Search Results: four-crises-and-a-peace-process

Four Crises and a Peace Process

American Engagement in South Asia

Author: P.R. Chari,Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema,Stephen P. Cohen

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815713869

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 5706

India and Pakistan, nuclear neighbors and rivals, fought the last of three major wars in 1971. Far from peaceful, however, the period since then has been "one long crisis, punctuated by periods of peace." The long-disputed Kashmir issue continues to be both a cause and consequence of India-Pakistan hostility. Four Crises and a Peace Process focuses on four contained conflicts on the subcontinent: the Brasstacks Crisis of 1986–1987, the Compound Crisis of 1990, the Kargil Conflict of 1999, and the Border Confrontation of 2001–2002. Authors P.R. Chari, Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, and Brookings senior fellow Stephen P. Cohen explain the underlying causes of these crises, their consequences, the lessons that can be learned, and the American role in each. The four crises are notable because any one of them could have escalated to a large-scale conflict, or even all-out war, and three took place after India and Pakistan had gone nuclear. Looking for larger trends of peace and conflict in the region, the authors consider these incidents as cases of attempted conflict resolution, as instances of limited war by nuclear-armed nations, and as examples of intervention and engagement by the United States and China. They analyze the reactions of Indian, Pakistani, and international media and assess the two countries' decision-making processes. Fo ur Crises and a Peace Process explains how these crises have affected regional and international policy and evaluates the prospects for lasting peace in South Asia.

Arming without Aiming

India's Military Modernization

Author: Stephen P. Cohen,Sunil Dasgupta

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815724926

Category: Political Science

Page: 223

View: 5925

India has long been motivated to modernize its military, and it now has the resources. But so far, the drive to rebuild has lacked a critical component—strategic military planning. India's approach of arming without strategic purpose remains viable, however, as it seeks great-power accommodation of its rise and does not want to appear threatening. What should we anticipate from this effort in the future, and what are the likely ramifications? Stephen Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta answer those crucial questions in a book so timely that it reached number two on the nonfiction bestseller list in India. "Two years after the publication of Arming without Aiming, our view is that India's strategic restraint and its consequent institutional arrangement remain in place. We do not want to predict that India's military-strategic restraint will last forever, but we do expect that the deeper problems in Indian defense policy will continue to slow down military modernization."—from the preface to the paperback edition

The Politics of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia

Author: Dr Bhumitra Chakma

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409476413

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 4929

An important and critical re-evaluation of South Asia's post-tests nuclear politics, in contrast to other books, this volume emphasises the political dimension of South Asia's nuclear weapons, explains how the bombs are used as politico-strategic assets rather than pure battlefield weapons and how India and Pakistan utilise them for politico-strategic purposes in an extremely complex and competitive South Asian strategic landscape. Written by a group of perceptive observers of South Asia, this volume evaluates the current state of Indo-Pakistani nuclear deterrents, the challenges that the two countries confront in building their nuclear forces, the post-test nuclear doctrines of the two strategic rivals, the implications of Indo-Pakistani politics for regional cooperation, the role of two systemic actors (USA and China) in the region's nuclear politics and the critical issues of confidence-building and nuclear arms control.

Superpower Rivalry and Conflict

The Long Shadow of the Cold War on the 21st Century

Author: Chandra Chari

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135225001

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 5783

Variously described by historians and thinkers as the ‘most terrible century in Western history’, ‘a century of massacres and wars’ and the ‘most violent century in human history’, the 20th century – and in particular the period between the First World War and the collapse of the USSR – forms a coherent historical period which changed the entire face of human history within a few decades. This book examines the trajectory of the Cold War and the fallouts for the rest of the world to seek lessons for the 21st century to manage international relations today and avoid conflict. Written by experts in their field, the chapters provide an alternative perspective to the Western-paradigm dominated international relations theory. The book examines for example whether now in the 21st century the unipolar moment has passed and if the changing economic balance of power, thrown up by globalization, has led to the emergence of a multipolar world capable of economic and multilateral cooperation. It discusses the potential of new cooperative security frameworks, which would provide an impetus to disarmament and protection of the environment globally and asks if nuclear disarmament is feasible and necessary. The book highlights areas in which the potential for conflict is ingrained. Offering Asian perspectives on these issues – perspectives from countries like Afganistan, Vietnam, West Asia and Pakistan which were embroiled in the Cold War as mere pawns and which have become flashpoints for conflict in our century – this book is an important contribution to the ongoing debate.

