Search Results: electoral-systems-and-political-context

Electoral Systems and Political Context

How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies

Author: Robert G. Moser,Ethan Scheiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107025427

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 8382

This book highlights how new and established democracies differ from one another in the effects of their electoral rules.

The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Systems

Author: Erik S. Herron,Robert J. Pekkanen,Matthew S. Shugart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190258659

Category: Political Science

Page: 1016

View: 4195

Machine generated contents note: -- 1. Terminology and Basic Rules of Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Robert J. Pekkanen, and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part I. Foundations of Electoral Systems -- 2. Dimensions of Variation in Electoral Systems -- Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell -- 3. Electoral System Effects on Party Systems -- Matthew S. Shugart and Rein Taagepera -- 4. Party System Effects on Electoral Systems -- Josep M. Colomer -- 5. Electoral System Design in New Democracies -- John M. Carey -- 6. Electoral System Change -- Alan Renwick -- Part II. Issues and Representation -- 7. Social Diversity, Electoral Systems, and the Party System -- Robert Moser, Ethan Scheiner, and Heather Stoll -- 8. Electoral Systems and Ethnic Minority Representation -- David Lublin and Shaun Bowler -- 9. Electoral Systems and Women's Representation -- Mona Lena Krook -- 10. Electoral Systems and Voter Turnout -- Daniel M. Smith -- 11. Electoral Systems and Citizen-Elite Ideological Congruence -- Matthew Golder and Benjamin Ferland -- 12. Electoral Systems and Issue Polarization -- James F. Adams and Nathan J. Rexford -- Part III. Electoral Systems and the Wider Political System -- 13. Portfolio-maximizing Strategic Voting in Parliamentary Elections -- Gary W. Cox -- 14. Presidential and Legislative Elections -- Mark P. Jones -- 15. Electoral Systems and Legislative Organization -- Shane Martin -- 16. Electoral Systems and Roles in the Legislative Arena -- Audrey André and Sam Depauw -- 17. Electoral Systems and Constituency Service -- Brian F. Crisp and William M. Simoneau -- 18. Direct Democracy and Referendums -- Matt Qvortrup -- 19. Electoral Systems in Authoritarian States -- Jennifer Gandhi and Abigail L. Heller -- Part IV. Electoral Systems and Research Design -- 20. Election Data and Levels of Analysis -- Ken Kollman -- 21. Experimental Research Design in the Study of Electoral Systems -- Joshua Tucker and Dominik Duell -- 22. Reconciling Approaches in the Study of Mixed-Member Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Kuniaki Nemoto, and Misa Nishikawa -- Part V. Holding Elections -- 23. Election Administration -- Thad E. Hall -- 24. Electoral Systems and Electoral Integrity -- Pippa Norris -- 25. Electoral Systems and Redistricting -- Lisa Handley -- 26. Electoral Systems and Campaign Finance -- Joel W. Johnson -- Part VI. Electoral Systems in Context -- 27. Electoral Systems in Context: The Netherlands -- Kristof Jacobs -- 28. Electoral Systems in Context: Israel -- Reuven Y. Hazan, Reut Itzkovitch-Malka, and Gideon Rahat -- 29. Electoral Systems in Context: Finland -- Åsa von Schoultz -- 30. Electoral Systems in Context: United Kingdom -- Thomas Carl Lundberg -- 31. Electoral Systems in Context: Ireland -- Michael Marsh -- 32. Electoral Systems in Context: France -- Verónica Hoyo -- 33. Electoral Systems in Context: India -- Adam Ziegfeld -- 34. Electoral Systems in Context: United States -- Steven L. Taylor -- 35. Electoral Systems in Context: Canada -- Louis Massicotte -- 36. Electoral Systems in Context: Australia -- Ian McAllister and Toni Makkai -- 37. Electoral Systems in Context: Germany -- Thomas Zittel -- Part VII. Electoral Systems in the Context of Reform -- 38. Electoral Systems in Context: New Zealand -- Jack Vowles -- 39. Electoral Systems in Context: Japan -- Kuniaki Nemoto -- 40. Electoral Systems in Context: Italy -- Gianluca Passarelli -- 41. Electoral Systems in Context: Colombia -- Steven L. Taylor and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part VIII. Electoral Systems in the Context of New Democracies -- 42. Electoral Systems in Context: Ukraine -- Erik S. Herron -- 43. Electoral Systems in Context: Indonesia -- Nathan Allen -- 44. Electoral Systems in Context: South Africa -- Karen E. Ferree

