Search Results: four-crises-and-a-peace-process

Four Crises and a Peace Process

American Engagement in South Asia

Author: P.R. Chari,Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema,Stephen P. Cohen

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815713869

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 5128

India and Pakistan, nuclear neighbors and rivals, fought the last of three major wars in 1971. Far from peaceful, however, the period since then has been "one long crisis, punctuated by periods of peace." The long-disputed Kashmir issue continues to be both a cause and consequence of India-Pakistan hostility. Four Crises and a Peace Process focuses on four contained conflicts on the subcontinent: the Brasstacks Crisis of 1986–1987, the Compound Crisis of 1990, the Kargil Conflict of 1999, and the Border Confrontation of 2001–2002. Authors P.R. Chari, Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, and Brookings senior fellow Stephen P. Cohen explain the underlying causes of these crises, their consequences, the lessons that can be learned, and the American role in each. The four crises are notable because any one of them could have escalated to a large-scale conflict, or even all-out war, and three took place after India and Pakistan had gone nuclear. Looking for larger trends of peace and conflict in the region, the authors consider these incidents as cases of attempted conflict resolution, as instances of limited war by nuclear-armed nations, and as examples of intervention and engagement by the United States and China. They analyze the reactions of Indian, Pakistani, and international media and assess the two countries' decision-making processes. Fo ur Crises and a Peace Process explains how these crises have affected regional and international policy and evaluates the prospects for lasting peace in South Asia.

India-Pakistan Negotiations

Is Past Still Prologue?

Author: Dennis Kux

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781929223879

Category: Political Science

Page: 87

View: 7175

This book provides a historical and current review of the trends of six key India-Pakistan negotiations, largely over shared resources and political boundaries.

Shooting for a Century

The India-Pakistan Conundrum

Author: Stephen P. Cohen

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815721862

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 5467

"Examines the antagonistic relationship between India and Pakistan and the territorial and identity issues that have divided them for sixty-five years, and possibly the next thirty-five, and offers ways the tension between the two might be ameliorated ifnot solved, including a more active role for the United States"--Provided by publisher.

Present Dangers

Crisis and Opportunity in America s Foreign and Defense Policy

Author: Robert Kagan,William Kristol

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 1594037809

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 4728

This original collection of essays offers hope to those who believe that the cause of world peace requires a new American foreign policy and repairing our depleted military. The twelve contributors to this book show why America must take another look at our possible adversaries and real strategic partners. Present Dangers offers practical strategies for policymakers eager to disarm adversaries like North Korea and Iraq and head off the terrorist threat. Intellectuals, historians and policy-makers such as James Ceasar, Ross Munro, Peter Rodman, Richard Perle, Reuel Marc Gerecht, Nicholas Eberstadt, Jeffrey Gedmin, Aaron Friedberg, Elliott Abrams, Frederick Kagan, Willliam Schneider, William Bennett, Paul Wolfowitz, and Donald Kagan all challenge America to make sure that foreign affairs, a sleeping issue for the last eight years, gets a wake-up call in election year 2000. Table of contents, notes, bibliographic essay.

The Crisis in Kashmir

Portents of War, Hopes of Peace

Author: Šumit Ganguly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521655668

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 9333

This book traces the origins of the insurgency in Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir. The first theoretically-grounded account, and the most complete, it is based on extensive interviews. Ganguly's central argument is that the insurgency can be explained by political mobilization and institutional decay. In an attempt to woo the Muslims, the government dramatically expanded literacy, mass media, and higher education. Meanwhile, fearing potential secessionist proclivities, it stifled the development of political institutions. Unable to express dissent in an institutional context, the Kashmiris resorted to violence.