Forged in Crisis

India and the United States Since 1947

Author: Rudra Chaudhuri

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190237988

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7189

Rudra Chaudhuri's book examines a series of crises that led to far-reaching changes in India's approach to the United States, defining the contours of what is arguably the imperative relationship between America and the global South. Forged in Crisis provides a fresh interpretation of India's advance in foreign affairs under the stewardship of Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and finally, Manmohan Singh. It reveals the complex and distinctive manner in which India sought to pursue at once material interests and ideas, while meticulously challenging the shakier and largely untested reading of 'non-alignment' palpable in most works on Indian foreign policy and international relations. From the Korean War in 1950 to the considered debate within India on sending troops to Iraq in 2003, and from the loss of territory to China and the subsequent talks on Kashmir with Pakistan in 1962-63 to the signing of a civil nuclear agreement with Washington in 2008, Chaudhuri maps Indian negotiating styles and behaviour and how these shaped and informed decisions vital to its strategic interest, in turn redefining its relationship with the United States.

What We Won

America's Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979 89

Author: Bruce Riedel

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 081572585X

Category: Political Science

Page: 189

View: 8028

In February 1989, the CIA's chief in Islamabad famously cabled headquarters a simple message: "We Won." It was an understated coda to the most successful covert intelligence operation in American history. In What We Won, CIA and National Security Council veteran Bruce Riedel tells the story of America's secret war in Afghanistan and the defeat of the Soviet 40th Red Army in the war that proved to be the final battle of the cold war. He seeks to answer one simple question—why did this intelligence operation succeed so brilliantly? Riedel has the vantage point few others can offer: He was ensconced in the CIA's Operations Center when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on Christmas Eve 1979. The invasion took the intelligence community by surprise. But the response, initiated by Jimmy Carter and accelerated by Ronald Reagan, was a masterful intelligence enterprise. Many books have been written about intelligence failures—from Pearl Harbor to 9/11. Much less has been written about how and why intelligence operations succeed. The answer is complex. It involves both the weaknesses and mistakes of America's enemies, as well as good judgment and strengths of the United States. Riedel introduces and explores the complex personalities pitted in the war—the Afghan communists, the Russians, the Afghan mujahedin, the Saudis, and the Pakistanis. And then there are the Americans—in this war, no Americans fought on the battlefield. The CIA did not send officers into Afghanistan to fight or even to train. In 1989, victory for the American side of the cold war seemed complete. Now we can see that a new era was also beginning in the Afghan war in the 1980s, the era of the global jihad. This book examines the lessons we can learn from this intelligence operation for the future and makes some observations on what came next in Afghanistan—and what is likely yet to come.

Business World

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: India

Page: N.A

View: 564

Indo-US Nuclear Deal

Seeking Synergy in Bilateralism

Author: P R Chari

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317809807

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 9127

This book interrogates the Indo-US civil nuclear agreement from its inception in July 2005 to its conclusion in the latter part of 2008 through 12 articles, each of which focuses on different aspects of the deal. They discuss the factors that facilitated the deal, the roadblocks that were encountered, and the implications of the deal for the future of India’s foreign policy, its energy security and the international non-proliferation regime. Together, they address the internal political dynamics in India and the United States in order to present perspectives of both countries.

Power Transition and International Order in Asia

Issues and Challenges

Author: Peter Shearman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136760032

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 6042

This edited volume examines how the transition and diffusion of power in global politics is impacting on stability and order in Asia. Both in the academic field of International Relations (IR) and among policymakers, the big question today concerns the rise of China, the relative decline of the United States, and the increasing importance of Asia in global politics. The level of impact the international power transition will have in the region remains unclear, but observers agree that Asia is a potential tinderbox for crises and conflict. This volume brings together leading scholars from around the world to assess current thinking in IR on these issues. The authors apply appropriate theories and methods of analysis in their specific area of expertise to examine the likely effects of the changing global power distribution on Asia. There is also said to be an ongoing diffusion of power away from states to non-state actors in the region; hence, in addition to examining changing relations between the Great Powers, the book will also assess the implications that other actors, from terrorist groups, insurgents and organised crime syndicates, could have on stability and order. This book will be of much interest to students of Asian politics, security studies, diplomacy and international relations.

