This book is a unique and accessible reference guide to the work of eighty key figures who have played an important rol in the development of ideas about language from antiquity t the twenty-first century. The entries are extensively cross referenced, allowing readers to trace influences, developments, and debates both in contemporary thinking and across time. Each entry concludes with suggestions for further reading of primary texts and secondary sources, encouraging readers to find out more about the particular key thinker and the impact of his or her ideas.
This book offers introductory entries on 80 ideas that have shaped the study of language up to the present day. Entries are written by experts in the fields of linguistics and the philosophy of language to reflect the full range of approaches and modes of thought. Each entry includes a brief description of the idea, an account of its development, and its impact on the field of language study. The book is written in an accessible style with clear descriptions of technical terms, guides to further reading, and extensive cross-referencing between entries. A useful additional feature of this book is that it is cross-referenced throughout with Key Thinkers in Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language (Edinburgh, 2005), revealing significant connections and continuities in the two related disciplines. Ideas covered range from Sense Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Logic, through Generative Semantics, Cognitivism, and Conversation Analysis, to Political Correctness, Deconstruction, and Corpora.
Philosophy of language examines the nature of meaning, the relationship of language to reality, and the ways in which we use, learn, and understand language. This volume provides a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the field, charting key ideas and movements, and addressing contemporary research.
Speaking is a dynamic, interpersonal process and one that strongly influences how we are perceived by others in a range of formal and everyday contexts. Despite this, speaking is often researched and taught as if it is simply writing delivered in a different mode. In Teaching and Researching Speaking, Rebecca Hughes suggests that we have less understanding than we might of important meaning-making aspects of speech such as prosody, gaze, affect, and the ways speakers collaborate and negotiate with one another in interaction. This thoroughly revised and updated second edition looks to the future of the field, offering: A new chapter on assessment, discussing 'high stakes' oral language testing contexts such as immigration New material considering access to spoken data via the worldwide web and new technologies that allow neurolinguistic insights formerly hidden from view Summaries and case studies to help the reader understand how to approach researching speaking and encourages practitioners to question the models of speaking that they are using in their classrooms. Reviewing materials and assessment practices in the light of current knowledge about spoken language, and highlighting areas for new work and collaboration between researchers and practitioners, this book will be a valuable resource for anyone involved in language teaching.
Philosophy of Language introduces the student to the main issues and theories in twentieth-century philosophy of language. Topics are structured in three parts in the book. Part I, Reference and Referring Expressions, includes topics such as Russell's Theory of Desciptions, Donnellan's distinction, problems of anaphora, the description theory of proper names, Searle's cluster theory, and the causal-historical theory. Part II, Theories of Meaning, surveys the competing theories of linguistic meaning and compares their various advantages and liabilities. Part III, Pragmatics and Speech Acts, introduces the basic concepts of linguistic pragmatics, includes a detailed discussion of the problem of indirect force and surveys approaches to metaphor. Unique features of the text: * chapter overviews and summaries * clear supportive examples * study questions * annotated further reading * glossary.
Volume 10 of the Routledge History of Philosophy presents a historical survey of the central topics in twentieth century Anglo-American philosophy. It chronicles what has been termed the 'linguistic turn' in analytic philosophy and traces the influence the study of language has had on the main problems of philosophy. Each chapter contains an extensive bibliography of the major writings in the field. All the essays present their large and complex topics in a clear and well organised way. At the end, the reader finds a helpful Chronology of the major political, scientific and philosophical events in the Twentieth Century and an extensive Glossary of technical terms.
Key Ideas in Sociology provides a tour d'horizon of the great sociological thinkers of the last two centuries -- their lives, their main ideas, and their influence on further thinking and practice in sociology. Fifty key thinkers in sociology are represented, both to give a sense of history to the development of the discipline and to exemplify the range of issues that have been covered. Each essay concludes with an annotated Suggested Readings list, and a General Bibliography is also provided.
This is a revised and expanded edtion of a classic in palliative medicine, originally published in 1991. With three added chapters and a new preface summarizing our progress in the area of pain management, this is a must-hve for those in palliative medicine and hospice care. The obligation of physicians to relieve human suffering stretches back into antiquity. But what exactly, is suffering? One patient with metastic cancer of the stomach, from which he knew he would shortly die, said he was not suffering. Another, someone who had been operated on for a mior problem--in little pain and not seemingly distressed--said that even coming into the hospital had been a source of pain and not suffering. With such varied responses to the problem of suffering, inevitable questions arise. Is it the doctor's responsibility to treat the disease or the patient? And what is the relationship between suffering and the goals of medicine? According to Dr. Eric Cassell, these are crucial questions, but unfortunately, have remained only queries void of adequate solutions. It is time for the sick person, Cassell believes, to be not merely an important concern for physicians but the central focus of medicine. With this in mind, Cassell argues for an understanding of what changes should be made in order to successfully treat the sick while alleviating suffering, and how to actually go about making these changes with the methods and training techniques firmly rooted in the doctor's relationship with the patient. Dr. Cassell offers an incisive critique of the approach of modern medicine. Drawing on a number of evocative patient narratives, he writes that the goal of medicine must be to treat an individual's suffering, and not just the disease. In addition, Cassell's thoughtful and incisive argument will appeal to psychologists and psychiatrists interested in the nature of pain and suffering.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology This text is accessible, practical and authoritative. It meets the needs of students doing research at all levels for the first time. The key theoretical and conceptual issues are discussed in detail alongside the practicalities of doing research. There are major chapters on searching the literature, ethics, and developing ideas for research projects. Quantitative and qualitative research are covered and the appropriate use of both explained. It is a complete and attractive book written to help psychology students throughout their course. Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology can be used to alone or to complement the authors' Introduction to Statistics in Psychology and Introduction to SPSS in Psychology also published by Prentice Hall. Key Features - Meets the needs of all students, a book that is well organised, well written, comprehensive and relevant- Explains the purpose and benefits of all types of research design- Sets research in the context of the general study of psychology- Discusses at length neglected topics such as the literature search and the process of originating ideas for research- Looks at writing research reports as a major aspect of planning and carrying out research- Includes expert guidance on both quantitative and qualitative research Dennis Howitt and Duncan Cramer are both Readers in Psychology at Loughborough University
For sale in all countries except Japan. For customers in Japan: please contact Yushodo Co.The general aim of the Senshu University Project "The Development of the Anglo-Saxon Language and Linguistic Universals" is investigation of structural characteristics common to the Germanic languages, such as English, German and Norwegian, and of works on and in the tradition of Generative Grammar founded by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s. The central idea of Generative Grammar, that the nature of natural-language syntax can be captured by a finite set of rules which are able to produce an infinite set of well-formed structures has been highly evaluated and influential even in related fields such as biolinguistics, philosophy, psychology and computer science." Noam Chomsky and Language Descriptions" is a collection of articles that focus on the earliest but essential linguistic theory proposed by Noam Chomsky and articles that discuss specific topics pertaining to the study Germanic languages, in particular English and German. It is divided into two parts: Part 1. Genesis of Generative Grammar; and Part 2. Current Issues in Language Descriptions. The present book will be of general interest to linguists who seek to understand the original idea of Generative Grammar and nature of the Germanic languages.