Economics, Evidence, and Why the Answer Matters
Author: Julie A Nelson
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
The belief that men and women have fundamentally distinct natures, resulting in divergent preferences and behaviours, is widespread. Recently, economists have also engaged in the search for gender differences, with a number claiming to find fundamental gender differences regarding risk-taking, altruism, and competition. In particular, the idea that "women are more risk-averse than men" has become accepted as a truism. But is it true? And what are its causes and consequences? Gender and Risk Taking makes three contributions. First, it asks whether the belief that men and women have distinct risk preferences is backed up by high quality empirical evidence. The answer turns out to be "no." This leads to a second question: Why, then, does so much of the literature claim to find evidence of "difference"? This, it will be shown, can be attributed to biases arising from too-easy categorical thinking, widespread stereotyping, and a tendency to prefer results that are publishable and that fit one's prior beliefs. Third, the book explores the economic implications of the conventional association of risk-taking with masculinity and risk-aversion with femininity. Not only fairness in employment, but also the health of the financial sector and national responses to climate change, this book argues, are being compromised. This volume will be eye-opening for anyone interested in gender, decision-making, cognition, and/or risk, especially in areas relating to employment, finance, management, or public policy.
Alcohol, Drugs, Sex, and Youth
Author: Martin A. Plant,Moira Plant
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Family & Relationships
Gives a comprehensive view of youthful involvement with drinking, smoking, illicit drug use and sexual activity, providing a challenging assessment of health education for young people.
The Sociology of Risk-taking
Author: Stephen Lyng
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Social Science
What do skydiving, rock climbing, and downhill skiing have in common with stock-trading, unprotected sex, and sadomasochism? All are high risk pursuits. Edgework explores the world of voluntary risk-taking, investigating the seductive nature of pursuing peril and teasing out the boundaries between legal and criminal behavior; conscious and unconscious acts; sanity and insanity; acceptable risk and stupidity. The distinguished contributors to this collection profile high risk-takers and explore their experiences with risk through such topics as juvenile delinquency, street anarchism, sadomasochism, avant-garde art, business risks, and extreme sport.
Author: Janet Gale Stotsky
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
Category: Developing countries
This survey examines the implications of gender differences in economic behavior for macroeconomic policy. It finds that reducing gender inequality and improving the status of women may contribute to higher rates of economic growth and greater macroeconomic stability. Women's relative lack of opportunities in developing countries inhibits economic growth, while, at the same time, economic growth leads to a reduction in their disadvantaged condition. Equality of opportunity in labor and financial markets is critical to enabling women to take full advantage of improved macroeconomic conditions. Macroeconomic policies should take into account the benefits of reducing gender inequalities, especially in the lowest-income countries where these differences are most pronounced, and should consider the potentially harsher short-term effects of economic austerity measures on women to avoid exacerbating gender inequalities.
A Study of General Motors Company from 2009 - 2015
Author: Richard Ondimu
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Business & Economics
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: 83%, University of Westminster, course: MSc Finance, Banking and Insurance, language: English, abstract: It is now becoming increasingly evident that gender plays a vital role in investment and financing decisions of many organisations today as men and women tend to behave and act differently. Women are generally perceived to be detail-oriented, keen and sceptical in decision making relative to their male counterparts who are more risk tolerant. This study examines a number of empirical studies and other relevant literature to help justify as to whether or not, there is a relationship between gender, corporate financial decisions and risk taking. Using General Motors (GM-US), a company that experienced a CEO and Board Chair changeover from male to female in early 2014 and 2016 respectively as a case study, the essay examines measures like leverage, solvency, M&A activities, and other metrics that can directly be attributed to CEO/Board chair’s decisions and how these decisions alter the company’s risk profile in the period prior to and after the transition.
Islamischer Feminismus und Gender Jihad - neue Wege für Musliminnen in Europa
Author: Ina Wunn,Mualla Selçuk
Publisher: Kohlhammer Verlag
Die Debatte über "islamischen Feminismus" und "Gender Jihad" gewinnt im europäischen, in den letzten Jahren besonders auch im deutschsprachigen Raum an Intensität und handlungsbezogener Relevanz. Im Kontext des westlichen Feminismus und westlicher feministischer Theologie wird der interkulturelle bzw. interreligiöse Dialog, vor allem auch im Prozess politischer Entscheidungsfindung, immer wichtiger. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes geben einen umfassenden Einblick in diesen Diskurs mit folgenden thematischen Schwerpunkten: Weibliche Koranexegese und Texthermeneutik - Islamischer Feminismus und die Diskussion über soziale und politische Handlungsstrategien - Frauenrechte als Menschenrechte und die Situation der Musliminnen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund - Formen, Aufgaben und Problem-/Konfliktzonen des interkulturellen und interreligiösen Dialogs.
