Research on federalism is rarely concerned with its philosophical foundations. However, arguments on why and how best to organise a plurality of states in a multilevel political order have first been discussed by philosophers and continue to inspire contemporary reasoning on international and supranational relations not only in political philosophy. This book offers a unique overview of the philosophical foundations of federalism from both a historical and a systematic perspective. The analyses proposed by renowned scholars from the US and from several European countries cover classic writers such as Hobbes and the authors of the Federalist Papers, Kant and Rawls, and range from anthropological justifications of federal orders to contemporary problems of EU constitutionalism, the principle of subsidiarity and the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The book is of relevance to anyone interested in philosophical justifications of federalism.
Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,7, RWTH Aachen University, course: American Non-Fiction, language: English, abstract: The eighty-five essays, today commonly referred to as The Federalist Papers, were written in 1787 and 1788 in order to help in securing the ratification of the proposed United States Constitution in the State of New York. Although the essays were all signed Publius, they were written by three men of different background and, to some extent, different political ideas. John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison have contributed to the Papers in different quantity. Due to an illness Jay has contributed only five articles. Hamilton's and Madison's contributions are not always easy to separate but most scholars ascribe twenty-nine articles to Madison and fifty-one to Hamilton. The authorship of essays "18-20, 49-58, and 62-63 was the subject of heated historical controversy for more than a century and a half, because both Hamilton and Madison allegedly claimed authorship of these essays." The object of this paper is to analyze the rhetorical approach of Madison and Hamilton in selected papers. Also, an attempt will be made to determine if, and to what extent their rhetorical style and political ideas are distinguishable even under the joint guise of Publius. The analysis will be undertaken on the examples of four selected papers - No. 10, 54, 84 and 85, which were chosen as representatives of the respective author's style, since a detailed analysis of all 85 papers would be to extensive for a term paper. Contributions by John Jay are deliberately left out since they consist of only 5 papers which are arguably among the less important ones. Federalist No.10 was chosen as the most famous of Madison's contributions due to its prominence within the scholarly debate and the prevailing significance of the problem discussed in the essay - the dangers or factions within a republic system. No. 54 was chos
This important new book seeks to widen the understanding of the principle of equality within European law. Firstly, it deconstructs the European Court of Justice's adjudication of cases in the field. It then explores how the Member States' courts decide on the question of equality. This detailed rigorous research allows the author to argue for a reconceptualised equality doctrine. Such an adaptation, the author argues, will provide judges, practitioners and academics with the tools to balance institutional considerations against substantive interpretation. Theoretically ambitious, while grounded in practical application, this is a significant restatement of one of the key principles of European law: the equality doctrine.
Die Beitrage des Bandes betrachten das Rechtssystem der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika als Teil der nationalen Gesamtkultur, vergleichen es mit den entsprechenden deutschen Vorstellungen und analysieren es hinsichtlich einer Reihe von zentralen Aspekten. Dabei bilden die jeweils gultigen Grundwerte, das heisst vor allem die jeweilige Gewichtung von Freiheit und Gleichheit, sowie die daraus entstandenen Verfassungsordnungen den Ausgangspunkt. Weitere Fragenkomplexe sind das Verhaltnis von nationalem, internationalem und globalem Recht; die Auswirkungen von Rassen- und Gender-Vorurteilen auf die Rechtsprechung, vor allem bei der Verhangung der Todesstrafe; das Jugendstrafrecht und die Konsequenzen einer Zero Tolerance-Politik; das Schadensersatzrecht sowie das Verhaltnis von Recht, Medien und Offentlichkeit. Gerade die mediale Vermittlung des Rechts erlaubt noch einmal einen Blick auf Grundstrukturen der Rechtskulturen beiderseits des Atlantiks.