidence to see what actually works and what doesn't. Chapters in Part III, "Peace," build on the logic of collective action to help students see why it is so difficult to get national governments to do "what is right" even when they can agree on what is right, with chapters covering the effectiveness of international organizations and international law, as well as a thorough evaluation of environmental issues, human rights enforcement and the domestic and the international political economy of trade. Part IV, "World Order" emphasizes efforts to promote the spread of democracy and economic prosperity. It also addresses how to understand and deal with terrorism. Whether examining terrorism, the spread of democracy or the alleviation of poverty, chapters in this section carefully examine which strategies work, which do not, and why. The Arab Spring provides a useful ongoing example of the strengths and weaknesses of foreign aid policy and military intervention policies. No other introductory text delivers such an easily-understood contemporary explanation of international politics, while truly enabling students to learn how to mobilize the key concepts and models themselves-thus develop a new method for thinking about world affairs. More than ever before, Principles provides a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of international affairs, systematically compares the accuracy of competing approaches to international relations, and walks students through the simple, intuitive models and games that capture the essence of the strategic, selectorate viewpoint.

Shi'ism and Social Protest

Author: Juan Ricardo Cole,Nikki R. Keddie

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300035537

Category: History

Page: 325

View: 7844

This timely and important book presents the first overview of Shi'i political activism in the countries where it has been most significant-from Iran and Lebanon to Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The contributors present up-to-date information on the factors involved in Shi'ism's recent movement away from quietism and toward an active involvement in politics. They also discuss how Shi'i political activism will affect the struggle in and for Lebanon; the Iran-Iraq war; Soviet attitudes toward Afghanistan and Iran; and U.S. policies toward the Middle East.

The United States and Coercive Diplomacy

Author: Robert J. Art,Patrick M. Cronin

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781929223442

Category: Political Science

Page: 442

View: 6323

"As Robert Art makes clear in a groundbreaking conclusion, those results have been mixed at best. Art dissects the uneven performance of coercive diplomacy and explains why it has sometimes worked and why it has more often failed."--BOOK JACKET.

Maritime Diplomacy in the 21st Century

Drivers and Challenges

Author: Christian Le Mière

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134117469

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 6146

This book aims to redefine maritime diplomacy for the modern era. Maritime diplomacy encompasses a spectrum of activities, from co-operative measures such as port visits, exercises and humanitarian assistance to persuasive deployment and coercion. It is an activity no longer confined to just navies, but in the modern era is pursued be coast guards, civilian vessels and non-state groups. As states such as China and India develop, they are increasingly using this most flexible form of soft and hard power. Maritime Diplomacy in the 21st Century describes and analyses the concept of maritime diplomacy, which has been largely neglected in academic literature. The use of such diplomacy can be interesting not just for the parochial effects of any activity, but because any event can reflect changes in the international order, while acting as an excellent gauge for the existence and severity of international tension. Further, maritime diplomacy can act as a valve through which any tension can be released without resort to conflict. Written in an accessible but authoritative style, this book describes the continued use of coercion outside of war by navies, while also situating it more clearly within the various roles and effects that maritime forces have in peacetime. This book will be of much interest to students of seapower, naval history, strategic studies, diplomacy and international relations.

Peripheral Visions

Deterrence Theory and American Foreign Policy in the Third World, 1965-1990

Author: Ted Hopf

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472105403

Category: Political Science

Page: 306

View: 1916

In this challenging new study, Ted Hopf repudiates the core assumptions of deterrence theory, one of the most central aspects of U.S. foreign policy over the past half century. Especially during the cold war years, a major goal of U.S. foreign policy has been to show enough strength that any adventurism on the part of a would-be aggressor would be deterred. Thus, the United States became involved militarily in various Third World conflicts more to deter the Soviet Union than to protect any specific U.S. interest. Peripheral Visions argues that this policy was unnecessary and counterproductive. The evidence in this book (looking at crises in Vietnam, Angola, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Iran, Nicaragua, Grenada, the Middle East, and Ghana) implies that military strength is not the only way - not even the most effective way - to deter an opponent. The credibility of the United States in the Middle East, for instance, was not strengthened by U.S. military actions, but rather by the adroit use of military and economic aid and diplomatic leverage. Yet this taught the Soviet Union far more discouraging lessons about the Middle East than the U.S. invasion of Grenada did about Latin America. The deterrence theory that remains after this series of empirical tests recommends that the defender not worry so much about unimportant areas of the globe, not use military force when nonmilitary instruments will do, and act as much as possible through indigenous and autonomous forces, rather than directly. Although framed as a test of difference theory, Peripheral Visions also offers important arguments and evidence about how leaders learn. Moreover, since the book tests rational, bounded rational, and belief system models of decision making, it sheds light on the debate between those who assume states are rational and those who find that assumption problematic. Finally, it speaks to an ongoing policy debate about the appropriate instruments of deterrence - a continuing concern even after the cold war.