Mixed-Member Electoral Systems in Constitutional Context

Taiwan, Japan, and Beyond

Author: Nathan F Batto,Chi Huang,Alexander C Tan,Gary Cox

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472119737

Category: Political Science

Page: 321

View: 9276

Reformers have promoted mixed-member electoral systems as the "best of both worlds." In ibis volume, internationally recognized political scientists evaluate the ways in which the introduction of a mixed-member electoral system affects the configuration of political parties. The contributors examine several political phenomena, including cabinet post allocation, nominations, preelectoral coalitions, split-ticket voting, and the size of party systems and faction systems. Significantly; they also consider various ways in which the constitutional system-especially whether the head of government is elected directly or indirectly-can modify the incentives created by the electoral system. The findings presented here demonstrate that the success of electoral reform depends not only on the specification of new electoral rules per se but also on the political context-and especially the constitutional framework-within which such rules are embedded. Book jacket.

Electoral Systems and Party Systems

A Study of Twenty-seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Author: Arend Lijphart,Don Aitkin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198273479

Category: Philosophy

Page: 209

View: 560

The most definitive treatment of electoral systems, this book describes and classifies the 70 different systems used by 27 democracies in 384 elections since 1945.

Electoral System Design

The New International IDEA Handbook

Author: Andrew Reynolds,Ben Reilly,Andrew Ellis

Publisher: International Idea

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 223

View: 5278

An overview of the electoral systems in use in more than 200 states and territories. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different electoral systems, the factors to consider when modifying or designing an electoral system and provides insights into why certain countries choose particular systems. It also describes which electoral systems have proven advantageous for specific cultural, social and economic conditions and how electoral systems can increase participation, reach out to minorities and facilitate representation of women.

Electoral Systems

A Comparative Introduction

Author: David M. Farrell

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137285508

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9532

Electoral Systems examines the six principle types of electoral system currently in use in more than seventy of the world's democracies. A common format is adopted throughout, dealing with explanations of how the system operates and its effects on the political system.

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage

How Parties Organize Democracy

Author: Russell J. Dalton,David M. Farrell,Ian McAllister

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599351

Category: Political Science

Page: 238

View: 3713

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage examines how political parties ensure the functioning of the democratic process in contemporary societies. Based on unprecedented cross-national data, the authors find that the process of party government is still alive and well in most contemporary democracies.

Democracy, Electoral Systems, and Judicial Empowerment in Developing Countries

Author: Vineeta Yadav,Bumba Mukherjee

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472119087

Category: Law

Page: 362

View: 7045

An independent judiciary is considered an indication of a developing nation’s level of democracy

The Politics of Electoral Systems

Author: Michael Gallagher,Paul Mitchell

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199238675

Category: Political Science

Page: 662

View: 3815

Electoral systems matter. They are a crucial link in the chain connecting the preferences of citizens to the policy choices made by governments. They are chosen by political actors and, once in existence, have political consequences for those actors. They are an important object of study for anyone interested in the political process, and in this book we subject them to systematic analysis. In addition to some comparative chapters, the book contains full accounts of the operation of electoral systems in 22 countries: France, the UK, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Ireland, Hungary, Russia, Australia, Canada, India, the USA, Japan, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. The book provides detailed analyses of the operation of a diverse set of electoral systems in their national context. Each chapter explains how the electoral system really works in the given country, examining the strategic incentives the system provides tovoters, candidates, and parties. All country chapters have a common format and structure. Successive sections analyse: the institutional context; how each electoral system was chosen historically; how the current electoral system operates (the rules, mechanics, and ballot structure); and the political consequences of the current system (the impact on the party system, the internal life of parties, and the impact on parliament and government formation). Each country chapter then contains a final section which focuses on the politicization of electoral institutions. In recent years many countries have changed their electoral systems, either entirely or in part so there is a strong focus on the processes of electoral reform, both historically and prospectively. The book concentrates on the real world 'politics', as well as the 'political science' of electoral systems. The book will be of interest to those concerned with the practical political business of electoral reform. The bookcontains a wealth of evidence about the performance of various kinds of proportional representation and of non-PR systems. This will be invaluable for anyone interested in the question: 'What would be the best electoral system for my country?'