Control, Vulnerability and Risk-Taking
Author: Ingrid Lander,Signe Ravn
Category: Social Science
Over recent decades criminological research has changed from a gender-blind discipline which equated crime with men and thus ignored questions about gender, to an approach that studied gender by showing statistical differences between men and women, and then finally to a more inclusive and elaborate gender-theoretical approach to crime and crime control. However, despite this development, research on gender - and in particular research on gendered norms and the construction and enactment of masculinities - within the criminological field has been unable to keep up with developments in gender research. Since 1990, only a few anthologies with a gender-theoretical orientation focusing on masculinities within the criminological research field have been published. Many of the theoretical developments in gender research still have difficulties in reaching into mainstream criminology, partly because such developments are often published in feminist and/or gender theoretical journals. This volume both problematizes and renders visible conceptions and norms regarding male behaviour and masculinities and shows how these affect the criminological field through providing a theoretically sound and clear gender perspective to this field of research. With sections based around the following three themes: negotiations of masculinity in institutional settings, vulnerable masculinities and risk-taking and masculinities, this volume will be of interest to scholars of criminology, sociology, social work and gender studies, as well as policy-makers, and law enforcement professionals.
Frauen und der Wille zum Erfolg
Author: Sheryl Sandberg
Publisher: Ullstein eBooks
Category: Biography & Autobiography
In Deutschland sitzen in den Vorständen der 100 umsatzstärksten Firmen gerade einmal drei Prozent Frauen. International sieht es nicht viel besser aus. Sheryl Sandberg ist COO von Facebook und gehörte davor zur Führungsmannschaft bei Google. Zusammen mit ihrem Mann Dave erzieht sie zwei kleine Kinder. Sie ist eine der wenigen sichtbaren Top-Managerinnen weltweit und ein Vorbild für Frauen aller Generationen. In ihrem Buch widmet sie sich ihrem Herzensthema: Wie können mehr Frauen in anspruchsvollen Jobs an die Spitze gelangen? Sie beschreibt äußere und innere Barrieren, die Frauen den Aufstieg verwehren. Sandberg zeigt, wie jede Frau ihre Ziele erreichen kann.
Author: Anna Rocca,Kenneth Reeds
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Women Taking Risks in Contemporary Autobiographical Narratives explores the nature and effects of risk in self-narrative representations of life events, and is an early step towards confronting the dearth of analysis on this subject. The collection focuses on risk-taking as one of women’s articulations of authorial agency displayed in literary, testimonial, photographic, travel and film documentary forms of autobiographical expression in French. Among many themes, the book fosters discussion on matters of courage, strength, resilience, freedom, self-fulfillment, political engagement, compassion, faith, and the envisioning of unconventional alliances that follow a woman’s stepping out of her comfort zone. The fourteen essays included in this collection discuss works of women authors from North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, France and the Caribbean. They exemplify a variety of self-narratives that blur unified conceptualizations of both identity and national belonging. They address questions about women writers’ attitudes towards risk and their willingness to change the status quo. They also explore the many personal and public forms in which agency manifests through risk-taking engagements; the ways in which women challenge the conventional wisdom about feminine reserve and aversion to danger; the multiplicity of seen and unforeseen consequences of risk taking; the all-too-frequent lack of recognition of female courage; the overcoming of obstacles by taking risks; and, frequently, the amelioration of women’s lives. Addressing both the broader context of the study of risk and the more specific areas of female expression and autobiography in Francophone cultures, this collection is attractive to a diverse audience with the potential to cross disciplines and inform a wide body of research. A number of the essays deal with issues born in postcolonial circumstances. This examination of the elucidation of marginalized voices should prove enlightening to an array of scholars researching specific ethnic, sexual, gender, and general subjects related to identity. In making inroads towards expanding the well-developed area of risk studies into the humanities, this collection makes an important contribution that has the potential to promote a variety of cross-disciplinary research including examinations of the psychology and sociology behind chauvinism, personal expression, and formative experiences.
Author: Kelly Hannah-Moffat,Pat O'Malley
Edited and contributed to by a collection of eminent international scholars in the field, this is the first book to explore the gendered aspects of risk. It analyzes what is currently known and identifies some of the new directions and challenges for research and theory that emerge from thinking of risk as a governmental technique; as a form of consciousness and action and as a political issue, shaped by, and shaping gender in contemporary society.
Author: Jutta Heckhausen,Heinz Heckhausen
Das Standardwerk der Motivationspsychologie liefert einen umfassenden Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Motivationsforschung. Die 4. Auflage wurde überarbeitet und um ein Kapitel zu evolutions- und biopsychologischen Aspekten ergänzt. Modelle, Theorien und die Übersicht über empirische Arbeiten wurden aktualisiert. Kapitelzusammenfassungen, Anwendungsbeispiele sowie Fragen und Antworten zur Wissensüberprüfung erleichtern das Lesen und Lernen für die Prüfung. Die begleitende Website bietet Lerntools für Studierende und Foliensätze für Dozenten.
