Search Results: electoral-systems-and-political-context

Electoral Systems and Political Context

How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies

Author: Robert G. Moser,Ethan Scheiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107025427

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 3424

This book highlights how new and established democracies differ from one another in the effects of their electoral rules.

The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Systems

Author: Erik S. Herron,Robert J. Pekkanen,Matthew S. Shugart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190258659

Category: Political Science

Page: 1016

View: 4553

Machine generated contents note: -- 1. Terminology and Basic Rules of Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Robert J. Pekkanen, and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part I. Foundations of Electoral Systems -- 2. Dimensions of Variation in Electoral Systems -- Michael Gallagher and Paul Mitchell -- 3. Electoral System Effects on Party Systems -- Matthew S. Shugart and Rein Taagepera -- 4. Party System Effects on Electoral Systems -- Josep M. Colomer -- 5. Electoral System Design in New Democracies -- John M. Carey -- 6. Electoral System Change -- Alan Renwick -- Part II. Issues and Representation -- 7. Social Diversity, Electoral Systems, and the Party System -- Robert Moser, Ethan Scheiner, and Heather Stoll -- 8. Electoral Systems and Ethnic Minority Representation -- David Lublin and Shaun Bowler -- 9. Electoral Systems and Women's Representation -- Mona Lena Krook -- 10. Electoral Systems and Voter Turnout -- Daniel M. Smith -- 11. Electoral Systems and Citizen-Elite Ideological Congruence -- Matthew Golder and Benjamin Ferland -- 12. Electoral Systems and Issue Polarization -- James F. Adams and Nathan J. Rexford -- Part III. Electoral Systems and the Wider Political System -- 13. Portfolio-maximizing Strategic Voting in Parliamentary Elections -- Gary W. Cox -- 14. Presidential and Legislative Elections -- Mark P. Jones -- 15. Electoral Systems and Legislative Organization -- Shane Martin -- 16. Electoral Systems and Roles in the Legislative Arena -- Audrey André and Sam Depauw -- 17. Electoral Systems and Constituency Service -- Brian F. Crisp and William M. Simoneau -- 18. Direct Democracy and Referendums -- Matt Qvortrup -- 19. Electoral Systems in Authoritarian States -- Jennifer Gandhi and Abigail L. Heller -- Part IV. Electoral Systems and Research Design -- 20. Election Data and Levels of Analysis -- Ken Kollman -- 21. Experimental Research Design in the Study of Electoral Systems -- Joshua Tucker and Dominik Duell -- 22. Reconciling Approaches in the Study of Mixed-Member Electoral Systems -- Erik S. Herron, Kuniaki Nemoto, and Misa Nishikawa -- Part V. Holding Elections -- 23. Election Administration -- Thad E. Hall -- 24. Electoral Systems and Electoral Integrity -- Pippa Norris -- 25. Electoral Systems and Redistricting -- Lisa Handley -- 26. Electoral Systems and Campaign Finance -- Joel W. Johnson -- Part VI. Electoral Systems in Context -- 27. Electoral Systems in Context: The Netherlands -- Kristof Jacobs -- 28. Electoral Systems in Context: Israel -- Reuven Y. Hazan, Reut Itzkovitch-Malka, and Gideon Rahat -- 29. Electoral Systems in Context: Finland -- Åsa von Schoultz -- 30. Electoral Systems in Context: United Kingdom -- Thomas Carl Lundberg -- 31. Electoral Systems in Context: Ireland -- Michael Marsh -- 32. Electoral Systems in Context: France -- Verónica Hoyo -- 33. Electoral Systems in Context: India -- Adam Ziegfeld -- 34. Electoral Systems in Context: United States -- Steven L. Taylor -- 35. Electoral Systems in Context: Canada -- Louis Massicotte -- 36. Electoral Systems in Context: Australia -- Ian McAllister and Toni Makkai -- 37. Electoral Systems in Context: Germany -- Thomas Zittel -- Part VII. Electoral Systems in the Context of Reform -- 38. Electoral Systems in Context: New Zealand -- Jack Vowles -- 39. Electoral Systems in Context: Japan -- Kuniaki Nemoto -- 40. Electoral Systems in Context: Italy -- Gianluca Passarelli -- 41. Electoral Systems in Context: Colombia -- Steven L. Taylor and Matthew S. Shugart -- Part VIII. Electoral Systems in the Context of New Democracies -- 42. Electoral Systems in Context: Ukraine -- Erik S. Herron -- 43. Electoral Systems in Context: Indonesia -- Nathan Allen -- 44. Electoral Systems in Context: South Africa -- Karen E. Ferree

