Challenges in the Twenty First Century
Author: Donald Hon. Shelton, Chief Judge
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the legal system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal issues, then examines the strengths and limitations of various kinds of forensic science, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Case studies illustrate the issues and their application in depth.
The Role of the Expert Witness
Author: Wilson Wall
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Forensic Science in Court: The Role of the Expert Witness is a practical handbook aimed at forensic science students, to help them prepare as an expert witness when presenting their evidence in court. Written in a clear, accessible manner, the book guides the student through the legal process and shows them how to handle evidence, write reports without ambiguity through to the more practical aspects of what to do when appearing in court. The book also offers advice on what to expect when working with lawyers in a courtroom situation. An essential text for all students taking forensic science courses who are required to take modules on how to present their evidence in court. The book is also an invaluable reference for any scientist requested to give an opinion in a legal context. · Integrates law and science in an easy to understand format · Inclusion of case studies throughout · Includes straightforward statistics essential for the forensic science student · An invaluable, practical textbook for anyone appearing as an expert witness in court · Unique in its approach aimed at forensic science students in a courtroom environment
The Essentials of Forensic Science
Author: Peter C White
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Forensic science has been variously described as fascinating, challenging and even frightening. If you have only a vague concept of what forensic science is, this book will provide the answer. Aimed at non-scientists, or those with limited scientific knowledge, Crime Scene to Court covers all three main areas of an investigation where forensic science is practised, namely the scene of the crime, the forensic laboratory and the court. Coverage includes details of how crime scene and forensic examinations are conducted in the United Kingdom, the principles of crime scene investigations and the importance of this work in an investigation, and courtroom procedures and the role of the expert witness. The latest methods and techniques used in crime scene investigation and forensic laboratories are reported, cases are presented to illustrate why and how examinations are performed to generate forensic evidence and there is a bibliography for each chapter which provides further material for those readers wishing to delve deeper into the subject. This revised and updated edition also includes coverage on changes in professional requirements, the latest developments in DNA testing and two new chapters on computer based crimes and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Ideal for those studying forensic science or law, the book is intended primarily for teaching and training purposes. However, anyone with a role in an investigation, for example police, crime scene investigators or indeed those called for jury service, will find this text an excellent source of information.
Evaluating Forensic Science in the Courtroom
Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.
Evaluation and Scientific Opinion
Author: Craig D. Adam
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.
Author: Panagiotis Kanellis,Evangelos Kiountouzis,Nicholas Kolokotronis
Publisher: IGI Global
"Digital forensics is the science of collecting the evidence that can be used in a court of law to prosecute the individuals who engage in electronic crime"--Provided by publisher.
The Essentials of Forensic Science
Author: Peter White
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Keeping readers at the forefront of current practices across the forensic disciplines, this fourth edition is an excellent source of information for anyone studying forensic science or law.
Caring for Patients, Preserving the Evidence
Author: Connie Darnell
Publisher: CRC Press
First responders confronted by forensic cases are forced to consider the competing concerns of administering proper medical treatment while at the same time safeguarding vital evidence. Forensic Science in Healthcare: Caring for Patients, Preserving the Evidence presents precise on-scene protocol designed to ensure that the actions of the response team provide the necessary care and yet maintain the integrity of the evidence for legal purposes. Following an introduction to forensics, the book explains how to recognize and identify patients with forensic issues, offers guidelines on proper documentation, and provides tips on forensic photography and capturing critical images. It reviews basic principles of evidence collection before moving into specific case scenarios, including domestic violence, sexual assault, child and elder abuse, youth violence, and death investigation. The book also examines occupational concerns for forensic personnel as well as legal issues such as testifying in depositions and in court. Enhanced with photographs, illustrations, templates for documentation, and case-specific recommendations, this one-stop reference provides first responders with practical understanding of the steps that should be followed to ensure not only patient protection but evidence preservation.
Author: Henry C. Lee,Howard A. Harris
Publisher: Lawyers & Judges Publishing
This new edition of the classic by America's leading forensic scientists gives you an insider's understanding of physical evidence at the crime scene.Written in an easy-to-understand format, this outstanding guide, by the nation's foremost forensic scientists, introduces you to the basics of crime scene evaluation. They teach you excellent ways to make your investigation solid and successful. This extensive resource is packed with valuable information about the details of collecting, storing, and analyzing all types of physical evidence. You'll learn how to connect the victim(s) and suspect(s) to the crime scene, and to the physical evidence left behind. They also instruct you on how to use this information to provide convincing testimony based on scientific facts.The book is divided into three parts plus appendices for easy access to the information you need. Part I offers an overview of forensic science and discusses the future path of forensic science and its applications in the courtroom and society. Part II gives you an exhaustive list of physical evidence typically left behind at crime scenes and explains the correct methods for processing this evidence. Part III discusses current issues in search and seizure, and how to effectively utilize it in court. The appendices discuss common blood screening test reagents and how to use the druggist's fold for sealing evidence in paper.This in-depth reference provides you with a wealth of details regarding many different topics including light, smoke, bullet identification, transient and pattern evidence, postmortem lividity marks and other special imprints and indentations, odors, wet versus dry blood samples, crime scene reconstruction techniques, and recognition and coordination of all elements of the crime scene during and after investigation.This new edition of a classic is a must have for all crime scene investigators, law enforcement agencies, trial lawyers, and others involved in the investigative process.
Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition
Author: Terrence F. Kiely
Publisher: CRC Press
One of the greatest challenges encountered by those in the forensic sciences is anticipating what the state and federal courts will – or will not – allow as valid physical evidence. With this in mind, the author of Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition analyzes and explains the judicial system’s response to the applicability of forensic science in the investigation, prosecution, and defense of criminal activity. Each chapter of this comprehensive yet accessible resource provides an overview and analysis of the scientific and legal aspects of a particular forensic discipline. An important new feature of this second edition is that each chapter focuses on discussions of recent forensics literature reviews from Interpol’s 14th Annual Forensic Science Symposium. This latest edition also updates previously discussed cases and presents the most recent applications of the Frye and Daubert standards, the admissibility of eyewitness identification, the upsurge of cases and statutes that involve post-conviction DNA, and the increased interest in re-examining cold cases. As challenges to forensic evidence become increasingly rigorous, so does the need for intense preparation. Forensic Evidence: Science and the Criminal Law, Second Edition is the book that those in the forensic sciences need to have on hand to successfully prepare for what may await them in the courtroom.
Author: Danielle S. Sapse
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
Forensic science has made huge advances in recent years, leading to the solving of crimes that previously would have remained in the dark. Offering examples of cases that represent landmarks in types of evidence being considered admissible or not, as well as cases solved by the use of scientific methods, this handbook is ideal for students interested in a law career, or those intrigued by the forensic science methods used today.
The Challenges of Forensic Laboratories and the Medico-Legal Investigation System
Author: Kelly Pyrek
Forensic science laboratories' reputations have increasingly come under fire. Incidents of tainted evidence, false reports, allegations of negligence, scientifically flawed testimony, or - worse yet - perjury in in-court testimony, have all served to cast a shadow over the forensic sciences. Instances of each are just a few of the quality-related charges made in the last few years. Forensic Science Under Siege is the first book to integrate and explain these problematic trends in forensic science. The issues are timely, and are approached from an investigatory, yet scholarly and research-driven, perspective. Leading experts are consulted and interviewed, including directors of highly visible forensic laboratories, as well as medical examiners and coroners who are commandeering the discussions related to these issues. Interviewees include Henry Lee, Richard Saferstein, Cyril Wecht, and many others. The ultimate consequences of all these pressures, as well as the future of forensic science, has yet to be determined. This book examines these challenges, while also exploring possible solutions (such as the formation of a forensic science consortium to address specific legislative issues). It is a must-read for all forensic scientists. Provides insight on the current state of forensic science, demands, and future direction as provided by leading experts in the field Consolidates the current state of standards and best-practices of labs across disciplines Discusses a controversial topic that must be addressed for political support and financial funding of forensic science to improve
Author: Andy Williams
Category: Social Science
This text provides an examination of the aetiological development of forensic criminology in the UK. It links the subjects of scientific criminology, criminal investigations, crime scene investigation, forensic science and the legal system and it provides an introduction to the important processes that take place between the crime scene and the courtroom. These processes help identify, define and label the ‘criminal’ and are crucial for understanding any form of crime within society. The book includes sections on: • the epistemological and ontological philosophies of the natural sciences; • the birth of scientific criminology and its search for the criminal ‘body’; • the development of early forms of forensic science and crime scene investigation; • investigating crime; • information, material and evidence; • crime analysis and crime mapping; • scientific support and crime scene examination; and • forensic science and detection methods and forensics in the courtroom. The text combines coverage of historical research and contemporary criminal justice processes and provides an introduction to the most common forensic practices, procedures and uses that enable the identification and successful prosecution of criminals. Forensic Criminology is essential for students of criminology, criminal justice, criminal investigations and crime science. It is also useful to those criminal justice practitioners wishing to gain a more in-depth understanding of the links between criminology, criminal investigations and forensics techniques.
