Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics assesses how and why buildings use energy, and how energy use and peak demand can be reduced. It provides a basis for integrating energy efficiency and solar approaches in ways that will allow building owners and designers to balance the need to minimize initial costs, operating costs, and life-cycle costs with need to maintain reliable building operations and enhance environmental quality both inside and outside the building. Chapters trace the development of building energy systems and analyze the demand side of solar applications as a means for determining what portion of a building's energy requirements can potentially be met by solar energy.Following the introduction, the book provides an overview of energy use patterns in the aggregate U.S. building population. Chapter 3 surveys work on the energy flows in an individual building and shows how these flows interact to influence overall energy use. Chapter 4 presents the analytical methods, techniques, and tools developed to calculate and analyze energy use in buildings, while chapter 5 provides an extensive survey of the energy conservation and management strategies developed in the post-energy crisis period.The approach taken is a commonsensical one, starting with the proposition that the purpose of buildings is to house human activities, and that conservation measures that negatively affect such activities are based on false economies. The goal is to determine rational strategies for the design of new buildings, and the retrofit of existing buildings to bring them up to modern standards of energy use. The energy flows examined are both large scale (heating systems) and small scale (choices among appliances).Solar Heat Technologies: Fundamentals and Applications, Volume 4

Elements of Artificial Neural Networks provides a clearly organized general introduction, focusing on a broad range of algorithms, for students and others who want to use neural networks rather than simply study them. The authors, who have been developing and team teaching the material in a one-semester course over the past six years, describe most of the basic neural network models (with several detailed solved examples) and discuss the rationale and advantages of the models, as well as their limitations. The approach is practical and open-minded and requires very little mathematical or technical background. Written from a computer science and statistics point of view, the text stresses links to contiguous fields and can easily serve as a first course for students in economics and management. The opening chapter sets the stage, presenting the basic concepts in a clear and objective way and tackling important -- yet rarely addressed -- questions related to the use of neural networks in practical situations. Subsequent chapters on supervised learning (single layer and multilayer networks), unsupervised learning, and associative models are structured around classes of problems to which networks can be applied. Applications are discussed along with the algorithms. A separate chapter takes up optimization methods. The most frequently used algorithms, such as backpropagation, are introduced early on, right after perceptrons, so that these can form the basis for initiating course projects. Algorithms published as late as 1995 are also included. All of the algorithms are presented using block-structured pseudo-code, and exercises are provided throughout. Software implementing many commonly used neural network algorithms is available at the book's website. Transparency masters, including abbreviated text and figures for the entire book, are available for instructors using the text.

This graduate-level text teaches students how to use a small number of powerful mathematical tools for analyzing and designing a wide variety of artificial neural network (ANN) systems, including their own customized neural networks. Mathematical Methods for Neural Network Analysis and Design offers an original, broad, and integrated approach that explains each tool in a manner that is independent of specific ANN systems. Although most of the methods presented are familiar, their systematic application to neural networks is new. Included are helpful chapter summaries and detailed solutions to over 100 ANN system analysis and design problems. For convenience, many of the proofs of the key theorems have been rewritten so that the entire book uses a relatively uniform notion. This text is unique in several ways. It is organized according to categories of mathematical tools—for investigating the behavior of an ANN system, for comparing (and improving) the efficiency of system computations, and for evaluating its computational goals— that correspond respectively to David Marr's implementational, algorithmic, and computational levels of description. And instead of devoting separate chapters to different types of ANN systems, it analyzes the same group of ANN systems from the perspective of different mathematical methodologies. A Bradford Book

A new, dramatically updated edition of the classic resource on the constantly evolving fields of brain theory and neural networks.