Jordanians, Palestinians, & the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East Peace Process

Author: Adnan Abu Odeh

Publisher: United States Inst of Peace Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Current Events

Page: 322

View: 3143

The complex, often uneasy, relationship between Transjordanians and Palestinians has profoundly influenced not only Jordan but also the entire Middle East peace process. At different times, Jordan's Hashemite royalty has sought to accommodate, embrace, exclude, or cooperate with the Palestinians and the PLO, and the impact of these efforts has been felt throughout the region. Today, Jordan has signed a peace treaty with Israel, and Palestinians account for over half of the Jordanian population--yet the dynamic relationship between the regime and its Transjordanian and Palestinians citizens still arouses powerful sentiments at home and can send shock waves through the West Bank and Israel. Abu-Odeh explores this relationship from its origins in the 1920s to the very latest attempts to cope with competing national identities and to sustain a peace process.

Liberal Leviathan

The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order

Author: G. John Ikenberry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691156174

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 8691

In the second half of the twentieth century, the United States engaged in the most ambitious and far-reaching liberal order building the world had yet seen. This liberal international order has been one of the most successful in history in providing security and prosperity to more people. But in the last decade, the American-led order has been troubled. Some argue that the Bush administration, with its war on terror, invasion of Iraq, and unilateral orientation, undermined this liberal order. Others argue that we are witnessing the end of the American era. Liberal Leviathan engages these debates. G. John Ikenberry argues that the crisis that besets the American-led order is a crisis of authority. A political struggle has been ignited over the distribution of roles, rights, and authority within the liberal international order. But the deeper logic of liberal order remains alive and well. The forces that have triggered this crisis--the rise of non-Western states such as China, contested norms of sovereignty, and the deepening of economic and security interdependence--have resulted from the successful functioning and expansion of the postwar liberal order, not its breakdown. The liberal international order has encountered crises in the past and evolved as a result. It will do so again. Ikenberry provides the most systematic statement yet about the theory and practice of the liberal international order, and a forceful message for policymakers, scholars, and general readers about why America must renegotiate its relationship with the rest of the world and pursue a more enlightened strategy--that of the liberal leviathan.

The Idea of Pakistan

Author: Stephen P. Cohen

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815797616

Category: History

Page: 367

View: 827

In recent years Pakistan has emerged as a strategic player on the world stage—both as a potential rogue state armed with nuclear weapons and as an American ally in the war against terrorism. But our understanding of this country is superficial. To probe beyond the headlines, Stephen Cohen, author of the prize-winning India: Emerging Power, offers a panoramic portrait of this complex country—from its origins as a homeland for Indian Muslims to a militarydominated state that has experienced uneven economic growth, political chaos, sectarian violence, and several nuclear crises with its much larger neighbor, India. Pakistan's future is uncertain. Can it fulfill its promise of joining the community of nations as a moderate Islamic state, at peace with its neighbors, or could it dissolve completely into a failed state, spewing out terrorists and nuclear weapons in several directions? The Idea of Pakistan will be an essential tool for understanding this critically important country.

The Armed Forces of Pakistan

Author: Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814716335

Category: History

Page: 220

View: 3391

To the north an extended civil war in Afghanistan fueled by arms from Russia and the US. To the west a fundamentalist Islamic region in Iran with links to international terrorism. To the northeast a secessionist guerilla war in Kashmir. To the east, India, with which Pakistan has fought two wars in forty years. In these volatile circumstances, Pakistan’s armed forces continue to play an important role both internally and externally. Since their creation out of the communal violence of partition at the end of WWII, the armed forces of Pakistan have played a central role in the Pakistan state, periodically usurping the civil authority and ruling in its own right. The Armed Forces of Pakistan describes the nature of Pakistan’s defense capabilities and the forces which will shape them in the twenty-first century. It surveys the forces locked in conflict over the nuclear option and examines the three internal pressures Pakistan continues to face—militarization, secularization, and Islamic fundamentalism.

Man in the Shadows

Inside the Middle East Crisis with a Man Who Led the Mossad

Author: Efraim Halevy

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312337728

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 5217

A former director of Israel's Mossad offers insight into the turbulent Middle East from the author's perspective as a secret envoy to multiple prime ministers, revealing the Mossad's intelligence resources about the September 11 attacks while sharing frank recommendations on how to achieve world peace. Reprint. 35,000 first printing.