The Third Electoral System, 1853-1892

Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures

Author: Paul Kleppner

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 146963953X

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 5494

This analysis of the contours and social bases of mass voting behavior in the United States over the course of the third electoral era, from 1853 to 1892, provides a deep and rich understanding of the ways in which ethnoreligious values shaped party combat in the late nineteenth century. It was this uniquely American mode of "political confessionals" that underlay the distinctive characteristics of the era's electoral universe. In its exploration of the the political roles of native and immigrant ethnic and religious groups, this study bridges the gap between political and social history. The detailed analysis of ethnoreligious experiences, values, and beliefs is integrated into an explanation of the relationship between group political subcultures and partisan preferences which wil be of interest to political sociologists, political scientists, and also political and social historians. Unlike other works of this genre, this book is not confined to a single description of the voting patterns of a single state, or of a series of states in one geographic region, but cuts across states and regions, while remaining sensitive to the enormously significant ways in which political and historical context conditioned mass political behavior. The author accomplishes this remarkable fusion by weaving the small patterns evident in detailed case studies into a larger overview of the electoral system. The result is a unified conceptual framework that can be used to understand both American political behavior duing an important era and the general preconditions of social-group political consciousness. Challenging in major ways the liberal-rational assumptions that have dominated political history, the book provides the foundation for a synthesis of party tactics, organizational practices, public rhetoric, and elite and mass behaviors.

The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements

Author: Donatella della Porta,Mario Diani

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019166782X

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 5959

The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements is an innovative volume that presents a comprehensive exploration of social movement studies, mapping the field and expanding it to examine the recent developments in cognate areas of studies, within and beyond sociology and political science. This volume brings together the most distinguished social and political scientists working in this field, each writing thought-provoking essays in their area of expertise, and facilitates conversations between classic social movement agenda and lines of research. The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements discusses core theoretical perspectives, recent contributions from the field, and how patterns of macro social change may affect social movements, as well as suggesting what contributions social movement studies can give to other research areas in various disciplines.

Citizens, Context, and Choice

How Context Shapes Citizens' Electoral Choices

Author: Russell J. Dalton,Christopher J. Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599238

Category: Political Science

Page: 293

View: 3519

How do institutions and electoral systems matter for citizens' electoral choices? This is the first systematic study that attempts to answer this question for contemporary democracies. The book assembles leading electoral researchers to examine citizen choice in over 30 democracies surveyed by the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems.

The Politics of Electoral Systems

Author: Michael Gallagher,Paul Mitchell

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199257560

Category: Law

Page: 688

View: 2360

Electoral systems matter. They are a crucial link in the chain connecting the preferences of citizens to the policy choices made by governments. They are chosen by political actors and, once in existence, have political consequences for those actors. They are an important object of study for anyone interested in the political process, and in this book we subject them to systematic analysis. In addition to some comparative chapters, the book contains full accounts of the operation of electoral systems in 22 countries: France, the UK, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Ireland, Hungary, Russia, Australia, Canada, India, the USA, Japan, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. The book provides detailed analyses of the operation of a diverse set of electoral systems in their national context. Each chapter explains how the electoral system really works in the given country, examining the strategic incentives the system provides to voters, candidates, and parties. All country chapters have a common format and structure. Successive sections analyse: the institutional context; how each electoral system was chosen historically; how the current electoral system operates (the rules, mechanics, and ballot structure); and the political consequences of the current system (the impact on the party system, the internal life of parties, and the impact on parliament and government formation). Each country chapter then contains a final section which focuses on the politicization of electoral institutions. In recent years many countries have changed their electoral systems, either entirely or in part so there is a strong focus on the processes of electoral reform, both historically and prospectively. The book concentrates on the real world 'politics', as well as the 'political science' of electoral systems. The book will be of interest to those concerned with the practical political business of electoral reform. The book contains a wealth of evidence about the performance of various kinds of proportional representation and of non-PR systems. This will be invaluable for anyone interested in the question: 'What would be the best electoral system for my country?'

Personal Representation

The Neglected Dimension of Electoral Systems

Author: Josep M. Colomer

Publisher: ECPR Press

ISBN: 1907301577

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 5062

Democracy and Elections

Electoral Systems and Their Political Consequences

Author: Vernon Bogdanor,David Butler

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521272827

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 9681

This 1983 book analyses the main electoral systems of modern democracies, and places them in their institutional and historical context. A distinguished group of contributors provide interpretations of the electoral systems of the EEC countries and Japan, and assess how different electoral systems affect the political practice of each country.