Mixed-Member Electoral Systems in Constitutional Context

Taiwan, Japan, and Beyond

Author: Nathan F Batto,Chi Huang,Alexander C Tan,Gary Cox

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472119737

Category: Political Science

Page: 321

View: 7669

Reformers have promoted mixed-member electoral systems as the "best of both worlds." In ibis volume, internationally recognized political scientists evaluate the ways in which the introduction of a mixed-member electoral system affects the configuration of political parties. The contributors examine several political phenomena, including cabinet post allocation, nominations, preelectoral coalitions, split-ticket voting, and the size of party systems and faction systems. Significantly; they also consider various ways in which the constitutional system-especially whether the head of government is elected directly or indirectly-can modify the incentives created by the electoral system. The findings presented here demonstrate that the success of electoral reform depends not only on the specification of new electoral rules per se but also on the political context-and especially the constitutional framework-within which such rules are embedded. Book jacket.

Democracy and Elections

Electoral Systems and Their Political Consequences

Author: Vernon Bogdanor,David Butler

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521272827

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 1567

This 1983 book analyses the main electoral systems of modern democracies, and places them in their institutional and historical context. A distinguished group of contributors provide interpretations of the electoral systems of the EEC countries and Japan, and assess how different electoral systems affect the political practice of each country.

The Politics of Electoral Systems

Author: Michael Gallagher,Paul Mitchell

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199238675

Category: Political Science

Page: 662

View: 4416

Electoral systems matter. They are a crucial link in the chain connecting the preferences of citizens to the policy choices made by governments. They are chosen by political actors and, once in existence, have political consequences for those actors. They are an important object of study for anyone interested in the political process, and in this book we subject them to systematic analysis. In addition to some comparative chapters, the book contains full accounts of the operation of electoral systems in 22 countries: France, the UK, Germany, Italy, Israel, Spain, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Ireland, Hungary, Russia, Australia, Canada, India, the USA, Japan, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. The book provides detailed analyses of the operation of a diverse set of electoral systems in their national context. Each chapter explains how the electoral system really works in the given country, examining the strategic incentives the system provides tovoters, candidates, and parties. All country chapters have a common format and structure. Successive sections analyse: the institutional context; how each electoral system was chosen historically; how the current electoral system operates (the rules, mechanics, and ballot structure); and the political consequences of the current system (the impact on the party system, the internal life of parties, and the impact on parliament and government formation). Each country chapter then contains a final section which focuses on the politicization of electoral institutions. In recent years many countries have changed their electoral systems, either entirely or in part so there is a strong focus on the processes of electoral reform, both historically and prospectively. The book concentrates on the real world 'politics', as well as the 'political science' of electoral systems. The book will be of interest to those concerned with the practical political business of electoral reform. The bookcontains a wealth of evidence about the performance of various kinds of proportional representation and of non-PR systems. This will be invaluable for anyone interested in the question: 'What would be the best electoral system for my country?'

Demokratie oder Anarchie?

Untersuchung über die Verhältniswahl

Author: Ferdinand Aloys Hermens

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322984753

Category: Social Science

Page: 346

View: 3635

Electoral Systems and Voting in the United Kingdom

Author: Chris Robinson

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748631542

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 2926

A key feature of the New Labour government's constitutional reform agenda has been the introduction of a number of alternative methods of voting for both existing elections and for those to new political institutions. This book examines the workings of these various systems of elections, looking specifically at how they operate within the United Kingdom and their direct impact on representation and governance. It also considers voting behaviour in the UK, with reference to the context of the electoral system being used. In conclusion there is an attempt to discover the extent to which the introduction and operation of different electoral systems has affected voter behaviour.