The Guardians

The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire

Author: Susan Pedersen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190226390

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 3482

Winner of the Cundill Prize in Historical Literature Shortlisted for the Lionel Gelber Prize At the end of the First World War, the Paris Peace Conference saw a battle over the future of empire. The victorious allied powers wanted to annex the Ottoman territories and German colonies they had occupied; Woodrow Wilson and a groundswell of anti-imperialist activism stood in their way. France, Belgium, Japan and the British dominions reluctantly agreed to an Anglo-American proposal to hold and administer those allied conquests under "mandate" from the new League of Nations. In the end, fourteen mandated territories were set up across the Middle East, Africa and the Pacific. Against all odds, these disparate and far-flung territories became the site and the vehicle of global transformation. In this masterful history of the mandates system, Susan Pedersen illuminates the role the League of Nations played in creating the modern world. Tracing the system from its creation in 1920 until its demise in 1939, Pedersen examines its workings from the realm of international diplomacy; the viewpoints of the League's experts and officials; and the arena of local struggles within the territories themselves. Featuring a cast of larger-than-life figures, including Lord Lugard, King Faisal, Chaim Weizmann and Ralph Bunche, the narrative sweeps across the globe-from windswept scrublands along the Orange River to famine-blighted hilltops in Rwanda to Damascus under French bombardment-but always returns to Switzerland and the sometimes vicious battles over ideas of civilization, independence, economic relations, and sovereignty in the Geneva headquarters. As Pedersen shows, although the architects and officials of the mandates system always sought to uphold imperial authority, colonial nationalists, German revisionists, African-American intellectuals and others were able to use the platform Geneva offered to challenge their claims. Amid this cacophony, imperial statesmen began exploring new means - client states, economic concessions - of securing Western hegemony. In the end, the mandate system helped to create the world in which we now live. A riveting work of global history, The Guardians enables us to look back at the League with new eyes, and in doing so, appreciate how complex, multivalent, and consequential this first great experiment in internationalism really was.

Peace Process

American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict since 1967

Author: William B. Quandt

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815703853

Category: History

Page: 535

View: 7151

A Brookings Institution Press and the University of California Press publication Updated through the first term of President George W. Bush, the latest edition of this classic work analyzes how each U.S. president since Lyndon Johnson has dealt with the complex challenge of Arab-Israeli peacemaking. There have been remarkable successes—such as the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty—frustrating failures, and dangerous wars along the way. This book helps to situate the current Middle East crisis in historical context and point to some possible ways out of the impasse between Israelis and Palestinians. Quandt suggests a clear U.S. commitment to a two-state solution—one that would assure Israel of security and peace within the 1967 treaty-established borders, offer the Palestinians an early end to Israeli occupation of Gaza and most of the West Bank, and establish both a Jewish and Arab Jerusalem. Written especially for classroom use, Peace Process is also an invaluable resource for policymakers and anyone interested in this vital region of the world. Praise for previous editions of Peace Process “Clearly written, carefully balanced and comprehensive in scope . . . should prove invaluable to all serious students of American foreign policy.”—New York Times Book Review “A major work, whether judged by the standards of classical diplomatic history or modern political science.”—Foreign Affairs “Provides fresh insights into the complexities of creating the process and defining the substance of American foreign policymaking.”—Survival “While objective to a fault, Quandt writes with an insider's knowledge of policymaking and decisions taken at the highest levels of government.”—Middle East Policy “Both a history and analysis of an evolving relationship between Israel and its Arab opponents.”—Choice “A major contribution to understanding the complexity of U.S. presidents’ handling of the [Arab-Israeli] conflict. It should be compulsory reading for anyone studying the Middle East conflict, peacemaking and conflict resolution.”—Journal of Peace Research

