Search Results: mathematical-induction-a-powerful-and-elegant-method-of-proof-xyz

Mathematical Induction

A Powerful and Elegant Method of Proof

Author: Titu Andreescu,Vlad Crisan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780996874595

Category: Induction (Mathematics)

Page: 432

View: 4986

This book serves as a very good resource and teaching material for anyone who wants to discover the beauty of Induction and its applications, from novice mathematicians to Olympiad-driven students and professors teaching undergraduate courses. The authors explore 10 different areas of mathematics, including topics that are not usually discussed in an Olympiad-oriented book on the subject. Induction is one of the most important techniques used in competitions and its applications permeate almost every area of mathematics.

Handbook of Mathematical Induction

Theory and Applications

Author: David S. Gunderson

Publisher: Discrete Mathematics and its Applications

ISBN: 9781138199019

Category:

Page: 921

View: 6854

Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "

The Induction Book

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486821234

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 8033

Mathematical induction — along with its equivalents, complete induction and well-ordering, and its immediate consequence, the pigeonhole principle — constitute essential proof techniques. Every mathematician is familiar with mathematical induction, and every student of mathematics requires a grasp of its concepts. This volume provides an introduction and a thorough exposure to these proof techniques. Geared toward students of mathematics at all levels, the text is particularly suitable for courses in mathematical induction, theorem-proving, and problem-solving. The treatment begins with both intuitive and formal explanations of mathematical induction and its equivalents. The next chapter presents many problems consisting of results to be proved by induction, with solutions omitted to enable instructors to assign them to students. Problems vary in difficulty; the majority of them require little background, and the most advanced involve calculus or linear algebra. The final chapter features proofs too complicated for students to find on their own, some of which are famous theorems by well-known mathematicians. For these beautiful and important theorems, the author provides expositions and proofs. The text concludes with a helpful Appendix providing the logical equivalence of the various forms of induction.

Number Theory

Concepts and Problems

Author: Titu Andreescu,Gabriel Dospinescu,Oleg Mushkarov

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780988562202

Category: Number theory

Page: 686

View: 9119

Challenge your problem-solving aptitude in number theory with powerful problems that have concrete examples which reflect the potential and impact of theoretical results. Each chapter focuses on a fundamental concept or result, reinforced by each of the subsections, with scores of challenging problems that allow you to comprehend number theory like never before. All students and coaches wishing to excel in math competitions will benefit from this book as will mathematicians and adults who enjoy interesting mathematics.

Problem-Solving Through Problems

Author: Loren C. Larson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461254981

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 6742

This is a practical anthology of some of the best elementary problems in different branches of mathematics. Arranged by subject, the problems highlight the most common problem-solving techniques encountered in undergraduate mathematics. This book teaches the important principles and broad strategies for coping with the experience of solving problems. It has been found very helpful for students preparing for the Putnam exam.

Advanced Problems in Mathematics

Preparing for University

Author: Stephen Siklos

Publisher: Open Book Publishers

ISBN: 1783741449

Category: Mathematics

Page: 186

View: 9646

This book is intended to help students prepare for entrance examinations in mathematics and scientific subjects, including STEP (Sixth Term Examination Papers). STEP examinations are used by Cambridge colleges as the basis for conditional offers in mathematics and sometimes in other mathematics-related subjects. They are also used by Warwick University, and many other mathematics departments recommend that their applicants practice on past papers to become accustomed to university-style mathematics. Advanced Problems in Mathematics is recommended as preparation for any undergraduate mathematics course, even for students who do not plan to take the Sixth Term Examination Paper. The questions analysed in this book are all based on recent STEP questions selected to address the syllabus for Papers I and II, which is the A-level core (i.e. C1 to C4) with a few additions. Each question is followed by a comment and a full solution. The comments direct the reader’s attention to key points and put the question in its true mathematical context. The solutions point students to the methodology required to address advanced mathematical problems critically and independently. This book is a must read for any student wishing to apply to scientific subjects at university level and for anybody interested in advanced mathematics.

