Search Results: hegemony-in-international-society

Hegemony in International Society

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199556261

Category: History

Page: 277

View: 8586

Historically, states have appeared nervous of too much concentration of power. At the same time, they have accepted that the great powers must play a special role in maintaining international order. Can both of these tendencies be reconciled? This book argues that hegemony is one way of framing this relationship. On the basis of historical examples, the author presents an innovative scheme for rethinking hegemony, and applies it to the US role in internationalorganizations, in East Asia, and in the policy on climate change. Its urgent advice is that we must live creatively with the balance of power we now face, until such time as it is replaced by something new.

Hegemony & History

Author: J.H. Adam Watson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136013180

Category: Political Science

Page: 128

View: 5769

This collection of essays records the development of Adam Watson's thinking about international theory from the 1950s to the present, exploring his contribution to, and the development of, the English School. Adam Watson was one of the members of the British Committee on the Theory of International Politics alongside Herbert Butterfield, Martin Wight and Hedley Bull and a founding member of the English School. The committee developed a theory of international society and the nature of order in world politics, which have had an important impact on the discipline of international relations, providing a framework and research agenda for understanding international politics that continues to shape the discipline in the present day. Hegemony & History examines issues such as: the behaviour of states in international systems and societies hegemony and empire justice non-state relations, including the economic involvement of communities and the role of other non-state actors the increasing focus of international politics on individuals as well as states. The book will be of strong interest to students and researchers of international relations, political science, history and economics, as well as diplomatic practitioners and others concerned with international affairs.

The Struggle for Order

Hegemony, Hierarchy, and Transition in Post-Cold War East Asia

Author: Evelyn Goh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019959936X

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 5573

How has world order changed since the Cold War ended? Do we live in an age of American empire, or is global power shifting to the East with the rise of China? Arguing that existing ideas about balance of power and power transition are inadequate, this book gives an innovative reinterpretation of the changing nature of U.S. power, focused on the 'order transition' in East Asia. Hegemonic power is based on both coercion and consent, and hegemony is crucially underpinned by shared norms and values. Thus hegemons must constantly legitimize their unequal power to other states. In periods of strategic change, the most important political dynamics centre on this bargaining process, conceived here as the negotiation of a social compact. This book studies the re-negotiation of this consensual compact between the U.S., China, and other states in post-Cold War East Asia. It analyses institutional bargains to constrain and justify power; attempts to re-define the relationship between a regional community and the global economic order; the evolution of great power authority in regional conflict management, and the salience of competing justice claims in memory disputes. It finds that U.S. hegemony has been established in East Asia after the Cold War mainly because of the complicity of key regional states. But the new social compact also makes room for rising powers and satisfies smaller states' insecurities. The book controversially proposes that the East Asian order is multi-tiered and hierarchical, led by the U.S. but incorporating China, Japan, and other states in the layers below it.

Cooperation and Hegemony in US-Latin American Relations

Revisiting the Western Hemisphere Idea

Author: Andrew R. Tillman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137510749

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 5093

This edited volume revisits the idea of the Western Hemisphere. First articulated by Arthur P. Whitaker in 1954 but with origins in the earlier work of Herbert E. Bolton, it is the idea that "the peoples of this Hemisphere stand in a special relationship to one another which sets them apart from the rest of the word" (Whitaker, 1954). For most scholars of US-Latin American relations, this is a curious concept. They often conceptualize US-Latin American relations through the prism of realism and interventionism. While this volume does not deny that the United States has often acted as an imperial power in Latin America, it is unique in that it challenges scholars to re-think their preconceived notions of inter-American relations and explores the possibility of a common international society for the Americas, especially in the realm of international relations. Unlike most volumes on US-Latin American relations, the book develops its argument in an interdisciplinary manner, bringing together different approaches from disciplines including international relations, global and diplomatic history, human rights studies, and cultural and intellectual history.

National Interests in International Society

Author: Martha Finnemore

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801483233

Category: Social Science

Page: 154

View: 1227

How do states know what they want? Asking how interests are defined and how changes in them are accommodated, Martha Finnemore shows the fruitfulness of a constructivist approach to international politics. She draws on insights from sociological institutionalism to develop a systemic approach to state interests and state behavior by investigating an international structure not of power but of meaning and social value. An understanding of what states want, she argues, requires insight into the international social structure of which they are a part. States are embedded in dense networks of transnational and international social relations that shape their perceptions and their preferences in consistent ways. Finnemore focuses on international organizations as one important component of social structure and investigates the ways in which they redefine state preferences. She details three examples in different issue areas. In state structure, she discusses UNESCO and the changing international organization of science. In security, she analyzes the role of the Red Cross and the acceptance of the Geneva Convention rules of war. Finally, she focuses on the World Bank and explores the changing definitions of development in the Third World. Each case shows how international organizations socialize states to accept new political goals and new social values in ways that have lasting impact on the conduct of war, the workings of the international political economy, and the structure of states themselves.

Gramsci and Global Politics

Hegemony and resistance

Author: Mark McNally,John Schwarzmantel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134025726

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8302

The aim of this book is to explain and assess the relevance of the ideas of Gramsci to a world fundamentally transformed from that in which his thought was developed. It takes some of Gramsci’s best-known concepts – hegemony, civil society, passive revolution, the national-popular, trasformismo, the integral state - and uses them creatively to analyse features of present-day politics, assessing to what extent his ideas can aid our understanding of the contemporary political world. The book contains essays focused on: aspects of global politics (the development of a global civil society, the validity of the knowledge claims of neo-Gramscian IR specialists and the politics of the WTO and the Alternative Globalisation Movement); contemporary feminism; the problem of adjusting Gramsci’s theory of political agency to modern conditions; Turkish and Israeli politics; and a series of essays on present-day British politics. The book concludes that while there remain considerable problems in applying Gramsci’s concepts to the contemporary world, his political thought still retains an attraction and validity that will continue to inspire political analysts well into the future. Bringing together a range of essays representing some of the latest research in the field, Gramsci and Global Politics: Hegemony and Resistance opens up new perspectives on Gramsci which will be of vital interest to students and scholars in International Relations and Political Science, Sociology and History.

Promoting Polyarchy

Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony

Author: William I. Robinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566919

Category: Political Science

Page: 466

View: 5234

Promoting Polyarchy is an exciting, detailed and controversial work on the apparent change in US foreign policy from supporting dictatorships to promoting "democratic" regimes. William I. Robinson argues that behind this facade, US policy upholds the undemocratic status quo of Third World countries. He addresses the theoretical and historical issues at stake, and uncovers a wealth of information from field work and hitherto unpublished government documents. Promoting Polyarchy is an essential book for anyone concerned with democracy, globalization and international affairs.

Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations

Author: Stephen Gill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521435239

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3722

Relates the writings of Antonio Gramsci and others to the contemporary debates in international relations.

Chinese Hegemony

Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History

Author: Feng Zhang

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804795045

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 7428

Chinese Hegemony: Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History joins a rapidly growing body of important literature that combines history and International Relations theory to create new perspectives on East Asian political and strategic behavior. The book explores the strategic and institutional dynamics of international relations in East Asian history when imperial China was the undisputed regional hegemon, focusing in depth on two central aspects of Chinese hegemony at the time: the grand strategies China and its neighbors adopted in their strategic interactions, and the international institutions they engaged in to maintain regional order—including but not limited to the tribute system. Feng Zhang draws on both Chinese and Western intellectual traditions to develop a relational theory of grand strategy and fundamental institutions in regional relations. The theory is evaluated with three case studies of Sino-Korean, Sino-Japanese, and Sino-Mongol relations during China's early Ming dynasty—when a type of Confucian expressive strategy was an essential feature of regional relations. He then explores the policy implications of this relational model for understanding and analyzing contemporary China's rise and the changing East Asian order. The book suggests some historical lessons for understanding contemporary Chinese foreign policy and considers the possibility of a more relational and cooperative Chinese strategy in the future.

Universal Jurisdiction in International Criminal Law

The Debate and the Battle for Hegemony

Author: Aisling O'Sullivan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317301218

Category: Law

Page: 222

View: 1555

With the sensational arrest of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet in 1998, the rise to prominence of universal jurisdiction over crimes against international law seemed to be assured. The arrest of Pinochet and the ensuing proceedings before the UK courts brought universal jurisdiction into the foreground of the "fight against impunity" and the principle was read as an important complementary mechanism for international justice –one that could offer justice to victims denied an avenue by the limited jurisdiction of international criminal tribunals. Yet by the time of the International Court of Justice’s Arrest Warrant judgment four years later, the picture looked much bleaker and the principle was being read as a potential tool for politically motivated trials. This book explores the debate over universal jurisdiction in international criminal law, aiming to unpack a practice in which international lawyers continue to disagree over the concept of universal jurisdiction. Using Martti Koskenniemi’s work as a foil, this book exposes the argumentative techniques in operation in national and international adjudication since the 1990s. Drawing on overarching patterns within the debate, Aisling O’Sullivan argues that it is bounded by a tension between contrasting political preferences or positions, labelled as moralist ("ending impunity") and formalist ("avoiding abuse") and she reads the debate as a movement of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic positions that struggle for hegemonic control. However, she draws out how these positions (moralist/formalist) merge into one another and this produces a tendency towards a "middle" position that continues to prefer a particular preference (moralist or formalist). Aisling O’Sullivan then traces the transformation towards this tendency that reflects an internal split among international lawyers between building a utopia ("court of humanity") and recognizing its impossibility of being realized.

Spheres of Influence in International Relations

History, Theory and Politics

Author: Susanna Hast

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317051300

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 6254

Current events happening around the world, especially the ’humanitarian interventions’ by NATO and the West within the context of the so-called Arab Spring, make the understanding of the role of spheres of influence in international politics absolutely critical. Hast explores the practical implications and applications of this theory, challenging the concept by using historical examples such as suzerainty and colonialism, as well as the emergence of a hierarchical international order. This study further connects the English School tradition, post-war international order, the Cold War and images of Russia with the concept of the sphere of influence to initiate debate and provide a fresh outlook on a concept which has little recent attention.

From International to World Society?

English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation

Author: Barry Buzan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521541213

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 8936

In this 2004 book, Barry Buzan offers an extensive critique and reappraisal of the English school approach to International Relations. Starting on the neglected concept of world society and bringing together the international society tradition and the Wendtian mode of constructivism, Buzan offers a new theoretical framework that can be used to address globalisation as a complex political interplay among state and non-state actors. This approach forces English school theory to confront neglected questions about both its basic concepts and assumptions, and about the constitution of society in terms of what values are shared, how and why they are shared, and by whom. Buzan highlights the idea of primary institutions as the central contribution of English school theory and shows how this both differentiates English school theory from realism and neoliberal institutionalism, and how it can be used to generate distinctive comparative and historical accounts of international society.

The Vulnerable in International Society

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199646082

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 7844

What makes people vulnerable to harm? In this contribution to International Relations theory, the author shows how international systems of protection (such as the Geneva Conventions, or the Refugee Convention) can have a social impact on how vulnerability is distributed, leaving some people more exposed to risk. This view is demonstrated through four cases, tracing the consequences for vulnerability in the areas of political violence, climate change, humanmovement, and global health. Although these are often presented as simply technical or practical problems requiring management, the author makes clear that they are essentially moral in nature. This makes their solution even more complex.

US Hegemony and International Organizations

The United States and Multilateral Institutions

Author: Rosemary Foot,S. Neil MacFarlane,Michael Mastanduno

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199261423

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 296

View: 4581

The aims of this text are two-fold: to describe and explain US behaviour in and towards a wide range of significant global and regional institutions; and secondly, to examine the impact of US behaviour on the capacity of each organization to meet its own objectives.

Legitimacy in International Society

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199258422

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 1071

The word 'legitimacy' is seldom far from the lips of practitioners of international affairs. The legitimacy of recent events - such as the wars in Kosovo and Iraq, the post-September 11 war on terror, and instances of humanitarian intervention - have been endlessly debated by publics around the globe. And yet the academic discipline of IR has largely neglected this concept. This book encourages us to take legitimacy seriously, both as a facet of international behaviour withpractical consequences, and as a theoretical concept necessary for understanding that behaviour. It offers a comprehensive historical and theoretical account of international legitimacy. It argues that the development of principles of legitimacy lie at the heart of what is meant by an international society,and in so doing fills a notable void in English school accounts of the subject.Part I provides a historical survey of the evolution of the practice of legitimacy from the 'age of discovery' at the end of the 15th century. It explores how issues of legitimacy were interwoven with the great peace settlements of modern history - in 1648, 1713, 1815, 1919, and 1945. It offers a revisionist reading of the significance of Westphalia - not as the origin of a modern doctrine of sovereignty - but as a seminal stage in the development of an international society based on sharedprinciples of legitimacy. All of the historical chapters demonstrate how the twin dimensions of legitimacy - principles of rightful membership and of rightful conduct - have been thought about and developed in differing contexts.Part II then provides a trenchant analysis of legitimacy in contemporary international society. Deploying a number of short case studies, drawn mainly from the wars against Iraq in 1991 and 2003, and the Kosovo war of 1999, it sets out a theoretical account of the relationship between legitimacy, on the one hand, and consensus, norms, and equilibrium, on the other.This is the most sustained attempt to make sense of legitimacy in an IR context. Its conclusion, in the end, is that legitimacy matters, but in a complex way. Legitimacy is not to be discovered simply by straightforward application of other norms, such as legality and morality. Instead, legitimacy is an inherently political condition. What determines its attainability or not is as much the general political condition of international society at any one moment, as the conformity of its specificactions to set normative principles.