Arming without Aiming

India's Military Modernization

Author: Stephen P. Cohen,Sunil Dasgupta

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815724926

Category: Political Science

Page: 223

View: 1141

India has long been motivated to modernize its military, and it now has the resources. But so far, the drive to rebuild has lacked a critical component—strategic military planning. India's approach of arming without strategic purpose remains viable, however, as it seeks great-power accommodation of its rise and does not want to appear threatening. What should we anticipate from this effort in the future, and what are the likely ramifications? Stephen Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta answer those crucial questions in a book so timely that it reached number two on the nonfiction bestseller list in India. "Two years after the publication of Arming without Aiming, our view is that India's strategic restraint and its consequent institutional arrangement remain in place. We do not want to predict that India's military-strategic restraint will last forever, but we do expect that the deeper problems in Indian defense policy will continue to slow down military modernization."—from the preface to the paperback edition

The Fourth Turning

What the Cycles of History Tell Us About America's Next Rendezvous with Destiny

Author: William Strauss,Neil Howe

Publisher: Three Rivers Press

ISBN: 9780307485052

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 363

This astonishing book will change the way you see the world -- and your place in it. With startling originality, The Fourth Turning illuminates the past, explains the present, and reimagines the future. Most remarkably, it offers an utterly persuasive prophecy about a new American era that will begin just after the millennium. William Strauss and Neil Howe base this vision on a provocative new theory of American history. The authors look back five hundred years and uncover a distinct pattern: Modern history moves in cycles, each one lasting about the length of a long human life, each composed of four eras--or "turnings"--that last about twenty years and that always arrive in the same order. First comes a High, a period of confident expansion as a new order takes root after the old has been swept away. Next comes an Awakening, a time of spiritual exploration and rebellion against the now-established order. Then comes an Unraveling, an increasingly troubled era in which individualism triumphs over crumbling institutions. Last comes a Crisis--the Fourth Turning--when society passes through a great and perilous gate in history. Together, the four turnings comprise history's seasonal rhythm of growth, maturation, entropy, and rebirth. Strauss and Howe locate today's America as midway through an Unraveling, roughly a decade away from the next era of Crisis. In a brilliant analysis of the post-World War II period, they show how generational dynamics are the key to understanding the cycles of American history. They draw vivid portraits of all the modern generations: the can-do G.I.s, the mediating Silent, the values-absorbed Boomers, the pragmatic 13ers, and the child Millennials. Placed in the context of history's long rhythms, the persona and role of each generation become clear--as does the inevitability of the coming Crisis. Whatever your stage of life, The Fourth Turning offers bold predictions about how all of us can prepare, individually and collectively, for America's next rendezvous with destiny.

The Politics of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia

Author: Dr Bhumitra Chakma

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409476413

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 7998

An important and critical re-evaluation of South Asia's post-tests nuclear politics, in contrast to other books, this volume emphasises the political dimension of South Asia's nuclear weapons, explains how the bombs are used as politico-strategic assets rather than pure battlefield weapons and how India and Pakistan utilise them for politico-strategic purposes in an extremely complex and competitive South Asian strategic landscape. Written by a group of perceptive observers of South Asia, this volume evaluates the current state of Indo-Pakistani nuclear deterrents, the challenges that the two countries confront in building their nuclear forces, the post-test nuclear doctrines of the two strategic rivals, the implications of Indo-Pakistani politics for regional cooperation, the role of two systemic actors (USA and China) in the region's nuclear politics and the critical issues of confidence-building and nuclear arms control.

Redeeming Church Conflicts

Turning Crisis Into Compassion and Care

Author: Tara Klena Barthel,David V. Edling,Ken Sande

Publisher: Baker Books

ISBN: 080101428X

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 414

Conflict resolution experts provide leaders and lay people a biblical road map for navigating and redeeming church conflicts.