Artificial neural networks are nonlinear mapping systems whose structure is loosely based on principles observed in the nervous systems of humans and animals. The basic idea is that massive systems of simple units linked together in appropriate ways can generate many complex and interesting behaviors. This book focuses on the subset of feedforward artificial neural networks called multilayer perceptrons (MLP). These are the mostly widely used neural networks, with applications as diverse as finance (forecasting), manufacturing (process control), and science (speech and image recognition).This book presents an extensive and practical overview of almost every aspect of MLP methodology, progressing from an initial discussion of what MLPs are and how they might be used to an in-depth examination of technical factors affecting performance. The book can be used as a tool kit by readers interested in applying networks to specific problems, yet it also presents theory and references outlining the last ten years of MLP research.

Artificial neural networks are most suitable for solving problems that are complex, ill-defined, highly nonlinear, of many and different variables, and/or stochastic. Such problems are abundant in medicine, in finance, in security and beyond. This volume covers the basic theory and architecture of the major artificial neural networks. Uniquely, it presents 18 complete case studies of applications of neural networks in various fields, ranging from cell-shape classification to micro-trading in finance and to constellation recognition OCo all with their respective source codes. These case studies demonstrate to the readers in detail how such case studies are designed and executed and how their specific results are obtained. The book is written for a one-semester graduate or senior-level undergraduate course on artificial neural networks. It is also intended to be a self-study and a reference text for scientists, engineers and for researchers in medicine, finance and data mining."

Though mathematical ideas underpin the study of neural networks, the author presents the fundamentals without the full mathematical apparatus. All aspects of the field are tackled, including artificial neurons as models of their real counterparts; the geometry of network action in pattern space; gradient descent methods, including back-propagation; associative memory and Hopfield nets; and self-organization and feature maps. The traditionally difficult topic of adaptive resonance theory is clarified within a hierarchical description of its operation. The book also includes several real-world examples to provide a concrete focus. This should enhance its appeal to those involved in the design, construction and management of networks in commercial environments and who wish to improve their understanding of network simulator packages. As a comprehensive and highly accessible introduction to one of the most important topics in cognitive and computer science, this volume should interest a wide range of readers, both students and professionals, in cognitive science, psychology, computer science and electrical engineering.

Neural networks and fuzzy systems are different approaches to introducing human-like reasoning into expert systems. This text is the first to combine the study of these two subjects, their basics and their use, along with symbolic AI methods to build comprehensive artificial intelligence systems. In a clear and accessible style, Kasabov describes rule- based and connectionist techniques and then their combinations, with fuzzy logic included, showing the application of the different techniques to a set of simple prototype problems, which makes comparisons possible. A particularly strong feature of the text is that it is filled with applications in engineering, business, and finance. AI problems that cover most of the application-oriented research in the field (pattern recognition, speech and image processing, classification, planning, optimization, prediction, control, decision making, and game simulations) are discussed and illustrated with concrete examples. Intended both as a text for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as a reference for researchers in the field of knowledge engineering, Foundations of Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Knowledge Engineering has chapters structured for various levels of teaching and includes original work by the author along with the classic material. Data sets for the examples in the book as well as an integrated software environment that can be used to solve the problems and do the exercises at the end of each chapter are available free through anonymous ftp.

Neural Networks presents concepts of neural-network models and techniques of parallel distributed processing in a three-step approach: - A brief overview of the neural structure of the brain and the history of neural-network modeling introduces to associative memory, preceptrons, feature-sensitive networks, learning strategies, and practical applications. - The second part covers subjects like statistical physics of spin glasses, the mean-field theory of the Hopfield model, and the "space of interactions" approach to the storage capacity of neural networks. - The final part discusses nine programs with practical demonstrations of neural-network models. The software and source code in C are on a 3 1/2" MS-DOS diskette can be run with Microsoft, Borland, Turbo-C, or compatible compilers.