Der Abgeordnete im parlamentarischen Regierungssystem der Bundesrepublik

Author: Carl-Christoph Schweitzer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322852814

Category: Social Science

Page: 310

View: 6554

Voting Behavior in Europe

A Comparative Analysis of Electoral Participation and Party Choice

Author: Erik Oppenhuis

Publisher: Het Spinhuis

ISBN: 9789055890248

Category: Elections

Page: 245

View: 972

Comparing Democracies

Elections and Voting in a Changing World

Author: Lawrence LeDuc,Richard G Niemi,Pippa Norris

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473905087

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 5620

This book provides you with a theoretical and comparative understanding of the major topics related to elections and voting behaviour. It explores important work taking place on new areas, whilst at the same time covering the key themes that you’ll encounter throughout your studies. Edited by three leading figures in the field, the new edition brings together an impressive range of contributors and draws on a range of cases and examples from across the world. It now includes: New chapters on authoritarian elections and regime change, and electoral integrity A chapter dedicated to voting behaviour Increased emphasis on issues relating to the economy. Comparing Democracies, Fourth Edition will remain a must-read for students and lecturers of elections and voting behaviour, comparative politics, parties, and democracy.

Electoral Systems and Democracy

Author: Larry Diamond,Marc F. Plattner

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801884757

Category: Political Science

Page: 245

View: 9850

As the number of democracies has increased around the world, a heated debate has emerged among political scientists about which system best promotes the consolidation of democracy. This book compares the experiences of diverse countries, from Latin America to southern Africa, from Uruguay, Japan, and Taiwan to Israel, Afghanistan, and Iraq.

Betrachtungen über die Repräsentativregierung

Author: John Stuart Mill

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518735179

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 9797

Die anhaltende Diskussion um die »Krise des Parlamentarismus« zeigt, dass die normative Begründung und systematische Bestimmung von Parlamentsfunktionen und demokratischer Öffentlichkeit von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Zukunft der repräsentativen Demokratie ist. Das Problem ist aber nicht neu, wie John Stuart Mills klassischer Text zeigt. Er kreist um die Frage, wie sich die Gefahr einer »Tyrannei der Mehrheit« mit den Partizipationsanforderungen demokratischen Regierens versöhnen lässt. Mill begründet darin u. a. ein deliberatives Verständnis von Politik und erörtert die Gefahren einer bürokratischen Strangulierung politischer Freiheit. Ein Schlüsselwerk der Demokratietheorie und Parlamentarismusforschung.

A Short History of Electoral Systems in Western Europe (Routledge Library Editions: Political Science Volume 22)

Author: Andrew McLaren Carstairs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135026785

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 9359

This book provides a concise and accessible account of the historical experience of European parliaments – why different electoral systems were adopted, how they have functioned, how they have affected the development of political parties, and in what respects they have been found over time to be either suitable or unsatisfactory. The book begins with a summary of the main electoral systems, analysing and re-assessing each in the light of historical experience. The core of the book, however, is a country-by-country account of the systems which have operated in each of the main West European countries, in the context of their own constitutional, political and social developments.

Parties and Party Systems

Structure and Context

Author: Richard Johnston,Campbell Sharman

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774829583

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5829

Party systems. Party organization. For too long, scholars researching in these two areas have worked in isolation. This book bridges the divide by bringing together political scientists from both traditions to examine the intersection of rules, society, and the organization of parties within party systems. Blending theory and case studies, Parties and Party Systems builds upon the work of R. Kenneth Carty to examine how parties weather the organizational challenge of appealing to a dispersed membership while maintaining a degree of central direction. This volume will provoke theoretical reconsideration and inspire research at the organization-system nexus.

The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies

Author: Shane Martin,Thomas Saalfeld,Kaare W. Strøm

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191019070

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 870

Legislatures are political bodies essential to democracy and the rule of law. They present social scientists with numerous intriguing puzzles, with far-reaching implications for our understanding of political institutions. Why, and how, have these ancient assemblies, established in pre-democratic times, survived the transition to mass democracies? How have they adapted? How do they structure such processes as budgeting, legislation, and executive oversight? How do their members get selected, and what consequences flow from differences in these rules? What roles do committees and political parties play in contemporary legislatures? What functions do legislatures perform in autocratic, semi-democratic or recently democratized societies? What explains the similarities and differences in legislative rules, powers and recruitment? What are the policy and other consequences of variation in how legislatures are organized and function? The 33 chapters in The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies, written by 47 of the most distinguished legislative scholars, provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description and assessment of the state of the art in legislative studies. Key themes explored include theoretical paradigms and methodological approaches to the study of legislatures, representation and legislative careers, internal organization, the role of parties within legislatures and the role of legislatures in policy making and accountability. The Handbook also explores the emergence of parliaments in historical and contemporary contexts, including new democracies and trans-national institutions.