No Is Not Enough

Resisting Trump's Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need

Author: Naomi Klein

Publisher: Haymarket Books

ISBN: 1608468917

Category: Political Science

Page: 273

View: 3035

A road map to resistance in the Trump era from internationally acclaimed activist and bestselling author Naomi Klein. "This book is a toolkit to help understand how we arrived at this surreal political moment, how to keep it from getting a lot worse, and how, if we keep our heads, we can flip the script and seize the opportunity to make things a whole lot better in a time of urgent need. A toolkit for shock-resistance." --Naomi Klein, from the Preface The election of Donald Trump is a dangerous escalation in a world of cascading crises. Trump's vision--a radical deregulation of the U.S. economy in the interest of corporations, an all-out war on "radical Islamic terrorism," and a sweeping aside of climate science to unleash a domestic fossil fuel frenzy--will generate wave after wave of crises and shocks, to the economy, to national security, to the environment. In No Is Not Enough, Naomi Klein explains that Trump, extreme as he is, is not an aberration but a logical extension of the worst and most dangerous trends of the past half-century. In exposing the malignant forces behind Trump's rise, she puts forward a bold vision for a mass movement to counter rising militarism, nationalism, and corporatism in the U.S. and around the world. Naomi Klein is an award-winning journalist, syndicated columnist and author of the international bestsellers No Logo, The Shock Doctrine, and most recently This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate. In 2017 she joined The Intercept as Senior Correspondent.

Superpower Rivalry and Conflict

The Long Shadow of the Cold War on the 21st Century

Author: Chandra Chari

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135225001

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9992

Variously described by historians and thinkers as the ‘most terrible century in Western history’, ‘a century of massacres and wars’ and the ‘most violent century in human history’, the 20th century – and in particular the period between the First World War and the collapse of the USSR – forms a coherent historical period which changed the entire face of human history within a few decades. This book examines the trajectory of the Cold War and the fallouts for the rest of the world to seek lessons for the 21st century to manage international relations today and avoid conflict. Written by experts in their field, the chapters provide an alternative perspective to the Western-paradigm dominated international relations theory. The book examines for example whether now in the 21st century the unipolar moment has passed and if the changing economic balance of power, thrown up by globalization, has led to the emergence of a multipolar world capable of economic and multilateral cooperation. It discusses the potential of new cooperative security frameworks, which would provide an impetus to disarmament and protection of the environment globally and asks if nuclear disarmament is feasible and necessary. The book highlights areas in which the potential for conflict is ingrained. Offering Asian perspectives on these issues – perspectives from countries like Afganistan, Vietnam, West Asia and Pakistan which were embroiled in the Cold War as mere pawns and which have become flashpoints for conflict in our century – this book is an important contribution to the ongoing debate.

Four Futures

Life After Capitalism

Author: Peter Frase

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 178168815X

Category: Political Science

Page: 160

View: 5997

Capitalism is going to end Peter Frase argues that increasing automation and a growing scarcity of resources, thanks to climate change, will bring it all tumbling down. In Four Futures, Frase imagines how this post-capitalist world might look, deploying the tools of both social science and speculative fiction to explore what communism, rentism, socialism and exterminism might actually entail. Could the current rise of real-life robocops usher in a world that resembles Ender’s Game? And sure, communism will bring an end to material scarcities and inequalities of wealth—but there’s no guarantee that social hierarchies, governed by an economy of “likes,” wouldn’t rise to take their place. A whirlwind tour through science fiction, social theory and the new technologies already shaping our lives, Four Futures is a balance sheet of the socialisms we may reach if a resurgent Left is successful, and the barbarisms we may be consigned to if those movements fail. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Perception, Politics and Security in South Asia

The Compound Crisis of 1990

Author: P R Chari,Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema,Senior Scholar in the Foreign Policy Studies Programme Stephen P Cohen, PhD,Stephen P Cohen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134396805

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 6659

This book provides a detailed examination of the compound crisis between India and Pakistan that brought the region to the brink of a nuclear war in 1990. Placing the crisis in the context of concurrent international events such as the fall of the Soviet Union, the authors draw out the lesson for present-day South Asian affairs. The book also makes a significant contribution to the debates on the role of nuclear weapons, confidence and security building strategies and the place of ethnicity in contemporary international relations.

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