In response to the exponentially increasing need to analyze vast amounts of data, Neural Networks for Applied Sciences and Engineering: From Fundamentals to Complex Pattern Recognition provides scientists with a simple but systematic introduction to neural networks. Beginning with an introductory discussion on the role of neural networks in scientific data analysis, this book provides a solid foundation of basic neural network concepts. It contains an overview of neural network architectures for practical data analysis followed by extensive step-by-step coverage on linear networks, as well as, multi-layer perceptron for nonlinear prediction and classification explaining all stages of processing and model development illustrated through practical examples and case studies. Later chapters present an extensive coverage on Self Organizing Maps for nonlinear data clustering, recurrent networks for linear nonlinear time series forecasting, and other network types suitable for scientific data analysis. With an easy to understand format using extensive graphical illustrations and multidisciplinary scientific context, this book fills the gap in the market for neural networks for multi-dimensional scientific data, and relates neural networks to statistics. Features § Explains neural networks in a multi-disciplinary context § Uses extensive graphical illustrations to explain complex mathematical concepts for quick and easy understanding ? Examines in-depth neural networks for linear and nonlinear prediction, classification, clustering and forecasting § Illustrates all stages of model development and interpretation of results, including data preprocessing, data dimensionality reduction, input selection, model development and validation, model uncertainty assessment, sensitivity analyses on inputs, errors and model parameters Sandhya Samarasinghe obtained her MSc in Mechanical Engineering from Lumumba University in Russia and an MS and PhD in Engineering from Virginia Tech, USA. Her neural networks research focuses on theoretical understanding and advancements as well as practical implementations.

Since World War II, a group of scientists has been attempting to understand the human nervous system and to build computer systems that emulate the brain's abilities. Many of the early workers in this field of neural networks came from cybernetics; others came from neuroscience, physics, electrical engineering, mathematics, psychology, even economics. In this collection of interviews, those who helped to shape the field share their childhood memories, their influences, how they became interested in neural networks, and what they see as its future. The subjects tell stories that have been told, referred to, whispered about, and imagined throughout the history of the field. Together, the interviews form a Rashomon-like web of reality. Some of the mythic people responsible for the foundations of modern brain theory and cybernetics, such as Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, and Frank Rosenblatt, appear prominently in the recollections. The interviewees agree about some things and disagree about more. Together, they tell the story of how science is actually done, including the false starts, and the Darwinian struggle for jobs, resources, and reputation. Although some of the interviews contain technical material, there is no actual mathematics in the book. Contributors: James A. Anderson, Michael Arbib, Gail Carpenter, Leon Cooper, Jack Cowan, Walter Freeman, Stephen Grossberg, Robert Hecht-Neilsen, Geoffrey Hinton, Teuvo Kohonen, Bart Kosko, Jerome Lettvin, Carver Mead, David Rumelhart, Terry Sejnowski, Paul Werbos, Bernard Widrow.

This book describes recent theoretical advances in the study of artificial neural networks. It explores probabilistic models of supervised learning problems, and addresses the key statistical and computational questions. The authors also discuss the computational complexity of neural network learning, describing a variety of hardness results, and outlining two efficient constructive learning algorithms. The book is essentially self-contained, since it introduces the necessary background material on probability, statistics, combinatorics and computational complexity; and it is intended to be accessible to researchers and graduate students in computer science, engineering, and mathematics.

"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

This book exemplifies the interplay between the general formal framework of graphical models and the exploration of new algorithm and architectures. The selections range from foundational papers of historical importance to results at the cutting edge of research. Graphical models use graphs to represent and manipulate joint probability distributions. They have their roots in artificial intelligence, statistics, and neural networks. The clean mathematical formalism of the graphical models framework makes it possible to understand a wide variety of network-based approaches to computation, and in particular to understand many neural network algorithms and architectures as instances of a broader probabilistic methodology. It also makes it possible to identify novel features of neural network algorithms and architectures and to extend them to more general graphical models.This book exemplifies the interplay between the general formal framework of graphical models and the exploration of new algorithms and architectures. The selections range from foundational papers of historical importance to results at the cutting edge of research. Contributors H. Attias, C. M. Bishop, B. J. Frey, Z. Ghahramani, D. Heckerman, G. E. Hinton, R. Hofmann, R. A. Jacobs, Michael I. Jordan, H. J. Kappen, A. Krogh, R. Neal, S. K. Riis, F. B. Rodríguez, L. K. Saul, Terrence J. Sejnowski, P. Smyth, M. E. Tipping, V. Tresp, Y. Weiss

This book provides a clear and detailed coverage of fundamental neural network architectures and learning rules. In it, the authors emphasize a coherent presentation of the principal neural networks, methods for training them and their applications to practical problems.

