In Freemasonry in Context: History, Ritual, Controversy editors Arturo de Hoyos and S. Brent Morris feature work by renowned Masonic scholars. Essays explore the rich and often controversial events that comprise the cultural and social history of Freemasonry.
Freemasonry was a major cultural and social phenomenon and a key element of the Enlightenment. It was to have an international influence across the globe. This primary resource collection charts a key period in the development of organized Freemasonry culminating in the formation of a single United Grand Lodge of England. The secrecy that has surrounded Freemasonry has made it difficult to access information and documents about the organization and its adherents in the past. This collection is the result of extensive archival research and transcription and highlights the most significant themes associated with Freemasonry. The documents are drawn from masonic collections, private archives and libraries worldwide. The majority of these texts have never before been republished. Documents include rituals (some written in code), funeral services, sermons, songs, certificates, an engraved list of lodges, letters, pamphlets, theatrical prologues and epilogues, and articles from newspapers and periodicals. This collection will enable researchers to identify many key masons for the first time. It will be of interest to students of Freemasonry, the Enlightenment and researchers in eighteenth-century studies.
Bacon, Beckett and Spurious Freemasonry in Early Twentieth-century Ireland
Author: Lynn Brunet
Publisher: Peter Lang
The artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992) and the writer Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) both convey in their work a sense of foreboding and confinement in bleak, ritualistic spaces. This book identifies many similarities between the spaces and activities they evoke and the initiatory practices of fraternal orders and secret societies that were an integral part of the social landscape of the Ireland experienced by both men during childhood. Many of these Irish societies modelled their ritual structures and symbolism on the Masonic Order. Freemasons use the term 'spurious Freemasonry' to designate those rituals not sanctioned by the Grand Lodge. The Masonic author Albert Mackey argues that the spurious forms were those derived from the various cult practices of the classical world and describes these initiatory practices as 'a course of severe and arduous trials'. This reading of Bacon's and Beckett's work draws on theories of trauma to suggest that there may be a disturbing link between Bacon's stark imagery, Beckett's obscure performances and the unofficial use of Masonic rites.
A Scottish Freemason presents an insider's guide to Society mysteries that discusses its inter-culture, connections to covert organizations, and famous members, in a reference that reveals the actual role of Freemasonry throughout history while addressing popular controversies. Original.
Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe
Author: Margaret C. Jacob
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
Long recognized as more than the writings of a dozen or so philosophes, the Enlightenment created a new secular culture populated by the literate and the affluent. Enamoured of British institutions, Continental Europeans turned to the imported masonic lodges and found in them a new forum that was constitutionally constructed and logically egalitarian. Originating in the Middle Ages, when stone-masons joined together to preserve their professional secrets and to protect their wages, the English and Scottish lodges had by the eighteenth century discarded their guild origins and become an international phenomenon that gave men and eventually some women a place to vote, speak, discuss and debate. Margaret Jacob argues that the hundreds of masonic lodges founded in eighteenth-century Europe were among the most important enclaves in which modern civil society was formed. In France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Britain men and women freemasons sought to create a moral and social order based upon reason and virtue, and dedicated to the principles of liberty and equality. A forum where philosophers met with men of commerce, government, and the professions, the masonic lodge created new forms of self-government in microcosm, complete with constitutions and laws, elections, and representatives. This is the first comprehensive history of Enlightenment freemasonry, from the roots of the society's political philosophy and evolution in seventeenth-century England and Scotland to the French Revolution. Based on never-before-used archival sources, it will appeal to anyone interested in the birth of modernity in Europe or in the cultural milieu of the European Enlightenment.
Adam and Eve were Pharaoh Akhenaton and Nefertiti.
Author: Ralph Ellis
Publisher: Edfu Books
Why was the birth of a poor carpenter " in the first century AD attended by the Magi: the Persian king-makers? Why was Jesus later known as the King of the Jews "?Using many strands of contemporary evidence, Ralph Ellis has pieced together a historical jigsaw puzzle demonstrating that the biblical Jesus was directly descended from Cleopatra VII, the most famous queen of Egypt.But this is not all, for in piecing this story together it would seem that Jesus also had an aristocratic Roman and royal Persian ancestry too; and it is the latter bloodline element that explains the appearance of Persian Magi at his birth.
"New religious movements are a subject of increasing interest and relevance in our multi-cultural society. This volume provides a concise overview of the main new religious movements that have come to prominence in the western world in recent years."--GBP.