Unsere gemeinsame Zukunft

Bericht der Weltkommission für Umwelt und Entwicklung

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 348

View: 8404

Crises and Opportunities

The Shaping of Modern Finance

Author: Youssef Cassis

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191652687

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 2807

As the world's political and economic leaders struggle with the aftermath of the Financial Debacle of 2008, this book asks the question: have financial crises presented opportunities to rebuild the financial system? Examining eight global financial crises since the late nineteenth century, this new historical study offers insights into how the financial landscape - banks, governance, regulation, international cooperation, and balance of power - has been (or failed to be) reshaped after a systemic shock. It includes careful consideration of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the only experience of comparable moment to the recession of the early twenty-first century, yet also marked in its differences. Taking into account not only the economic and business aspects of financial crises, but also their political and socio-cultural dimensions, the book highlights both their idiosyncrasies and common features, and assesses their impact in the broader context of long-term historical development.

Organizational Cooperation in Crises

Author: Professor Lina M Svedin

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409499073

Category: Political Science

Page: 174

View: 7605

The public expects organizations to come together and cooperate in times of crisis, yet we know that organizations often fall short of this anticipation. Today inter-organizational structures are the most common form of crisis response. Lina Svedin presents a systematic examination of organizational cooperation in crises. Bringing together three distinct research traditions on cooperation, the author draws on these traditions to examine how their variables fare empirically when applied to a wide set of cases and decision situations. The book outlines how organizations cooperate in crises by empirically identifying a number of theoretically cross-cutting cooperative behaviour and strategies. The patterns are established using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA), correlations and case illustrations. Through its interdisciplinary approach, its timeless yet topical focus and the study's relevance for practice, this book should be of interest not only to students and researchers in several academic disciplines but also to practitioners tasked with organizing for crises.

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 5316

Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.

Das Harvard-Konzept

Die unschlagbare Methode für beste Verhandlungsergebnisse - Erweitert und neu übersetzt

Author: Roger Fisher,William Ury,Bruce Patton

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641234441

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 2214

Erweitert und neu übersetzt: mit aktuellen Verhandlungsbeispielen aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum Seit 35 Jahren ist »Das Harvard-Konzept« weltweit das Standardwerk zum Thema Verhandeln. Es hat uns gelehrt, nicht um Positionen zu feilschen, sondern sich auf Interessen zu konzentrieren und zwischen Menschen und Problemen stets zu trennen. So wird es möglich, dass Parteien zum beiderseitigen Vorteil verhandeln und Win-win-Situationen schaffen. Egal ob politische Konflikte, Vertrags- und Gehaltsverhandlungen oder Tarifgespräche – für alle Berufsgruppen hat das Harvard-Konzept die Art und Weise, wie wir verhandeln, Differenzen beilegen und Lösungen finden, für immer verändert. Der Klassiker ist um neue Fallstudien aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum erweitert und liegt jetzt erstmals gänzlich überarbeitet und in einer vollkommen neuen Übersetzung vor.

Negotiating Under Fire

Preserving Peace Talks in the Face of Terror Attacks

Author: Matthew Levitt

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 9780742565661

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 9264

The impact of severe security crises on peace negotiations represents one of the most significant facets of modern conflict resolution theory to remain under-researched. It also stands out as the factor most likely to derail inherently sensitive negotiations. Negotiating Under Fire explores how such crises between two nations impact diplomatic initiatives between those countries. How do the negotiators' willingness and ability to continue influence the outcome? Do the levels of legitimacy, trust, and confidence within and between the parties change in such strained negotiations? Through a detailed analysis of three critical moments in the Oslo peace process—the Baruch Goldstein Hebron massacre of 1994, the Nachshon Wachsman kidnapping and execution of 1994, and the nine-day string of suicide bus bombings carried out in Israel in March of 1996—the author concludes that insurgents or those hostile to peace talks can and do undermine negotiations.

Causes of War

The Struggle for Recognition

Author: Thomas Lindemann

Publisher: ECPR Press

ISBN: 1907301011

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 483

Theories on the origins of war are often based on the premise that the rational actor is in pursuit of material satisfaction, such as the quest for power or for wealth. These perspectives disregard the need for homo symbolicus – meaning the preservation of a positive self-image for both emotional and instrumental reasons. A good reputation ensures authority and material resources. Non-recognition can be as much as an explanation of war as that of other explicative 'variables'. Two empirical studies examining the role of non-recognition in great power conflicts and in international crises will demonstrate the value of this symbolic approach.

