Search Results: medicalizing-blackness-making-racial-difference-in-the-atlantic-world-1780-1840

Medicalizing Blackness

Making Racial Difference in the Atlantic World, 1780-1840

Author: Rana A. Hogarth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781469632865

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 7831

-...examines the creation and circulation of medical ideas about blackness in the Atlantic World during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. She shows how white physicians deployed blackness as a medically significant marker of difference and used medical knowledge about black bodies to improve plantation labor efficiency, safeguard colonial and civic interests, and enhance control over black bodies during the era of slavery---

Medicalizing Blackness

Making Racial Difference in the Atlantic World, 1780-1840

Author: Rana A. Hogarth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781469632872

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 485

-...examines the creation and circulation of medical ideas about blackness in the Atlantic World during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. She shows how white physicians deployed blackness as a medically significant marker of difference and used medical knowledge about black bodies to improve plantation labor efficiency, safeguard colonial and civic interests, and enhance control over black bodies during the era of slavery---

Medicalizing Blackness

Making Racial Difference in the Atlantic World, 1780-1840

Author: Rana A. Hogarth

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469632888

Category: Social Science

Page: 290

View: 9656

In 1748, as yellow fever raged in Charleston, South Carolina, doctor John Lining remarked, "There is something very singular in the constitution of the Negroes, which renders them not liable to this fever." Lining's comments presaged ideas about blackness that would endure in medical discourses and beyond. In this fascinating medical history, Rana A. Hogarth examines the creation and circulation of medical ideas about blackness in the Atlantic World during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. She shows how white physicians deployed blackness as a medically significant marker of difference and used medical knowledge to improve plantation labor efficiency, safeguard colonial and civic interests, and enhance control over black bodies during the era of slavery. Hogarth refigures Atlantic slave societies as medical frontiers of knowledge production on the topic of racial difference. Rather than looking to their counterparts in Europe who collected and dissected bodies to gain knowledge about race, white physicians in Atlantic slaveholding regions created and tested ideas about race based on the contexts in which they lived and practiced. What emerges in sharp relief is the ways in which blackness was reified in medical discourses and used to perpetuate notions of white supremacy.

Becoming Yellow

A Short History of Racial Thinking

Author: Michael Keevak

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400838608

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 6392

In their earliest encounters with Asia, Europeans almost uniformly characterized the people of China and Japan as white. This was a means of describing their wealth and sophistication, their willingness to trade with the West, and their presumed capacity to become Christianized. But by the end of the seventeenth century the category of whiteness was reserved for Europeans only. When and how did Asians become "yellow" in the Western imagination? Looking at the history of racial thinking, Becoming Yellow explores the notion of yellowness and shows that this label originated not in early travel texts or objective descriptions, but in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century scientific discourses on race. From the walls of an ancient Egyptian tomb, which depicted people of varying skin tones including yellow, to the phrase "yellow peril" at the beginning of the twentieth century in Europe and America, Michael Keevak follows the development of perceptions about race and human difference. He indicates that the conceptual relationship between East Asians and yellow skin did not begin in Chinese culture or Western readings of East Asian cultural symbols, but in anthropological and medical records that described variations in skin color. Eighteenth-century taxonomers such as Carl Linnaeus, as well as Victorian scientists and early anthropologists, assigned colors to all racial groups, and once East Asians were lumped with members of the Mongolian race, they began to be considered yellow. Demonstrating how a racial distinction took root in Europe and traveled internationally, Becoming Yellow weaves together multiple narratives to tell the complex history of a problematic term.

Secret Cures of Slaves

People, Plants, and Medicine in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World

Author: Londa Schiebinger

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 1503602982

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 5767

In the natural course of events, humans fall sick and die. The history of medicine bristles with attempts to find new and miraculous remedies, to work with and against nature to restore humans to health and well-being. In this book, Londa Schiebinger examines medicine and human experimentation in the Atlantic World, exploring the circulation of people, disease, plants, and knowledge between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. She traces the development of a colonial medical complex from the 1760s, when a robust experimental culture emerged in the British and French West Indies, to the early 1800s, when debates raged about banning the slave trade and, eventually, slavery itself. Massive mortality among enslaved Africans and European planters, soldiers, and sailors fueled the search for new healing techniques. Amerindian, African, and European knowledges competed to cure diseases emerging from the collision of peoples on newly established, often poorly supplied, plantations. But not all knowledge was equal. Highlighting the violence and fear endemic to colonial struggles, Schiebinger explores aspects of African medicine that were not put to the test, such as Obeah and vodou. This book analyzes how and why specific knowledges were blocked, discredited, or held secret.

