Search Results: frames-in-the-toxicity-controversy

Frames in the Toxicity Controversy

Risk Assessment and Policy Analysis Related to the Dutch Chlorine Debate and the Swedish PVC Debate

Author: Arnold Tukker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401147566

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 6974

Preface When you write a book like this after ten years' working as an environmental specialist, you end up with something that reflects your career. Of course, when I started working at the Ministry of the Environment in the Netherlands, I could not foresee that I would now be at TNO, nor that I would have performed research into chlorine, PVC, waste, etc. , that would come to form the basis for this book. But step by step, with some coincidence and with the support of several people - who were probably unaware of the crucial role that, with hindsight, they played - I arrived at a position where I could start to consider this enterprise. At this point I shall try something dangerous - thanking a few of those people who gave that support. At the same time, it is obvious that I cannot mention them all. I hope that those whom I do not mention will forgive me. A first, crucial moment in this sequence of events came quite soon after I joined TNO in 1990. Just a few weeks later, all the senior staff in my section decided to leave in order to set up their own company. I decided to stay at TNO. As a consequence, I had to manage it on my own.

Controversies in Science & Technology

From sustainability to surveillance

Author: Daniel Lee Kleinman,Karen A. Cloud-Hansen,Jo Handelsman

Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)

ISBN: 0199383774

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 9985

When it comes to any current scientific debate, there are more than two sides to every story. Controversies in Science and Technology, Volume 4 analyzes controversial topics in science and technology-infrastructure, ecosystem management, food security, and plastics and health-from multiple points of view. The editors have compiled thought-provoking essays from a variety of experts from academia and beyond, creating a volume that addresses many of the issues surrounding these scientific debates. Part I of the volume discusses infrastructure, and the real meaning behind the term in today's society. Essays address the central issues that motivate current discussion about infrastructure, including writing on the vulnerability to disasters. Part II, titled "Food Policy," will focus on the challenges of feeding an ever-growing world and the costs of not doing so. Part III features essays on chemicals and environmental health, and works to define "safety" as it relates to today's scientific community. The book's final section examines ecosystem management. In the end, Kleinman, Cloud-Hansen, and Handelsman provide a multifaceted volume that will be appropriate for anyone hoping to understand arguments surrounding several of today's most important scientific controversies.

Public Health in Europe

10 Years European Public Health Association

Author: Wilhelm Kirch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540402404

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 3983

Selected Manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of the European Public Health Association, 28-30 November 2002, Dresden, Germany

Powerless Science?

Science and Politics in a Toxic World

Author: Soraya Boudia,Nathalie Jas

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781782382362

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 1666

In spite of decades of research on toxicants, along with the growing role of scientific expertise in public policy and the unprecedented rise in the number of national and international institutions dealing with environmental health issues, problems surrounding contaminants and their effects on health have never appeared so important, sometimes to the point of appearing insurmountable. This calls for a reconsideration of the roles of scientific knowledge and expertise in the definition and management of toxic issues, which this book seeks to do. It looks at complex historical, social, and political dynamics, made up of public controversies, environmental and health crises, economic interests, and political responses, and demonstrates how and to what extent scientific knowledge about toxicants has been caught between scientific, economic, and political imperatives.

Controversial Statistical Issues in Clinical Trials

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439849625

Category: Mathematics

Page: 611

View: 8005

In clinical trial practice, controversial statistical issues inevitably occur regardless of the compliance with good statistical practice and good clinical practice. But by identifying the causes of the issues and correcting them, the study objectives of clinical trials can be better achieved. Controversial Statistical Issues in Clinical Trials covers commonly encountered controversial statistical issues in clinical trials and, whenever possible, makes recommendations to resolve these problems. The book focuses on issues occurring at various stages of clinical research and development, including early-phase clinical development (such as bioavailability/bioequivalence), bench-to-bedside translational research, and late-phase clinical development. Numerous examples illustrate the impact of these issues on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the test treatment under investigation. The author also offers recommendations regarding possible resolutions of the problems. Written by one of the preeminent experts in the field, this book provides a useful desk reference and state-of-the art examination of problematic issues in clinical trials for scientists in the pharmaceutical industry, medical/statistical reviewers in government regulatory agencies, and researchers and students in academia.