Putnam and Beyond

Author: Razvan Gelca,Titu Andreescu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038768445X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 798

View: 1088

Putnam and Beyond takes the reader on a journey through the world of college mathematics, focusing on some of the most important concepts and results in the theories of polynomials, linear algebra, real analysis in one and several variables, differential equations, coordinate geometry, trigonometry, elementary number theory, combinatorics, and probability. Using the W.L. Putnam Mathematical Competition for undergraduates as an inspiring symbol to build an appropriate math background for graduate studies in pure or applied mathematics, the reader is eased into transitioning from problem-solving at the high school level to the university and beyond, that is, to mathematical research.

Foundations of Optimization

Author: Osman Güler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387684079

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 442

View: 8396

This book covers the fundamental principles of optimization in finite dimensions. It develops the necessary material in multivariable calculus both with coordinates and coordinate-free, so recent developments such as semidefinite programming can be dealt with.

Mathematics for Computer Science

Author: Eric Lehman,F. Thomson Leighton,Albert R. Meyer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789888407064

Category:

Page: 979

View: 3719

This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.

Machine Proofs in Geometry

Automated Production of Readable Proofs for Geometry Theorems

Author: Shang-Ching Chou,Xiao-Shan Gao,Jingzhong Zhang

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215842

Category: Mathematics

Page: 461

View: 9259

This book reports recent major advances in automated reasoning in geometry. The authors have developed a method and implemented a computer program which, for the first time, produces short and readable proofs for hundreds of geometry theorems.The book begins with chapters introducing the method at an elementary level, which are accessible to high school students; latter chapters concentrate on the main theme: the algorithms and computer implementation of the method.This book brings researchers in artificial intelligence, computer science and mathematics to a new research frontier of automated geometry reasoning. In addition, it can be used as a supplementary geometry textbook for students, teachers and geometers. By presenting a systematic way of proving geometry theorems, it makes the learning and teaching of geometry easier and may change the way of geometry education.

Concrete Mathematics

A Foundation for Computer Science

Author: Ronald L. Graham,Donald Ervin Knuth,Oren Patashnik

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201558029

Category: Computers

Page: 657

View: 3935

This book, updated and improved, introduces the mathematics that supports advanced computer programming and the analysis of algorithms. The primary aim of its well-known authors is to provide a solid and relevant base of mathematical skills--the skills needed to solve complex problems, to evaluate horrendous-looking sums, to solve complex recurrence relations, and to discover subtle patterns in data. It is an indispensable text and reference, not only for computer scientists but for all technical professionals in virtually every discipline.

Concrete Semantics

With Isabelle/HOL

Author: Tobias Nipkow,Gerwin Klein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105426

Category: Computers

Page: 298

View: 3922

Part I of this book is a practical introduction to working with the Isabelle proof assistant. It teaches you how to write functional programs and inductive definitions and how to prove properties about them in Isabelle’s structured proof language. Part II is an introduction to the semantics of imperative languages with an emphasis on applications like compilers and program analysers. The distinguishing feature is that all the mathematics has been formalised in Isabelle and much of it is executable. Part I focusses on the details of proofs in Isabelle; Part II can be read even without familiarity with Isabelle’s proof language, all proofs are described in detail but informally. The book teaches the reader the art of precise logical reasoning and the practical use of a proof assistant as a surgical tool for formal proofs about computer science artefacts. In this sense it represents a formal approach to computer science, not just semantics. The Isabelle formalisation, including the proofs and accompanying slides, are freely available online, and the book is suitable for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students, and researchers in theoretical computer science and logic.

115 Trigonometry Problems from the AwesomeMath Summer Program

Author: Titu Andreescu,Vlad Crisan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780999342800

Category: Trigonometry

Page: 200

View: 5030

Focusing on Trigonometry reveals a wealth of alternate approaches to solving intricate geometry problems while providing foundational support in other areas of mathematics such as Fourier Analysis and Differential Equations. It is time for Trigonometry to receive the attention it deserves in this stand-alone book where the theory chapter is an invaluable pedagogical resource with lots of examples and guided exercises and the subsequent chapters offer a collection of carefully selected introductory through advanced problems and solutions intended to enhance the problem-solving skills of the reader. This book is not only for those studying for mathematics Olympiads but all individuals who want a better understanding of Trigonometry so they will be more successful in different settings such as a calculus course. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the trigonometric functions and contains a collection of 115 carefully selected introductory and advanced problems in Trigonometry from world-wide renowned Olympiads and mathematical magazines, as well as original problems designed by the authors. Together with the beautiful examples and the creative solutions, the present text is a valuable resource and teaching material for anybody who wants to explore the beauty of Trigonometry.

Bridge to Higher Mathematics

Author: Sam Vandervelde

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 055750337X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 4650

This engaging math textbook is designed to equip students who have completed a standard high school math curriculum with the tools and techniques that they will need to succeed in upper level math courses. Topics covered include logic and set theory, proof techniques, number theory, counting, induction, relations, functions, and cardinality.

An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Peter J. Eccles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521597180

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 6629

This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.

The Haskell School of Music

From Signals to Symphonies

Author: Paul Hudak,Donya Quick

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108266037

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 2590

This book explores the fundamentals of computer music and functional programming through the Haskell programming language. Functional programming is typically considered difficult to learn. This introduction in the context of creating music will allow students and professionals with a musical inclination to leverage their experience to help understand concepts that might be intimidating in more traditional computer science settings. Conversely, the book opens the door for programmers to interact with music by using a medium that is familiar to them. Readers will learn how to use the Euterpea library for Haskell (http://www.euterpea.com) to represent and create their own music with code, without the need for other music software. The book explores common paradigms used in algorithmic music composition, such as stochastic generation, musical grammars, self-similarity, and real-time interactive systems. Other topics covered include the basics of signal-based systems in Haskell, sound synthesis, and virtual instrument design.

A Practical Theory of Programming

Author: Eric C.R. Hehner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441985964

Category: Computers

Page: 247

View: 5961

There are several theories of programming. The first usable theory, often called "Hoare's Logic", is still probably the most widely known. In it, a specification is a pair of predicates: a precondition and postcondition (these and all technical terms will be defined in due course). Another popular and closely related theory by Dijkstra uses the weakest precondition predicate transformer, which is a function from programs and postconditions to preconditions. lones's Vienna Development Method has been used to advantage in some industries; in it, a specification is a pair of predicates (as in Hoare's Logic), but the second predicate is a relation. Temporal Logic is yet another formalism that introduces some special operators and quantifiers to describe some aspects of computation. The theory in this book is simpler than any of those just mentioned. In it, a specification is just a boolean expression. Refinement is just ordinary implication. This theory is also more general than those just mentioned, applying to both terminating and nonterminating computation, to both sequential and parallel computation, to both stand-alone and interactive computation. And it includes time bounds, both for algorithm classification and for tightly constrained real-time applications.

Problems from the Book

Author: Titu Andreescu,Gabriel Dospinescu

Publisher: Amer Mathematical Society

ISBN: 9780979926907

Category: Mathematics

Page: 554

View: 9819

The Cauchy-Schwarz Master Class

An Introduction to the Art of Mathematical Inequalities

Author: J. Michael Steele

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521546775

Category: Mathematics

Page: 306

View: 498

This lively, problem-oriented text, first published in 2004, is designed to coach readers toward mastery of the most fundamental mathematical inequalities. With the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality as the initial guide, the reader is led through a sequence of fascinating problems whose solutions are presented as they might have been discovered - either by one of history's famous mathematicians or by the reader. The problems emphasize beauty and surprise, but along the way readers will find systematic coverage of the geometry of squares, convexity, the ladder of power means, majorization, Schur convexity, exponential sums, and the inequalities of Hölder, Hilbert, and Hardy. The text is accessible to anyone who knows calculus and who cares about solving problems. It is well suited to self-study, directed study, or as a supplement to courses in analysis, probability, and combinatorics.

An Introduction to Diophantine Equations

A Problem-Based Approach

Author: Titu Andreescu,Dorin Andrica,Ion Cucurezeanu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817645497

Category: Mathematics

Page: 345

View: 7323

This problem-solving book is an introduction to the study of Diophantine equations, a class of equations in which only integer solutions are allowed. The presentation features some classical Diophantine equations, including linear, Pythagorean, and some higher degree equations, as well as exponential Diophantine equations. Many of the selected exercises and problems are original or are presented with original solutions. An Introduction to Diophantine Equations: A Problem-Based Approach is intended for undergraduates, advanced high school students and teachers, mathematical contest participants — including Olympiad and Putnam competitors — as well as readers interested in essential mathematics. The work uniquely presents unconventional and non-routine examples, ideas, and techniques.

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