This book provides comprehensive coverage of neural networks, their evolution, their structure, the problems they can solve, and their applications. The first half of the book looks at theoretical investigations on artificial neural networks and addresses the key architectures that are capable of implementation in various application scenarios. The second half is designed specifically for the production of solutions using artificial neural networks to solve practical problems arising from different areas of knowledge. It also describes the various implementation details that were taken into account to achieve the reported results. These aspects contribute to the maturation and improvement of experimental techniques to specify the neural network architecture that is most appropriate for a particular application scope. The book is appropriate for students in graduate and upper undergraduate courses in addition to researchers and professionals.

An Introduction to Neural Networks falls into a new ecological niche for texts. Based on notes that have been class-tested for more than a decade, it is aimed at cognitive science and neuroscience students who need to understand brain function in terms of computational modeling, and at engineers who want to go beyond formal algorithms to applications and computing strategies. It is the only current text to approach networks from a broad neuroscience and cognitive science perspective, with an emphasis on the biology and psychology behind the assumptions of the models, as well as on what the models might be used for. It describes the mathematical and computational tools needed and provides an account of the author's own ideas. Students learn how to teach arithmetic to a neural network and get a short course on linear associative memory and adaptive maps. They are introduced to the author's brain-state-in-a-box (BSB) model and are provided with some of the neurobiological background necessary for a firm grasp of the general subject. The field now known as neural networks has split in recent years into two major groups, mirrored in the texts that are currently available: the engineers who are primarily interested in practical applications of the new adaptive, parallel computing technology, and the cognitive scientists and neuroscientists who are interested in scientific applications. As the gap between these two groups widens, Anderson notes that the academics have tended to drift off into irrelevant, often excessively abstract research while the engineers have lost contact with the source of ideas in the field. Neuroscience, he points out, provides a rich and valuable source of ideas about data representation and setting up the data representation is the major part of neural network programming. Both cognitive science and neuroscience give insights into how this can be done effectively: cognitive science suggests what to compute and neuroscience suggests how to compute it.

Providing detailed examples of simple applications, this new book introduces the use of neural networks. It covers simple neural nets for pattern classification; pattern association; neural networks based on competition; adaptive-resonance theory; and more. For professionals working with neural networks.

This book provides an overview of self-organizing map formation, including recent developments. Self-organizing maps form a branch of unsupervised learning, which is the study of what can be determined about the statistical properties of input data without explicit feedback from a teacher. The articles are drawn from the journal Neural Computation.The book consists of five sections. The first section looks at attempts to model the organization of cortical maps and at the theory and applications of the related artificial neural network algorithms. The second section analyzes topographic maps and their formation via objective functions. The third section discusses cortical maps of stimulus features. The fourth section discusses self-organizing maps for unsupervised data analysis. The fifth section discusses extensions of self-organizing maps, including two surprising applications of mapping algorithms to standard computer science problems: combinatorial optimization and sorting. Contributors J. J. Atick, H. G. Barrow, H. U. Bauer, C. M. Bishop, H. J. Bray, J. Bruske, J. M. L. Budd, M. Budinich, V. Cherkassky, J. Cowan, R. Durbin, E. Erwin, G. J. Goodhill, T. Graepel, D. Grier, S. Kaski, T. Kohonen, H. Lappalainen, Z. Li, J. Lin, R. Linsker, S. P. Luttrell, D. J. C. MacKay, K. D. Miller, G. Mitchison, F. Mulier, K. Obermayer, C. Piepenbrock, H. Ritter, K. Schulten, T. J. Sejnowski, S. Smirnakis, G. Sommer, M. Svensen, R. Szeliski, A. Utsugi, C. K. I. Williams, L. Wiskott, L. Xu, A. Yuille, J. Zhang