BPR

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 7328

Toxic Communities

Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility

Author: Dorceta Taylor

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479861626

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 4833

From St. Louis to New Orleans, from Baltimore to Oklahoma City, there are poor and minority neighborhoods so beset by pollution that just living in them can be hazardous to your health. Due to entrenched segregation, zoning ordinances that privilege wealthier communities, or because businesses have found the ‘paths of least resistance,’ there are many hazardous waste and toxic facilities in these communities, leading residents to experience health and wellness problems on top of the race and class discrimination most already experience. Taking stock of the recent environmental justice scholarship, Toxic Communities examines the connections among residential segregation, zoning, and exposure to environmental hazards. Renowned environmental sociologist Dorceta Taylor focuses on the locations of hazardous facilities in low-income and minority communities and shows how they have been dumped on, contaminated and exposed. Drawing on an array of historical and contemporary case studies from across the country, Taylor explores controversies over racially-motivated decisions in zoning laws, eminent domain, government regulation (or lack thereof), and urban renewal. She provides a comprehensive overview of the debate over whether or not there is a link between environmental transgressions and discrimination, drawing a clear picture of the state of the environmental justice field today and where it is going. In doing so, she introduces new concepts and theories for understanding environmental racism that will be essential for environmental justice scholars. A fascinating landmark study, Toxic Communities greatly contributes to the study of race, the environment, and space in the contemporary United States.

Current Controversies in Bone Marrow Transplantation

Author: Brian J. Bolwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592596576

Category: Medical

Page: 322

View: 6454

Leading transplant physicians critically review and interpret twenty-one key clinical challenges in bone marrow/hematopoietic cell transplantation, and offer their best personal recommendations for treatment. Topics range from transplant strategies to complications of bone marrow transplantation, including a discussion of the indications, benefits, and the risks for a variety of leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. The authors debate such contentious issues as the appropriateness of transplants in older patients, how many stem cells are sufficient for engraftment, and the pros and cons of umbilical cord blood transplantation. Up-to-date and clinically focused, Current Controversies in Bone Marrow Transplantation offers clinical oncologists, hematology/oncology fellows in training, and residents in internal medicine today's best ready reference and management guide for all their critical oncologic problems arising from the use of bone marrow/stem cell transplantation.

The Environmental Movement in Ireland

Author: Liam Leonard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402068126

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 3072

This book examines key themes in Irish environmental politics, including the main components that have come to define such events, and incidents of environmental collective action in this country during forty years of growth and development. The author analyses the mobilization and framing processes undertaken in these disputes, locating them in the context of a wider rural identity that has shaped grassroots environmentalism in the Irish case.

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century:

A Vision and a Strategy

Author: Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309151732

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 8005

Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.

The British National Bibliography

Author: Arthur James Wells

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: English literature

Page: N.A

View: 8120

Advances and Controversies in Prostate Cancer, An Issue of Urologic Clinics - E-Book

Author: William K. Oh,James C. Hu

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455700746

Category: Medical

Page: 159

View: 6042

An estimated 234,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed in the United States this year, making it one of the most common cancers affecting American men; however, it can be a controversial disease to diagnose and treat now that there is research abounding for both “watchful waiting and aggressive treatments. Dr. Oh supplies balanced information, with articles on: Prostate Cancer: To Screen or Not To Screen?; High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Ready for Primetime?; The Case for Open vs. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy; Primary and Salvage Prostate Cancer Cryotherapy; and The Case for Open vs. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy, to name a few. The state-of-the art information presented in this issue make is must-have for all urologists.

Foreign Compound Metabolism in Mammals

Author: Royal Society of Chemistry,D. E. Hathway

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0851860583

Category: Medical

Page: 405

View: 4410

Reflecting the growing volume of published work in this field, researchers will find this book an invaluable source of information on current methods and applications.

Mandated Science: Science and Scientists in the Making of Standards

Science and Scientists in the Making of Standards

Author: L. Salter,W. Leiss,Edwin Levy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400927118

Category: Philosophy

Page: 220

View: 355

For a long time I would not eat strawberries. In 1977, a scandal broke about a testing laboratory having falsified the data that was used to register a large number of pesticides. The Canadian government, along with several others, began the process of re-evaluating both the procedures for testing and these specific chemicals. One chemical proved particularly controversial, the commonly-used pesticide named captan. In light of the controversy, which was manifest in a conflict between two government departments, in 1981, the Canadian government chose to appoint a special panel of experts to advise them. I was a member of this expert committee. The experience on the captan committee did little to reassure me, either about captan or about the way that decisions had been made about many pesticides in widespread use. Although it could not be demonstrated that captan was dangerous to people in the amounts to which they would likely be exposed, the animal studies provided the basis for concern. Prudence required at the very least that consumers take the precaution of washing their fruit, for captan is widely used on apples, cherries and berry fruits. Captan residues wash off apples relatively easily; they are less easily removed from berry fruits, such as straw berries.

Volatile Places

A Sociology of Communities and Environmental Controversies

Author: Valerie Gunter,Steve Kroll-Smith

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452239568

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6629

Volatile Places: A Sociology of Communities and Environmental Controversies is a thoughtful guide to the spirited public controversies that inevitably occur when environments and human communities collide. The movie "An Inconvenient Truth" based on the environmental activism of Al Gore and the devastation of Hurricane Katrina are specifically highlighted. Authors Valerie Gunter and Steve Kroll-Smith begin with a simple observation and offer a provocative case study approach to the investigation of community and environmental controversies.