Author: Savita Kumra,Ruth Simpson,Ronald J. Burke
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Business & Economics
The issue of gender in organizations has attracted much attention and debate over a number of years. The focus of examination is inequality of opportunity between the genders and the impact this has on organizations, individual men and women, and society as a whole. It is undoubtedly the case that progress has been made with women participating in organizational life in greater numbers and at more senior levels than has been historically the case, challenging notions that senior and/or influential organizational and political roles remain a masculine domain. The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations is a comprehensive analysis of thinking and research on gender in organizations with original contributions from key international scholars in the field. The Handbook comprises four sections. The first looks at the theoretical roots and potential for theoretical development in respect of the topic of gender in organizations. The second section focuses on leadership and management and the gender issues arising in this field; contributors review the extensive literature and reflect on progress made as well as commenting on hurdles yet to be overcome. The third section considers the gendered nature of careers. Here the focus is on querying traditional approaches to career, surfacing embedded assumptions within traditional approaches, and assessing potential for alternative patterns to evolve, taking into account the nature of women's lives and the changing nature of organizations. In its final section the Handbook examines masculinity in organizations to assess the diversity of masculinities evident within organizations and the challenges posed to those outside the norm. In bringing together a broad range of research and thinking on gender in organizations across a number of disciplines, sub-disciplines, and conceptual perspectives, the Handbook provides a comprehensive view of both contemporary thinking and future research directions.
How Radicalization Happens to Them and Us
Author: Clark McCauley,Sophia Moskalenko
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This accessible book identifies twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence. Terrorism is an extreme form of radicalization, and the book describes pathways to terrorism to demonstrate the twelve mechanisms at work. Written by two psychologists who are acknowledged radicalization experts and consultants to the Department of Homeland Security, Friction draws heavily on case histories. The case material is wide-ranging - drawn from Russia in the late 1800s, the US in the 1970s, and the radical Islam encouraged by the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. Taken together, the twelve mechanisms show how unexceptional people are moved to exceptional violence in the conflict between states and non-state challengers. Captivating, and with psychological overtones, this timely book covers one of the most pressing issues of our time.
Intersecting Gender and Disability Perspectives in Rethinking Postcolonial Identities
Author: Pushpa Parekh
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Category: Social Science
This volume of Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Womens and Gender Studies launches its second printed edition. Wagaduthe Soninke name of the Ghana Empirecontrolled the present-day Mali, Mauritania and Senegal and was famous for its prosperity and power from approximately 300-1076 CE. It constituted the bridge between North Africa, the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern worlds and Sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana gave birth to the two most powerful West African Empires: Mali and Songhay. The modern country of Ghana (former British Gold Coast) derives its name from the Ghana Empire. Why Wagadu? Wagadu has come to be the symbol of the sacrifice women continue to make for a better world. Wagadu has become the metaphor for the role of women in the family, community, country, and planet. Duna taka siro no yagare npale The world does not go without women. This volume investigates the intersecting perspectives, grounded in or emanating from theoretical, discursive as well as experiential frameworks and positions specific to gender, disability and postcoloniality.
Author: Edmond J Coleman,Theo Sandfort
Category: Social Science
Important new findings on sex and gender in the former Soviet Bloc! Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia is a groundbreaking look at the new sexual reality in Central, Eastern, and Southeast Europe after the fall of communism. The book presents the kind of candid discussion of sexual identities, sexual politics, and gender arrangements that was often censored and rarely discussed openly before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1987. Authors from a variety of disciplines examine how the changes caused by rapid economic and social transformation have affected human sexuality and if those changes can generate the social tolerance necessary to produce a well-rooted democracy. The first theoretical and empirical body of work to sexuality in (post)transitional countries, Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia examines the effects of the profound social transformation taking place in the former Soviet Union. Through an interdisciplinary perspective, the book addresses vital issues of this transformation, including gender relations, gender roles and sex norms in transition, sexual representations in the media, patterns of adult sexual behavior, gay and lesbian issues, sex trafficking, health risks, and sex education. The book also presents a critical examination of whether the fall of communism has, in fact, induced changes in sexuality and gender relations. Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia examines the changes in sex and gender in countries in transition, including: the negative consequences of Serbia’s “state-directed non-development” during the 1990s the causes and consequences of trafficking in women from the Russian Federation the ongoing debate over human rights for sexual minorities in Romania the effects of two Yugoslavian films released in the 1990s that feature transgender characters sexualities in transition in Croatia problems created by changes in sexual behavior among urban Russian adolescents the social and legal state of lesbians in Slovenia Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia fills in the gap in the current knowledge and understanding of the effects of the profound social changes taking place in Central, Eastern, and Southeast Europe. The book is an essential read for academics and researchers working in gender studies, political science, and gay and lesbian studies. Handy tables and figures make the information easy to access and understand.