Difference and Disease

Medicine, Race, and the Eighteenth-Century British Empire

Author: Suman Seth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108418309

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 1279

The Politics of Reproduction

Race, Medicine, and Fertility in the Age of Abolition

Author: KATHERINE. PAUGH,Katherine Paugh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198789785

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 8773

The fertility of Afro-Caribbean women's bodies was at the crux of visions of economic success elaborated by many British politicians, planters, and doctors during the age of abolition. Reformers hoped that a home-grown labor force would obviate the need for the Atlantic slave trade. By establishing the ubiquity of visions of fertility and subsequent economic growth during the age of abolition, The Politics of Reproduction sheds fresh light on the oft-debated question of whether abolitionism was understood by contemporaries as economically beneficial to the British Empire. At the same time, Katherine Paugh makes novel assertions about the importance of Britain's colonies in the emergence of population as a political problem. The need to manipulate the labor market in Britain's Caribbean colonies prompted crucial innovations in governmental strategies for managing reproduction. While assessing the politics of reproduction in the British Empire and its Caribbean colonies as a whole, the study also focuses in on the island colony of Barbados in order to explore the politics of reproduction within the British Caribbean. By recounting the remarkable story of an enslaved midwife and her family, The Politics of Reproduction explores the deployment of plantation management policies designed to promote fertility during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Along the way, the volume draws on a wide variety of sources, including debates in the British Parliament and the Barbados House of Assembly, the records of Barbadian plantations, tracts about plantation management published by doctors and plantation owners, and missionary records related to the island of Barbados.

Medical Bondage

Race, Gender, and the Origins of American Gynecology

Author: Deirdre Cooper Owens

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780820354750

Category: History

Page: 182

View: 7483

The accomplishments of pioneering doctors such as John Peter Mettauer, James Marion Sims, and Nathan Bozeman are well documented. It is also no secret that these nineteenth-century gynecologists performed experimental caesarean sections, ovariotomies, and obstetric fistulae repairs primarily on poor and powerless women. Medical Bondage breaks new ground by exploring how and why physicians denied these women their full humanity yet valued them as ?medical superbodies? highly suited for medical experimentation. In Medical Bondage, Cooper Owens examines a wide range of scientific literature and less formal communications in which gynecologists created and disseminated medical fictions about their patients, such as their belief that black enslaved women could withstand pain better than white ?ladies.' Even as they were advancing medicine, these doctors were legitimizing, for decades to come, groundless theories related to whiteness and blackness, men and women, and the inferiority of other races or nationalities. Medical Bondage moves between southern plantations and northern urban centers to reveal how nineteenth-century American ideas about race, health, and status influenced doctor-patient relationships in sites of healing like slave cabins, medical colleges, and hospitals. It also retells the story of black enslaved women and of Irish immigrant women from the perspective of these exploited groups and thus restores for us a picture of their lives.

What is Medical History

Author: John C. Burnham

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745632254

Category: History

Page: 163

View: 7010

Written as a key introductory textbook for students, this work explores the reasons behind the expansion of the field of the history of medicine and health.

Worst-Case Economics

Extreme Events in Climate and Finance

Author: Frank Ackerman

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 1783087099

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 6383

Worst-case scenarios are all too real, and all too common. The financial crisis of 2008 was not the first or the last to destroy jobs, homeownership and the savings of millions of people. Hurricanes clobber communities from New York to Bangladesh. How bad will the next catastrophe be, and how soon will it happen? Climate and financial crises are serious events, requiring vigorous responses. Yet public policy is trapped in an obsolete framework, with a simplistic focus on average or likely outcomes rather than dangerous extremes. What would it take to create better analyses of extreme events in climate and finance, and an appropriate policy framework for worst-case risks? ‘Worst-Case Economics: Extreme Events in Climate and Finance’ offers accessible and surprising answers to these crucial questions.