Indigenous Movements and Their Critics

Pan-Maya Activism in Guatemala

Author: Kay B. Warren

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691058825

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6897

In this first book-length treatment of Maya intellectuals in national and community affairs in Guatemala, Kay Warren presents an ethnographic account of Pan-Maya cultural activism through the voices, writings, and actions of its participants. Challenging the belief that indigenous movements emerge as isolated, politically unified fronts, she shows that Pan-Mayanism reflects diverse local, national, and international influences. She explores the movement's attempts to interweave these varied strands into political programs to promote human and cultural rights for Guatemala's indigenous majority and also examines the movement's many domestic and foreign critics. The book focuses on the years of Guatemala's peace process (1987--1996). After the previous ten years of national war and state repression, the Maya movement reemerged into public view to press for institutional reform in the schools and courts and for the officialization of a "multicultural, ethnically plural, and multilingual" national culture. In particular, Warren examines a group of well-known Mayanist antiracism activists--among them, Demetrio Cojt!, Mart!n Chacach, Enrique Sam Colop, Victor Montejo, members of Oxlajuuj Keej Maya' Ajtz'iib', and grassroots intellectuals in the community of San Andr s--to show what is at stake for them personally and how they have worked to promote the revitalization of Maya language and culture. Pan-Mayanism's critics question its tactics, see it as threatening their own achievements, or even as dangerously polarizing national society. This book highlights the crucial role that Mayanist intellectuals have come to play in charting paths to multicultural democracy in Guatemala and in creating a new parallel middle class.

Der Preis der Ungleichheit

Wie die Spaltung der Gesellschaft unsere Zukunft bedroht

Author: Joseph Stiglitz

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 364109819X

Category: Social Science

Page: 544

View: 2007

Viele Arme, wenige Reiche - Warum die wachsende Ungleichheit uns alle angeht Die Ungleichheit in der Welt nimmt zu: Immer weniger Menschen häufen immer größeren Reichtum an, während die Zahl der Armen wächst und die Mittelschicht vom Abstieg bedroht ist. Doch diese Entwicklung, so zeigt Nobelpreisträger Joseph Stiglitz in seinem neuen Bestseller, ist keine zwangsläufige Folge einer freien Marktwirtschaft, sondern Ergebnis einer globalisierten Ökonomie, die zunehmend vom reichsten einen Prozent der Bevölkerung beherrscht wird.

Counsel for the Situation

Shaping the Law to Realize America's Promise

Author: William T. Coleman

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815704942

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 450

View: 3030

"Bill Coleman's story is one that younger generations should mark and inwardly digest, lest they forget the pioneers who helped to make a better America possible." —From the Foreword by Stephen G. Breyer William Coleman has spent a lifetime opening doors and breaking down barriers. He has been an eyewitness to history; moreover, he has made history. This is his inspiring story, in his own words. Americans of color faced daunting barriers in the 1940s. Despite graduating first in his class at Harvard Law and clerking for Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, Coleman was shut out of major East Coast law firms. But as the Philadelphia native writes, "The times, they were a'changing." He not only benefited from that change—he helped propel it, by way of dogged determination, undeniable intellect, and stellar accomplishment. Coleman's legal work with Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund helped jumpstart the civil rights movement in the 1950s. He was the first American of color to clerk for the Supreme Court, and later served as senior counsel to the Warren Commission, investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. In 1975 he was appointed secretary of transportation by President Gerald Ford—the first American of color to serve in a Republican cabinet—and in 1995 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Bill Clinton. At his core, Bill Coleman is a lawyer. He strives to be a "counsel for the situation"—an advocate able to take on major matters in a variety of legal disciplines while upholding the highest traditions of justice and the public interest. He is fiercely proud of the legal profession's role in a democratic society and free economy, and he is grateful for the opportunities that profession has afforded him in the court room, the board room, and the corridors of power. It is through this prism that he relates his own story—his life and the law. The results speak for themselves, and in this immensely entertaining chronicle, the Counsel for the Situation speaks for himself.

Find eBook