The belief that men and women have fundamentally distinct natures, resulting in divergent preferences and behaviours, is widespread. Recently, economists have also engaged in the search for gender differences, with a number claiming to find fundamental gender differences regarding risk-taking, altruism, and competition. In particular, the idea that "women are more risk-averse than men" has become accepted as a truism. But is it true? And what are its causes and consequences? Gender and Risk Taking makes three contributions. First, it asks whether the belief that men and women have distinct risk preferences is backed up by high quality empirical evidence. The answer turns out to be "no." This leads to a second question: Why, then, does so much of the literature claim to find evidence of "difference"? This, it will be shown, can be attributed to biases arising from too-easy categorical thinking, widespread stereotyping, and a tendency to prefer results that are publishable and that fit one's prior beliefs. Third, the book explores the economic implications of the conventional association of risk-taking with masculinity and risk-aversion with femininity. Not only fairness in employment, but also the health of the financial sector and national responses to climate change, this book argues, are being compromised. This volume will be eye-opening for anyone interested in gender, decision-making, cognition, and/or risk, especially in areas relating to employment, finance, management, or public policy.
In a labor market hierarchy, promotions are affected by the noisiness of information about the candidates. I study the hypothesis that males are more risk taking than females, and its implications for rates of promotion and abilities of survivors. I define promotion hierarchies with and without memory, where memory means that promotion depends on the entire history of success. In both types of hierarchies, the surviving risk takers will have lower average ability whenever they have a higher survival rate. Further, even if more risk takers than non risk takers are promoted in the beginning of the hierarchy, that will be reversed over time. The risk takers will eventually have a lower survival rate, but higher ability. As a consequence of these differences, the various requirements of employment law cannot simultaneously be satisfied. Further, if promotion standards are chosen to maximize profit, the standards will reflect gender in ways that are difficult to distinguish from discriminatory intent.
This survey examines the implications of gender differences in economic behavior for macroeconomic policy. It finds that reducing gender inequality and improving the status of women may contribute to higher rates of economic growth and greater macroeconomic stability. Women's relative lack of opportunities in developing countries inhibits economic growth, while, at the same time, economic growth leads to a reduction in their disadvantaged condition. Equality of opportunity in labor and financial markets is critical to enabling women to take full advantage of improved macroeconomic conditions. Macroeconomic policies should take into account the benefits of reducing gender inequalities, especially in the lowest-income countries where these differences are most pronounced, and should consider the potentially harsher short-term effects of economic austerity measures on women to avoid exacerbating gender inequalities.
A Study of General Motors Company from 2009 - 2015
Author: Richard Ondimu
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Business & Economics
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: 83%, University of Westminster, course: MSc Finance, Banking and Insurance, language: English, abstract: It is now becoming increasingly evident that gender plays a vital role in investment and financing decisions of many organisations today as men and women tend to behave and act differently. Women are generally perceived to be detail-oriented, keen and sceptical in decision making relative to their male counterparts who are more risk tolerant. This study examines a number of empirical studies and other relevant literature to help justify as to whether or not, there is a relationship between gender, corporate financial decisions and risk taking. Using General Motors (GM-US), a company that experienced a CEO and Board Chair changeover from male to female in early 2014 and 2016 respectively as a case study, the essay examines measures like leverage, solvency, M&A activities, and other metrics that can directly be attributed to CEO/Board chair’s decisions and how these decisions alter the company’s risk profile in the period prior to and after the transition.
What do skydiving, rock climbing, and downhill skiing have in common with stock-trading, unprotected sex, and sadomasochism? All are high risk pursuits. Edgework explores the world of voluntary risk-taking, investigating the seductive nature of pursuing peril and teasing out the boundaries between legal and criminal behavior; conscious and unconscious acts; sanity and insanity; acceptable risk and stupidity. The distinguished contributors to this collection profile high risk-takers and explore their experiences with risk through such topics as juvenile delinquency, street anarchism, sadomasochism, avant-garde art, business risks, and extreme sport.
··Awarded the Descartes Prize 2004 of the European Commission·· How do gender inequalities translate at the top of politics and business? Is the gender gap eliminated for the most influential players in industrial democratic society? This informed and compelling analysis examines the demographic characteristics, family circumstances and career paths of a group of elite women. The book is noteworthy for being one of the first empirically based studies of women elites. Drawing on a sample from no less than 27 countries, a convincing and highly original picture is constructed that informs readers of career paths, values, social networks and gender battles for women elites. Co-ordinated by Mino Vianello and Gwen Moore, the research fills in a huge gap about how power actually operates in industrial-democratic societies. It enables us to test the view that substantial equality between the sexes has been achieved in the twenty first century. It constitutes a landmark work, both in the study of gender difference and the analysis of power. The findings will be of interest to academics and advanced students in a wide range of disciplines including stratification, globalization, political science, international relations, gender, sociology, organizational studies and much more.
Edited and contributed to by a collection of eminent international scholars in the field, this is the first book to explore the gendered aspects of risk. It analyzes what is currently known and identifies some of the new directions and challenges for research and theory that emerge from thinking of risk as a governmental technique; as a form of consciousness and action and as a political issue, shaped by, and shaping gender in contemporary society.
The issue of gender in organizations has attracted much attention and debate over a number of years. The focus of examination is inequality of opportunity between the genders and the impact this has on organizations, individual men and women, and society as a whole. It is undoubtedly the case that progress has been made with women participating in organizational life in greater numbers and at more senior levels than has been historically the case, challenging notions that senior and/or influential organizational and political roles remain a masculine domain. The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations is a comprehensive analysis of thinking and research on gender in organizations with original contributions from key international scholars in the field. The Handbook comprises four sections. The first looks at the theoretical roots and potential for theoretical development in respect of the topic of gender in organizations. The second section focuses on leadership and management and the gender issues arising in this field; contributors review the extensive literature and reflect on progress made as well as commenting on hurdles yet to be overcome. The third section considers the gendered nature of careers. Here the focus is on querying traditional approaches to career, surfacing embedded assumptions within traditional approaches, and assessing potential for alternative patterns to evolve, taking into account the nature of women's lives and the changing nature of organizations. In its final section the Handbook examines masculinity in organizations to assess the diversity of masculinities evident within organizations and the challenges posed to those outside the norm. In bringing together a broad range of research and thinking on gender in organizations across a number of disciplines, sub-disciplines, and conceptual perspectives, the Handbook provides a comprehensive view of both contemporary thinking and future research directions.
Intersecting Gender and Disability Perspectives in Rethinking Postcolonial Identities
Author: Pushpa Parekh
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Category: Social Science
This volume of Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Womens and Gender Studies launches its second printed edition. Wagaduthe Soninke name of the Ghana Empirecontrolled the present-day Mali, Mauritania and Senegal and was famous for its prosperity and power from approximately 300-1076 CE. It constituted the bridge between North Africa, the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern worlds and Sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana gave birth to the two most powerful West African Empires: Mali and Songhay. The modern country of Ghana (former British Gold Coast) derives its name from the Ghana Empire. Why Wagadu? Wagadu has come to be the symbol of the sacrifice women continue to make for a better world. Wagadu has become the metaphor for the role of women in the family, community, country, and planet. Duna taka siro no yagare npale The world does not go without women. This volume investigates the intersecting perspectives, grounded in or emanating from theoretical, discursive as well as experiential frameworks and positions specific to gender, disability and postcoloniality.