Economic development has cyclical dynamics and long-term dynamics – the latter are typically related to demographical changes, innovation and long-term insti- tional changes in open economies. Financial markets – that means mainly capital markets – and labor markets are affected in OECD countries both by innovations and institutional reforms. As regards demographics ageing is a typical challenge on both sides of the Atlantic, and pension reforms in industrialized countries have placed greater emphasis on capital markets than in previous decades. Innovation dynamics certainly are also quite important for all high wage OECD countries. The Lisbon Agenda has put particular emphasis on more growth, higher innovation dynamics and better exploitation of the advantages of a digitally networked society. Traditionally, the US has a lead in global innovations, and the US policy certainly has contributed to the American technological leadership. There still is a per capita income gap in favor of the US and the US labor market situation also looks relatively favorable, but in the ?ve years since 2001 employment growth in the euro area was higher than that of the US. The euro area is, however, a rather heterogeneous set of countries which differ in terms of institutions, attitudes and reform progress – and everywhere governments are aware that there have to be reforms, not least in the context of globalization which bring a more complex and dynamic spatial structure of value-added.
This work analyses the subject of bargaining coalitions of developing countries in the GATT and WTO. It traces, explains and theorises on the formation and successes (or otherwise) of coalitions from 1982 to 2001.
The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations provides an authoritative overview of this complex and constantly shifting subject. Ranging from the Arab-Israeli conflict to weapons of mass destruction, this is an indispensable and comprehensive guide to the events, organisations, theories and concepts that are shaping today's global community.
A unique and comprehensive overview of the key thinkers in international relations in the twentieth century. From Habermas to Rawls, to emerging thinkers in Feminism, Constructivism and The English School.
There are various explanations as to why the US, throughout its history, has used military force just short of war. Assessing the utility of each of these explanations, James Meernik employs both historical narrative and statistical techniques to provide a comprehensive and highly informative account of these important foreign policy events.
Twelve leading scholars of international law and international relations consider whether the current strength of the United States is leading to change in the international legal system. This book demonstrates that the effects of U.S. domination of the foundations of international law are real, but also intensely complex. The volume stimulates debate about the role of the United States in international law and interests scholars of international law and international relations, government officials and international organizations.
State collapse in such places as Yugoslavia has led to widespread human suffering and regional instability. This collection situates state failure and collapse against the backdrop of the emergence, consolidation, expansion and erosion of the Western state system.
A lively introduction to both theory and practice. A broad selection of case studies, covering the major conflicts the world has faced since 1990, provide readers with material they can use to form their own judgment about the theories. This lively, clearly-structured text will be invaluable for course use in both International Relations and Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies.