Journalists and HIV/AIDS and Malaria Coverage
Author: Muyanga Ziba
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2012 in the subject Communications - Journalism, Journalism Professions, , language: English, abstract: This study is a contribution to development in the field of journalism in Malawi and neighbouring countries of Malawi, Zambia and Tanzania, at a time of growing concern about the developmental challenges being posed by the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Southern Africa. For Malawi in particular, it examines the struggle against the pandemic that has been underway since 1993 and how the interventions to check its spread have included calls for projects and information that would lead to behaviour change and lowering of infection rates. The campaign along this line has targeted the media, among key stakeholders. To gauge the extent to which journalists are playing their role in the campaign in question, a survey was carried out in Malawi and then also in Zambia and Tanzania. This revealed that journalists in all the three countries covered are currently somewhat hampered in their advocacy of HIVAIDS issues, and that is due to several factors. These include the dearth of communication research in the region, as well as the related lack of relevant education and training opportunities for journalists. They also encompass the absence of laws granting journalists access to relevant government information about epidemiology; the culture of silence which surrounds the exchange of news about HIV/AIDS related deaths and competition in the media posed by popularity of stories about politics, economics and religion. As a way forward, it is proposed and recommended that journalists should be linked to projects that directly address the needs of local communities in the national campaign against HIV/AIDS. These would be projects like those which incorporated the citizen participation tradition, by empowering even the least respected members of the society. For the media, these include community radio stations, and vernacular newspapers. For people at village or grassroots level, these are important channels of information about HIV/AIDS and other major killer diseases, to which the common man is able to directly relate. The study also advances the need for a course or course module on Health Journalism to be offered by an appropriate school of journalism within the countries. Through such a course, journalists would be equipped with skills to enable them to cover HIV/AIDS issues effectively and comprehensively.
Stories from Teachers Living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
Author: Donald Bundy,David Aduda,Alice Woolnough,Lesley Drake,Stella Manda
Publisher: World Bank Publications
'Courage and Hope' gives voice to the real life experiences of 12 HIV-positive teachers 5 of whom are women from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia. The teachers recount their experiences of discovering their HIV-positive status and how this has affected them in their families, their communities, and their professional lives. When one teacher discovered she was HIV-positive, she lost everything her husband, her children, and her home. Now she is receiving treatment, has returned to teaching, and has reestablished her home with her children. Another teacher lost her husband to AIDS and then lost her home. She is now living positively, working to overcome stigma among students and teaching staff. The voices of these teachers suggest that a number of obstacles are commonly faced by teachers living with HIV. Paramount among them are stigma and discrimination, within their families and communities, as well as in their workplaces and society in general. The difficulties of overcoming these perceptions are complicated by a lack of confidentiality in medical facilities and the workplace. 'Courage and Hope: African Teachers Living Positively with HIV', supplied on the DVD, is a documentary film produced in 2008 in which teachers tell their own stories in their own words. Whether presented via video or print, the story of each teacher demonstrates a wide range of challenges as well as insights and successes, while also suggesting ways to more effectively address these challenges. These truly are stories of courage and hope.
How the West Sparked the AIDS Epidemic and How the World Can Finally Overcome It
Author: Craig Timberg,Daniel Halperin
Category: Health & Fitness
In this groundbreaking narrative, longtime Washington Post reporter Craig Timberg and award-winning AIDS researcher Daniel Halperin tell the surprising story of how Western colonial powers unwittingly sparked the AIDS epidemic and then fanned its rise. Drawing on remarkable new science, Tinderbox overturns the conventional wisdom on the origins of this deadly pandemic and the best ways to fight it today. Recent genetic studies have traced the birth of HIV to the forbidding equatorial forests of Cameroon, where chimpanzees carried the virus for millennia without causing a major outbreak in humans. During the Scramble for Africa, colonial companies blazed new routes through the jungle in search of rubber and other riches, sending African porters into remote regions rarely traveled before. It was here that humans first contracted the strain of HIV that would eventually cause 99 percent of AIDS deaths around the world. Western powers were key actors in turning a localized outbreak into a sprawling epidemic as bustling new trade routes, modern colonial cities, and the rise of prostitution sped the virus across Africa. Christian missionaries campaigned to suppress polygamy, but left in its place fractured sexual cultures that proved uncommonly vulnerable to HIV. Equally devastating was the gradual loss of the African ritual of male circumcision, which recent studies have shown offers significant protection against infection. Timberg and Halperin argue that the same Western hubris that marked the colonial era has hamstrung the effort to fight HIV. From the United Nations AIDS program to the Bush administration's historic relief campaign, global health officials have favored well-meaning Western approaches--abstinence campaigns, condom promotion, HIV testing--that have proven ineffective in slowing the epidemic in Africa. Meanwhile they have overlooked homegrown African initiatives aimed squarely at the behaviors spreading the virus. In a riveting narrative that stretches from colonial Leopoldville to 1980s San Francisco to South Africa today, Tinderbox reveals how human hands unleashed this epidemic and can now overcome it, if only we learn the lessons of the past.
Finding a Place on the Global Agenda: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Planning Committee for a Workshop on Violence Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Social Science
The current state of science in violence prevention reveals progress, promise, and a number of remaining challenges. In order to fully examine the issue of global violence prevention, the Institute of Medicine in collaboration with Global Violence Prevention Advocacy, convened a workshop and released the workshop summary entitled, Violence Prevention in Low-and Middle-Income Countries. The workshop brought together participants with a wide array of expertise in fields related to health, criminal justice, public policy, and economic development, to study and articulate specific opportunities for the U.S. government and other leaders with resources to more effectively support programming for prevention of the many types of violence. Participants highlighted the need for the timely development of an integrated, science-based approach and agenda to support research, clinical practice, program development, policy analysis, and advocacy for violence prevention.
Author: Jock Lauterer
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
No matter how ambitious they may be, most novice journalists don't get their start at the New York Times. They get their first jobs at smaller local community newspapers that require a different style of reporting than the detached, impersonal approach expected of major international publications. As the primary textbook and sourcebook for the teaching and practice of local journalism and newspaper publishing in the United States, Community Journalism addresses the issues a small-town newspaper writer or publisher is likely to face. Jock Lauterer covers topics ranging from why community journalism is important and distinctive; to hints for reporting and writing with a "community spin"; to design, production, photojournalism, and staff management. This third edition introduces new chapters on adjusting to changing demographics in the community and "best practices" for community papers. Updated with fresh examples throughout and considering the newest technologies in editing and photography, this edition of Community Journalism provides the very latest of what every person working at a small newspaper needs to know.
Author: Rafael Obregon,Silvio Waisbord
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
International in scope, The Handbook of Global Health Communication offers a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of the role of communication processes in global public health, development and social change Brings together 32 contributions from well-respected scholars and practitioners in the field, addressing a wide range of communication approaches in current global health programs Offers an integrated view that links communication to the strengthening of health services, the involvement of affected communities in shaping health policies and improving care, and the empowerment of citizens in making decisions about health Adopts a broad understanding of communication that goes beyond conventional divisions between informational and participatory approaches
A Critical History
Author: Martin Conboy
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Journalism: A Critical History provides a history of the development of newspapers, periodicals and broadcast journalism which: enables readers to engage critically with contemporary issues within the news media; outlines the connections, as well as the distinctions, across historical periods; spans the introduction of printed news to the arrival of the 'new' news media; demonstrates how journalism has always been informed by a cultural practices broader and more dynamic than the simple provision of news; By situating journalism in its historical context, this book enables students to more ful.
Author: Quarraisha Abdool Karim,Salim S. Abdool Karim,Cheryl Baxter
Since its inception 14 years ago, CAPRISA has conducted numerous clinical studies that have influenced international TB-HIV treatment guidelines as well as HIV prevention through innovations in the microbicide and vaccine fields. This book provides a historical account of how each of CAPRISA’s high impact studies was created, developed, implemented, analysed and communicated. In doing so, the reader is taken on a journey that provides glimpses into the genesis of research ideas and how this ultimately leads to a range of HIV prevention and treatment studies that have impacted the global response to the HIV and TB epidemics. Comprised of 5 sections, the book details the following: HIV epidemic in South Africa and the establishment of a research centre to undertake clinical, epidemiological and laboratory research on HIV. CAPRISA’s clinical trials on HIV and HSV-2 prevention. These studies investigated the impact of tenofovir gel as topical antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), implementation of topical PrEP through family planning clinics, conditional cash incentives for HIV prevention, HIV vaccines, and passive immunisation with broadly neutralising antibodies. CAPRISA’s research on the treatment of HIV and TB co-infection. A review of the major scientific findings from the CAPRISA studies on acute infection and genital mucosal immunology. Essential support activities for the conduct of clinical trials, including research laboratories and pharmacies, as well as establishing effective communication and sustainable structures for community engagement to maintain effective and respectful partnerships with participating communities. The book concludes with a chapter about the challenges facing future HIV prevention and treatment trials. The CAPRISA Clinical Trials: HIV Treatment and Prevention is a resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, health care providers, doctors, decision-makers and researchers who are seeking guidance and insights on clinical trials – their creation, conduct and impact.
Author: United Nations,United Nations Publications
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Political Science
This is the sixtieth volume of the most comprehensive reference work on the activities of the Organisation, covering 2006. This fully indexed Yearbook, reproduces in their entirety the texts of, and votes on, all major General Assembly, Security Council and Economic and Social Council resolutions and decisions. Its 33 chapters cover developments in the main political and security questions; human rights; economic and social questions; legal questions; and institutional, administrative and budgetary questions.
Author: Max Essex,Souleymane Mboup,Phyllis J. Kanki,Richard G. Marlink,Sheila D. Tlou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This comprehensive reference book addresses the unique challenges facing many African nations as poor infrastructure and economics continue to obstruct access to advanced treatments and AIDS care training. It takes into account the context of settings with limited resources. Information on how to best utilize existing resources and prioritize scaling-up of infrastructure is a critical aspect of this book for those working in HIV/AIDS-related fields in Africa.
Author: Susan Hunter
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
To the surprise of many, George W. Bush pledged $10 billion to combat AIDS in developing nations. Noted specialist Susan Hunter tells the untold story of AIDS in Africa, home to 80 percent of the 40 million people in the world currently infected with HIV. She weaves together the history of colonialism in Africa, an insider's take on the reluctance of drug companies to provide cheap medication and vaccines in poor countries, and personal anecdotes from the 20 years she spent in Africa working on the AIDS crisis. Taken together, these strands make it unmistakably clear that a history of the exploitation of developing nations by the West is directly responsible for the spread of disease in developing nations and the AIDS pandemic in Africa. Hunter looks at what Africans are already doing on the ground level to combat AIDS, and what the world can and must do to help. Accessibly written and hard-hitting,Black Death brings the staggering statistics to life and paints for the first time a stunning picture of the most important political issue today.
The Industrialized World Faces AIDS
Author: Peter Baldwin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
“A historical masterpiece! Just when we thought we knew everything about the politics and policies of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, Peter Baldwin surprises us with innovative insights about the sharp differences in policy among countries as well as complex tradeoffs between civil liberties and public goods. This is a refreshing and readable book in which AIDS is used as a lens to understand the public health enterprise ranging from leprosy and syphilis to tuberculosis and SARS. Baldwin offers a deeply historical and comparative understanding of HIV in the industrialized world.”—Lawrence O. Gostin, author of Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint "Although a vast literature has emerged to chronicle and reflect on the history of the AIDS epidemic since it was first reported almost a quarter of a century ago, there is nothing like Peter Baldwin's probing and synthetic analysis of AIDS in the industrialized world. Building on his masterful Contagion and the State in Europe 1830-1930, Baldwin has provided a complex historical tapestry of how an epidemic threat has challenged and exposed democracies that thought infectious threats a thing of the past."—Ronald Bayer author of Private Acts, Social Cosequences:Aids and the Politics Of Public Health and coauthor with Gerald Oppenheimer of AIDS Doctors:Voices from the Epidemic
Author: William Markle,Melanie Fisher,Jr. Ray Smego
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
The rapidly evolving world of global health and medicine -- in the palm of your hand "The book's 17 multi-authored chapters cover contemporary global public health remarkably well....Overall, it is a superb introductory text for preclinical and public health novices in global health across a wide spectrum of health careers."--Family Medicine Journal "This is a welcome addition to the expanding roster of books on global health. It is well written and provides appropriate background information required to initiate any study program in global health. 3 Stars."--Doody's Review Service Understanding Global Health is the groundbreaking, go-to primer that puts global health and its many challenges into sharp focus like no other text. Written with the nonspecialist in mind, this powerful resource expertly reviews all the core topics that you must know in order to thrive in this decentralized new global health environment. It's all here: unique, authoritative coverage of public health concepts, plus insights into infectious diseases and clinical medicine-everything you need to truly comprehend how global medicine is dramatically affecting today's practice of medicine-and to prepare for your role in it.
The Challenge of Informality in the Middle East and North Africa
Author: Roberta Gatti,Diego F. Angel-Urdinola,Joana Silva,András Bodor
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Business & Economics
While economic growth has been sustained for a number of years in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. While there is a great deal of heterogeneity across countries, informality in MENA is widespread, and some countries in the region are amongst the most informal economies in the world. The book looks at informality through a human development angle and focuses specifically on informal employment. In line with this approach, the working definition for informality adopted in the book is “lack of social security coverage” (usually understood as pensions, or if a pension system does not exist, as health insurance), which captures well the vulnerability associated with informal employment. Informal workers in MENA are generally engaged in low productivity jobs - more so than in comparator countries -, are paid less for otherwise similar work in the formal sector, and self-report low levels of satisfaction at work. Also, informal workers in MENA face important mobility barriers into formal employment and thus lack of social security coverage against health, unemployment, and old-age risks. Formal employment in the MENA region is strongly associated with public sector employment. Opportunities for formal employment in the private sector in the region remain very limited. The book identifies 5 strategic directions to promote long-term inclusive growth and formality, namely: (i) fostering competition; (ii) realigning incentives in the public sector; (iii) moving towards labor regulations that promote labor mobility and provide support to workers in periods of transition; (iv) enhancing the productivity of informal workers through training and skills upgrading; and (v) reforming existing social insurance systems and introduce new instruments for coverage extension. This book is addressed to policy makers, academics, and practitioners who wish to understand the phenomenon of informal employment, and policy options for promoting more inclusive and productive labor market opportunities.
Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa
Author: Dambisa Moyo
Category: Political Science
Describes the state of postwar development policy in Africa that has channeled billions of dollars in aid but failed to either reduce poverty or increase growth, offering a hopeful vision of how to address the problem.