Author: Nicholas Petraco
Publisher: CRC Press
In the wake of the Daubert ruling, the use of forensic toolmark evidence in court has been problematic, in that the conclusions of forensic scientists as to toolmark origin often lack scientifically sound statistical proof. In the Color Atlas of Forensic Toolmark Identification, noted forensic expert Nicholas Petraco helps move toolmark examination from an art to a science. The first part of the book contains an anthology of tried and true methods, procedures, and traditional techniques used by practitioners of this discipline for over a century. It contains rationales and methodologies for casework, discussion of the use of new materials and techniques for preparation of known standards, and the application of various methods of statistical proof to further establish toolmark examination as a sound scientific endeavor. The second section contains a compilation of commonly used hand tools and the marks they typically produce. Provides clear instruction on how to: Use lenses and microscopes to view images of toolmarks Make accurate and precise measurements of tools on macroscopic and microscopic scales Properly photograph toolmark evidence Compare a subject tool with the questioned toolmarks to determine toolmark origin Examines marks made by a range of tools, including: Screwdrivers Crowbars and prybars Handsaws Hammers Hatchets and Axes Wrenches Vise grips Pliers Wire cutters Metal snips Crimping tools Knives and scissors Chisels and punches Drill bits More than 400 color photos enhance the text, and numerous case studies describe evidence found and conclusions drawn from the evidence. This unique atlas empowers law enforcement professionals to capture the evidence they need to solve the case. About the Author Nicholas Petraco earned a B.S. in chemistry and an M.S. in forensic science from John Jay College of Criminal Justice, the City University of New York. He served as a detective/criminalist at New York City’s Police Laboratory from 1968 to 1990 and held the position of senior forensic microscopist of the laboratory’s trace section between 1982 and 1990, when he became a private forensic consultant. Mr. Petraco has helped educate thousands of forensic scientists, worked on more than 5000 death investigations on behalf of prosecution and defense attorneys, and testified as an expert in more than 500 trials conducted in local, state, and federal criminal and civil courts.
Author: Jim Fraser,Robin Williams
Forensic science has become increasingly important within contemporary criminal justice, from criminal investigation through to courtroom deliberations, and an increasing number of agencies and individuals are having to engage with its contribution to contemporary justice. This Handbook aims to provide an authoritative map of the landscape of forensic science within the criminal justice system of the UK. It sets out the essential features of the subject, covering the disciplinary, technological, organizational and legislative resources that are brought together to make up contemporary forensic science practice. It is the first full-length publication which reviews forensic science in a wider political, economic, social, technological and legal context, identifying emerging themes on the current status and potential future of forensic science as part of the criminal justice system. With contributions from many of the leading authorities in the field it will be essential reading for both students and practitioners.
Consensus and Controversy
Author: Jennifer L. Skeem,Kevin S. Douglas,Scott O. Lilienfeld
Publisher: Guilford Press
This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.
British beginnings in the twentieth century
Author: Alison Adam
Category: Social Science
How and when did forensic science originate in the UK? This question demands our attention because our understanding of present-day forensic science is vastly enriched through gaining an appreciation of what went before. A History of Forensic Science is the first book to consider the wide spectrum of influences which went into creating the discipline in Britain in the first part of the twentieth century. This book offers a history of the development of forensic sciences, centred on the UK, but with consideration of continental and colonial influences, from around 1880 to approximately 1940. This period was central to the formation of a separate discipline of forensic science with a distinct professional identity and this book charts the strategies of the new forensic scientists to gain an authoritative voice in the courtroom and to forge a professional identity in the space between forensic medicine, scientific policing, and independent expert witnessing. In so doing, it improves our understanding of how forensic science developed as it did. This book is essential reading for academics and students engaged in the study of criminology, the history of forensic science, science and technology studies and the history of policing.
Forensic Science and Crime
Author: Scott Christianson
Publisher: Globe Pequot
From the crime scene to the courtroom, forensic science has revolutionized detective investigation over the past seventy years. Today, forensic science is an essential part of the prosecution process, with many convictions being secured solely on forensic evidence. Bodies of Evidence looks in detail at the development and evolution of forensic science and discusses it in relation to real CSIs (crime scene investigations), forensic laboratories, and the court of law. Author Scott Christianson reviews the emergence of forensic science in the 1930s and shows how forensic scientists investigate the crime scene today, including analysis of murder weapons, bloodstain patterns, and the position of the body, allowing police to form a picture of what really happened. He describes the methods used to collect this evidence and how strict procedures are followed to avoid any dispute in court. He also focuses on forensic pathology, detailing how technology allows detectives to pinpoint the time and cause of death and how unknown victims can be identified. Bodies of Evidence follows forensic science to the courtroom, describing how it is called upon in trials. Each section of the book features famous case studies in which forensic science was used in a criminal prosecution or defense, such as the trials of O. J. Simpson and Timothy McVeigh. Bodies of Evidence is a fascinating look into modern detection methods, and explores how clues are gathered and used to bring criminals to justice.
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science
Publisher: National Academies Press
Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.