Modern American Diplomacy

Author: John Martin Carroll,George C. Herring

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780842025553

Category: History

Page: 293

View: 1526

SR Books is proud to make available the revised and enlarged edition of the classic text Modern American Diplomacy, first published in 1986. The editors have thoroughly updated this important work to reflect the advances in scholarship. In addition, three entirely new chapters have been added: "Containment and American Foreign Policy, 1945-1963," by Mark H. Lytle, Bard College; "The Cold War in Asia," by Marc Gallicchio, Villanova University; and "Nuclear Weapons and U.S. Cold War Diplomacy," by Walter L. Hixson, University of Akron. Designed as a text for 20th-century U.S. diplomacy or international relations courses, the 13 essays in Modern American Diplomacy examine the successes and failures that led to America's global dominance. The contributors, all specialists in the topics about which they write, bring clarity and insight to the events that have conditioned Washington's policies. Issues covered include U.S. positions on the Middle East, Latin America, and Southeast Asia.

Between Diplomacy and Deterrence

Strategies for U.S. Relations with China

Author: Kim R. Holmes,James J. Przystup

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 2225

A collection of essays written by experts in Chinese relations, outlining the policies that ought to be adopted in order to guarantee healthy, balanced interaction with China in the future.

In His Father's Shadow

The Transformations of George W. Bush

Author: Stanley A. Renshon

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1466892072

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 304

View: 9609

From a pampered son who showed little promise, to his rise to the presidency, George W. Bush has transformed himself through acts of will and faith. Stanley Renshon examines the psychological transformation of Bush and identifies those pivotal changes that allowed him to achieve success in his personal life and in the political arena, and shows how Bush's personal transformation has come to shape his political policies. The man who battled--and defeated--his own inner demons has become a president determined to battle the demons of terrorism and extremism that prevent democracy from flourishing around the world. This psychological portrait provides a much-needed antidote to prevailing critiques that ridicule Bush's values and policies, as it celebrates his resolve and strong leadership.

Kissinger

Der Idealist, 1923-1968

Author: Niall Ferguson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783549074749

Category: Political Science

Page: 1200

View: 5403

French Nuclear Diplomacy

Author: Wilfred L. Kohl

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400869889

Category: Political Science

Page: 428

View: 3973

Wilfred Kohl analyzes the development of France's atomic force, focusing on the role of nuclear weapons in de Gaulle's policies and its impact on French relations with NATO, her key alliance partners (the United States, Great Britain, and West Germany), and the U.S.S.R. He emphasizes the discontinuity between de Gaulle's grandiose designs and the more modest programs envisaged by cither the preceding governments of the Fourth Republic or the succeeding Pompidou government. Originally published in 1972. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Journal of Defense & Diplomacy

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Diplomacy

Page: N.A

View: 3051

Democracy and Coercive Diplomacy

Author: Kenneth A. Schultz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521796699

Category: Political Science

Page: 301

View: 5131

This book, first published in 2001, argues that political competition between government and opposition parties influences threats in international crises.

Collective Preventive Diplomacy

A Study in International Conflict Management

Author: Barry H. Steiner

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791459874

Category: Political Science

Page: 255

View: 6235

Examines how and why great powers act to defuse ethnic conflict within small powers.

Using power and diplomacy to deal with rogue states

Author: N.A

Publisher: Hoover Press

ISBN: 9780817959937

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8684

Pivotal Deterrence

Third-party Statecraft and the Pursuit of Peace

Author: Timothy W. Crawford

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801440977

Category: History

Page: 275

View: 8763

"Crawford explains the political dynamics of pivotal deterrence and the conditions under which it is likely to succeed, while examining some of its most impressive feats and failures. German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's agile approach to the 1870s Eastern Crisis, which prevented war between Russia and Austria-Hungary, is contrasted with Britain's ambiguous and ill-fated maneuvers to deter Germany and France in July 1914. Shifting to the 1960s Cold War, Crawford explores the successes and setbacks in U.S. efforts to prevent NATO allies Greece and Turkey from fighting over Cyprus and to defuse the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan."--BOOK JACKET.

Asymmetric Conflicts

War Initiation by Weaker Powers

Author: T. V. Paul

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521466219

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 2507

This book asks why weaker powers so often engage in wars against stronger opponents. It examines six cases where this occurred in this century, including the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands in 1982. The key argument of deterrence theory is that the military superiority of a relatively strong power, coupled with a credible retaliatory threat, will prevent attack by challengers. This book seriously challenges this assumption, and has wide implications for the study of war, deterrence, diplomacy and strategy.

Psychology and Deterrence

Author: Robert Jervis,Richard Ned Lebow,Janice Gross Stein

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801838422

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 9609

Now available in paperback, Psychology and Deterrence reveals deterrence strategy's hidden and generally simplistic assumptions about the nature of power and aggression, threat and response, and calculation and behavior in the international arena.

Find eBook