The Evolution of International Society

A Comparative Historical Analysis Reissue with a new introduction by Barry Buzan and Richard Little

Author: Adam Watson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0203875648

Category: History

Page: 350

View: 4986

`This is a real feast of a book. ... a landmark book. It is clear enough to be used as a teaching text, and could make an excellent introduction to the discipline for those courageous enough to revise their courses.' International Affairs `This is a bold, successful and valuable book... It is written with admirable clarity and merciful conciseness.' International Relations `A stunning success. Watson's book is a masterful piece of theoretical and historical analysis.' John A. Vasquez, Rutgers University Adam Watson, who died in 2007, was a former diplomat who in his later academic career became a pioneer of the discipline of international relations. Originally published in 1992, The Evolution of International Society made a major contribution to international theory and to our perception of how relations between states operate, and established Watson’s place within the canon. This acclaimed and uniquely comprehensive work explains how international societies function across time, starting by examining the ancient state systems before turning to look in detail at the current worldwide international society. The book demonstrates that relations between states are not normally anarchic, but are in fact organized and regulated by elaborate rules and practices. In this timely reissue, a new introduction by Barry Buzan and Richard Little assesses Adam Watson's career as a diplomat and examines how his work as a practitioner shaped his subsequent thinking about the nature of international society. It then contextualises Watson's original work, situates it alongside current work in the area and identifies the originality of Watson's key arguments, helping us to understand Watson’s place within the canon.

American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe

Author: Krige

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262263416

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 7155

In 1945, the United States was not only the strongest economic and military power in the world; it was also the world's leader in science and technology. In American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe, John Krige describes the efforts of influential figures in the United States to model postwar scientific practices and institutions in Western Europe on those in America. They mobilized political and financial support to promote not just America's scientific and technological agendas in Western Europe but its Cold War political and ideological agendas as well.Drawing on the work of diplomatic and cultural historians, Krige argues that this attempt at scientific dominance by the United States can be seen as a form of "consensual hegemony," involving the collaboration of influential local elites who shared American values. He uses this notion to analyze a series of case studies that describe how the U.S. administration, senior officers in the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the NATO Science Committee, and influential members of the scientific establishment -- notably Isidor I. Rabi of Columbia University and Vannevar Bush of MIT -- tried to Americanize scientific practices in such fields as physics, molecular biology, and operations research. He details U.S. support for institutions including CERN, the Niels Bohr Institute, the French CNRS and its laboratories at Gif near Paris, and the never-established "European MIT." Krige's study shows how consensual hegemony in science not only served the interests of postwar European reconstruction but became another way of maintaining American leadership and "making the world safe for democracy."

The Global Covenant

Human Conduct in a World of States

Author: Robert Jackson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191037419

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 7948

The Global Covernant is a ground-breaking work by one of the leading scholars in international relations that rejuvenates the classical international society approach, and brings it into contact with the new era of world politics. It investigates the most important international issues of our time, including peace and security, war and intervention, human rights, failed states, territories and boundaries, and democracy. It draws on a family of closely related disciplines: diplomatic and military history, international legal studies, and international political theory. It addresses basic methodological questions and presents the elements of a human sciences approach to the study of world politics. It contemplates the future of international society in the 21st century. The Global Covenant concludes by justifying the pluralist society of sovereign states as one that respects human diversity and upholds human freedom.

Counter-Hegemony and Foreign Policy

The Dialectics of Marginalized and Global Forces in Jamaica

Author: Randolph B. Persaud

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791449196

Category: History

Page: 284

View: 1042

Argues that marginalized states and peoples are capable of initiating their own foreign policy agendas.

China's Hegemony

Four Hundred Years of East Asian Domination

Author: Ji-Young Lee

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231542178

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9302

Many have viewed the tribute system as China's tool for projecting its power and influence in East Asia, treating other actors as passive recipients of Chinese domination. China's Hegemony sheds new light on this system and shows that the international order of Asia's past was not as Sinocentric as conventional wisdom suggests. Instead, throughout the early modern period, Chinese hegemony was accepted, defied, and challenged by its East Asian neighbors at different times, depending on these leaders' strategies for legitimacy among their populations. This book demonstrates that Chinese hegemony and hierarchy were not just an outcome of China's military power or Confucian culture but were constructed while interacting with other, less powerful actors' domestic political needs, especially in conjunction with internal power struggles. Focusing on China-Korea-Japan dynamics of East Asian international politics during the Ming and High Qing periods, Ji-Young Lee draws on extensive research of East Asian language sources, including records written by Chinese and Korean tributary envoys. She offers fascinating and rich details of war and peace in Asian international relations, addressing questions such as: why Japan invaded Korea and fought a major war against the Sino-Korean coalition in the late sixteenth century; why Korea attempted to strike at the Ming empire militarily in the late fourteenth century; and how Japan created a miniature tributary order posing as the center of Asia in lieu of the Qing empire in the seventeenth century. By exploring these questions, Lee's in-depth study speaks directly to general international relations literature and concludes that hegemony in Asia was a domestic, as well as an international phenomenon with profound implications for the contemporary era.

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