Endotoxin in Health and Disease

Author: Helmut Brade

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824719449

Category: Science

Page: 968

View: 9884

Offering a basis for further research into the interactions of hosts and pathogens, this work gathers up-to-date findings, and details basic structures, functions and immunology. It provides descriptions of a variety of experimental endotoxin neutralizing agents, as well as a guide to clinical research initiatives and the latest treatments.

EPA Science: New Assessment Process Further Limits the Credibility and Timeliness of EPA's Assessments of Toxic Chemicals

Congressional Testimony

Author: John B. Stephenson

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437909922

Category:

Page: 32

View: 7826

The EPA¿s Integrated Risk Info. System (IRIS) contains EPA¿s scientific position on the potential human health effects of exposure to more than 540 chemicals. Toxicity assessments in the IRIS database constitute the first two critical steps of the risk assessment process. Thus, IRIS is a critical component of EPA¿s capacity to support scientifically sound environmental decisions, policies, and regulations. This testimony discusses: (1) highlights of a report, ¿Chemical Assessments: Low Productivity and New Interagency Review Process Limit the Usefulness and Credibility of EPA¿s IRIS:¿; (2) key aspects of EPA¿s revised IRIS assessment process; and (3) progress EPA has made in completing assessments in FY 2008. Charts and tables.

Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools

Unintended Consequences

Author: Jacqueline Karn Corn

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566704885

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 3690

On January 3, 1977, Howell Township, New Jersey closed its schools while scientists tested for dangerous levels of asbestos. After reports of unexplained ailments in some children, the parents of 4,500 elementary school children had threatened to boycott classes until the Board of Education removed asbestos-containing materials. Similar cases occurred across the country. In February, 1977, the New York Times reported that the child whose illness had been attributed to asbestos actually had mononucleosis. Was the reaction of parents and officials unwarranted? Did scientific evidence exist indicating that asbestos in schools caused children to become ill? Was all the relevant information - including the impact of their decisions on public policy in the future - considered? Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools addresses these questions by focusing on the development, institutionalization, and consequences of federal environmental policy for asbestos in schools. This unique and timely book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. Insight into past policy, including how, why, and who caused action to be taken, will enlighten and guide the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. The story of asbestos is a cautionary tale. Other toxic agents, such as lead, nitrogen dioxide and radon, could follow the same model as asbestos, raising similar questions. Written in a straightforward style, Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools explains technical concepts in language easily understood by non-experts. Understanding the factors and judgments involved in this issue gives insight into how the government - and society - perceives, assesses, and develops public health policy.

Toxic Capitalism

The orgy of consumerism and waste: Are we the last generation on earth?

Author: Gilbert Van Kerckhove

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1477219072

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 361

View: 8897

The West is causing depletion of natural resources and environmental destruction with the help of questionable companies, financial institutions and governments. Today, all eyes are on China and its hazardous environment. Toxic Capitalism, a succinct volume jam-packed with informative but scary data, shows how to fight overconsumption and wastage. Yes, there is a solution. Only complaining will not guarantee the well-being of future generations. What you will discover and learn in the book: The reality of Global Warming How financial institutions and companies fail in their job How governments fail in their duty, vested interests at work How income inequality affects society The role of corruption How inadequate job markets impede better consumption Details on water pollution & scarcity, focus on China What China is doing to combat pollution, to improve the energy mix and promote renewables How China roams the world to buy up and import the much needed resources, including food How much and why we waste (including food and medicine) Air pollution, soil pollution, impact on health Everyday examples of waste, focus on China How we can enforce quality and durability How we can do our part to safeguard the future for our children

Controversies in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Author: Lutz Moser

Publisher: S Karger Ag

ISBN: 9783805585248

Category: Medical

Page: 130

View: 9014

Treatment strategies in prostate cancer underlie a permanent change due to continuous improvements. Based on the 10th International Symposium on Special Aspects of Radiotherapy held in Berlin in 2006, this volume highlights key advances in surgical, radiooncological and systemic treatment standards for prostate cancer. Furthermore, interdisciplinary co-operations and controversies are presented and future developments are discussed. The four parts of the book cover the different stages of the disease - localized prostate cancer, the lymph node positive situation, biochemical recurrence, and hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer. Special attention is given to the value and sequence of systemic treatment options in relation to surgery and radiotherapy. Proving the reader with the latest treatment standards of prostate cancer, this book will be of great value to urologists and radiation oncologists as well as to all others involved in the care of patients with prostate cancer.

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