A Short History of Electoral Systems in Western Europe (Routledge Library Editions: Political Science Volume 22)

Author: Andrew McLaren Carstairs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135026785

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 725

This book provides a concise and accessible account of the historical experience of European parliaments – why different electoral systems were adopted, how they have functioned, how they have affected the development of political parties, and in what respects they have been found over time to be either suitable or unsatisfactory. The book begins with a summary of the main electoral systems, analysing and re-assessing each in the light of historical experience. The core of the book, however, is a country-by-country account of the systems which have operated in each of the main West European countries, in the context of their own constitutional, political and social developments.

Electoral Systems and Conflict in Divided Societies

Author: Committee on International Conflict Resolution,Andrew Reynolds,Ben Reilly,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309064465

Category: Political Science

Page: 72

View: 4104

This paper is one of a series being prepared for the National Research Council's Committee on International Conflict Resolution. The committee was organized in late 1995 to respond to a growing need for prevention, management, and resolution of violent conflict in the international arena, a concern about the changing nature and context of such conflict in the post-Cold War era, and a recent expansion of knowledge in the field. The committee's main goal is to advance the practice of conflict resolution by using the methods and critical attitude of science to examine the effectiveness of various techniques and concepts that have been advanced for preventing, managing, and resolving international conflicts. The committee's research agenda has been designed to supplement the work of other groups, particularly the Carnegie Corporation of New York's Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, which issued its final report in December 1997. The committee has identified a number of specific techniques and concepts of current interest to policy practitioners and has asked leading specialists on each one to carefully review and analyze available knowledge and to summarize what is known about the conditions under which each is or is not effective. These papers present the results of their work.

Mixed Electoral Systems

Contamination and its Consequences

Author: F. Ferrara,E. Herron,M. Nishikawa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1403978859

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 7741

Using election returns, public opinion surveys, and legislative roll-call data from many mixed systems in every world region, the authors show that contamination systematically affects party strategy, voting behaviour, legislative cohesion and overall structure of partisan competition.

Split-Ticket Voting in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems

A Theoretical and Methodological Investigation

Author: Carolina Plescia

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781785522598

Category: Political Science

Page: 172

View: 9569

This book relaxes common assumptions in the voting behaviour literature to provide an in-depth study of split-ticket voting across ten established and non-established democracies. It proposes an original framework and combines a theoretical investigation with a purely methodological analysis to test the reliability of the predictive models. The broader picture that emerges is the one of a 'simple' voter with 'sophisticated' preferences. Parties still function as the principal cue for voting, but voters appear sophisticated in that they often like more than one party or choose candidates regardless of their party affiliation. Despite mixed-member systems being one of the most complicated electoral systems of all, there is no evidence supporting the conclusion that voters are not able to cope with the complexity of the electoral rules.

Faces on the Ballot

The Personalization of Electoral Systems in Europe

Author: Deputy Director of the Constitution Unit Department of Political Science Alan Renwick,Jean-benoit Pilet

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199685045

Category: Elections

Page: 304

View: 9709

One of the key shifts in contemporary politics is the trend towards greater personalization. Collective actors such as political parties are losing relevance. Citizens are slowly dealigning from these actors, and individual politicians are therefore growing in importance in elections, in government, within parties, and in media reporting of politics. A crucial question concerns how this new pattern could be restructuring politics over the long run - notably, whether the personalization of politics is changing the institutional architecture of contemporary democracies. The authors show that the trend towards personalization is indeed changing core democratic institutions. Studying the evolution of electoral systems in thirty-one European democracies since 1945, they demonstrate that, since the 1990s, there has been a shift towards more personalized electoral systems. Electoral systems in most European countries now allow voters to express preferences for candidates, not just for political parties. And the weight of these voters' preferences in the allocation of seats has been increased in numerous countries. They examine the factors that appear to be driving this evolution, finding that the personalization of electoral systems is associated with the growing gap between citizens and politics. Politicians and legislators appear to perceive the personalization of electoral systems as a way to address the democratic malaise and to restore trust in politics by reducing the role of political parties in elections. The book also shows, however, that whether these reforms have had any success in achieving their aims is far less clear. Comparative Politics is a series for students, teachers, and researchers of political science that deals with contemporary government and politics. Global in scope, books in the series are characterised by a stress on comparative analysis and strong methodological rigour. The series is published in association with the European Consortium for Political Research. For more information visit: www.ecprnet.eu. The Comparative Politics series is edited by Emilie van Haute, Professor of Political Science, Universite libre de Bruxelles; Ferdinand Muller-Rommel, Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University; and Susan Scarrow, Chair of the Department of Political Science, University of Houston.

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