When a State Turns on its Citizens

60 Years of Institutionalised Violence in Zimbabwe

Author: Lloyd Sachikonye

Publisher: African Books Collective

ISBN: 1779221649

Category: History

Page: 121

View: 6153

Lloyd Sachikonye traces the roots of Zimbabwe's contemporary violence to the actions of the Rhodesian armed forces, and the inter-party conflicts that occurred during the liberation war. His focus, however, is the period since 2000, which has seen state-sponsored violence erupting in election campaigns and throughout the programme of fast-track land reform. The consequences of this violence run wide and deep. Aside from inflicting trauma and fear on its victims, the impunity enjoyed by its perpetrators has helped to mould a culture within which personal freedoms and dreams are strangled. At a broader social level, it is responsible - both directly and indirectly - for millions of Zimbabweans voting with their feet and heading for the diaspora. Such a migration 'cannot simply be explained in terms of the search for greener economic pastures. Escape from authoritarianism, violence, trauma and fear is a large factor behind the exodus.' Sachikonye concludes that any future quest for justice and reconciliation will depend on the country facing up to the truth about the violence and hatred that have infected its past and present.

Citizens, Context, and Choice

How Context Shapes Citizens' Electoral Choices

Author: Russell J. Dalton,Christopher J. Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599238

Category: Political Science

Page: 293

View: 3008

How do institutions and electoral systems matter for citizens' electoral choices? This is the first systematic study that attempts to answer this question for contemporary democracies. The book assembles leading electoral researchers to examine citizen choice in over 30 democracies surveyed by the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems.

Elections in Australia, Ireland, and Malta Under the Single Transferable Vote

Reflections on an Embedded Institution

Author: Shaun Bowler,Bernard Grofman

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472111596

Category: Political Science

Page: 293

View: 516

Provides the first systematic cross-national look at the operation of the Single Transferable Vote electoral system

Fair and Effective Representation?

Debating Electoral Reform and Minority Rights

Author: Mark E. Rush,Richard Lee Engstrom

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847692125

Category: Political Science

Page: 189

View: 4203

Two experts on political representation, voting rights, and the election process debate the most pertinent issues of electoral reform and assess them in the context of the Founders' vision of representation and minority rights. Mark E. Rush and Richard L. Engstrom discuss the promises and pitfalls of electoral reform--specifically, the merits of converting from the traditional single-member district to some form of proportional representation. The authors examine the shortcomings of the existing methods of elections (such as gerrymandering, low turnout, voter apathy, and underrepresentation of minorities and women), debate the merits of converting to proportional representation, ask whether it would address the imperfections of the current system, and investigate the extent to which proportional representation adheres to the Founders' (particularly Madison's) plan for representation. With an introduction by esteemed political scientist Bruce E. Cain, this is an essential text for courses in voting rights and behavior, elections, and American political thought.

The Political Economy of Government Auditing

Financial Governance and the Rule of Law in Latin America and Beyond

Author: Carlos Santiso

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134021534

Category: Law

Page: 208

View: 3549

The Political Economy of Government Auditing addresses the elusive quest for greater transparency and accountability in the management of public finances in emerging economies; and, more specifically, it examines the contribution of autonomous audit agencies (AAAs) to the fight against corruption and waste. Whilst the role of audit agencies in curbing corruption is increasingly acknowledged, there exists little comparative work on their institutional effectiveness. Addressing the performance of AAAs in emerging economies, Carlos Santiso pursues a political economy perspective that addresses the context in which audit agencies are embedded, and the governance factors that make them work or fail. Here, the cases of Argentina, Brazil and Chile are examined, as they illustrate the three – parliamentary, court and independent – models of AAAs in modern states, and their three distinct trajectories of reform, or lack of reform. Beyond Latin America, considerations on the reform of government auditing in other countries, developed and developing are also taken up as, it is argued, while institutional arrangements for government auditing matter, political factors ultimately determine the effectiveness of AAAs. Reforming AAAs, it is concluded, must consider the trajectory of state building, the role of law in public administration and the quality of governance. An important contribution to the comparative study of governance institutions, and especially those tasked with overseeing the budget and curbing corruption, The Political Economy of Government Auditing will be of interest to scholars and students of comparative politics, development studies, administrative law, and public finance; as well as to development practitioners and policy-makers in developing countries, donor governments and international institutions.

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