Lost

Miscarriage in Nineteenth-century America

Author: Shannon Withycombe

Publisher: Critical Issues in Health and

ISBN: 9780813591544

Category: History

Page: 220

View: 4355

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The Anatomy of Blackness

Science and Slavery in an Age of Enlightenment

Author: Andrew S. Curran

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421401509

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 911

This volume examines the Enlightenment-era textualization of the Black African in European thought. Andrew S. Curran rewrites the history of blackness by replicating the practices of eighteenth-century readers. Surveying French and European travelogues, natural histories, works of anatomy, pro- and anti-slavery tracts, philosophical treatises, and literary texts, Curran shows how naturalists and philosophes drew from travel literature to discuss the perceived problem of human blackness within the nascent human sciences. He also describes how a number of now-forgotten anatomists revolutionized the era’s understanding of black Africans and charts the shift of the slavery debate from the moral, mercantile, and theological realms toward that of the "black body" itself. In tracing this evolution, he shows how blackness changed from a mere descriptor in earlier periods into a thing to be measured, dissected, handled, and often brutalized. "A definitive statement on the complex, painful, and richly revealing topic of how the major figures of the French Enlightenment reacted to the enslavement of black Africans, often to their discredit. The fields of race studies and of Enlightenment studies are more than ready to embrace the type of analysis in which Curran engages, and all the more so in that his book is beautifully written and illustrated."— Symposium "This is an important contribution to an important topic. But it is also a model of how intellectual history should be done."— New Books in History "The breadth of Andrew Curran's knowledge about the Enlightenment is astonishing... The book makes the convincing point not only that Africa is a major focus in the Enlightenment's imagination, but also that natural history and anthropology are central to understanding not only its scientific agenda, but also its humanitarian politics."— Centaurus "Curran's Francotropism and medical background enable him to develop insights that should prove important to the ongoing transnationalization and discipline-blurring of literary and cultural studies."— Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment "Curran's ability to dissect and explain complicated arguments of the period's major thinkers is impressive."— Choice

Fugitive Science

Empiricism and Freedom in Early African American Culture

Author: Britt Rusert

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479847666

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 2639

"Fugitive Science excavates this story, uncovering the dynamic scientific engagements and experiments of African American writers, performers, and other cultural producers who mobilized natural science and produced alternative knowledges in the quest for and name of freedom. Literary and cultural critics have a particularly important role to play in uncovering the history of fugitive science since these engagements and experiments often happened, not in the laboratory or the university, but in print, on stage, in the garden, church, parlor, and in other cultural spaces and productions. Routinely excluded from the official spaces of scientific learning and training, black cultural actors transformed the spaces of the everyday into laboratories of knowledge and experimentation"--Introduction.

Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference

Race in Early Modern Philosophy

Author: Justin E. H. Smith

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866316

Category: Philosophy

Page: 312

View: 1370

People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature's universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to G. W. Leibniz, Immanuel Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy's part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. With a broad narrative stretching over two centuries, Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference takes a critical historical look at how the racial categories that we divide ourselves into came into being.

Contested Spaces of Early America

Author: Juliana Barr,Edward Countryman

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812209338

Category: History

Page: 444

View: 8908

Colonial America stretched from Quebec to Buenos Aires and from the Atlantic littoral to the Pacific coast. Although European settlers laid claim to territories they called New Spain, New England, and New France, the reality of living in those spaces had little to do with European kingdoms. Instead, the New World's holdings took their form and shape from the Indian territories they inhabited. These contested spaces throughout the western hemisphere were not unclaimed lands waiting to be conquered and populated but a single vast space, occupied by native communities and defined by the meeting, mingling, and clashing of peoples, creating societies unlike any that the world had seen before. Contested Spaces of Early America brings together some of the most distinguished historians in the field to view colonial America on the largest possible scale. Lavishly illustrated with maps, Native art, and color plates, the twelve chapters span the southern reaches of New Spain through Mexico and Navajo Country to the Dakotas and Upper Canada, and the early Indian civilizations to the ruins of the nineteenth-century West. At the heart of this volume is a search for a human geography of colonial relations: Contested Spaces of Early America aims to rid the historical landscape of imperial cores, frontier peripheries, and modern national borders to redefine the way scholars imagine colonial America. Contributors: Matthew Babcock, Ned Blackhawk, Chantal Cramaussel, Brian DeLay, Elizabeth Fenn, Allan Greer, Pekka Hämäläinen, Raúl José Mandrini, Cynthia Radding, Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Alan Taylor, and Samuel Truett.

One Nation Divided by Slavery

Remembering the American Revolution While Marching Through the Civil War

Author: Michael F. Conlin

Publisher: Kent State

ISBN: 9781606352403

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 4597

In the two decades before the Civil War, free Americans engaged in 'history wars' every bit as ferocious as those waged today over the commemoration at the Smithsonian Institution of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Michael F. Conlin investigates the different ways antebellum Americans celebrated civic holidays, read the Declaration of Independence, and commemorated Revolutionary War battles, revealing much about their contrasting views of American nationalism.

Silencing Race

Disentangling Blackness, Colonialism, and National Identities in Puerto Rico

Author: Ileana M. Rodríguez-Silva

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137263210

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 9521

In their quest for greater political participation within shifting imperial fields—from Spanish (1850s–1898) to US rule (1898-)—Puerto Ricans struggled to shape and contain conversations about race. In so doing, they crafted, negotiated, and imposed on others multiple forms of silences while reproducing the idea of a unified, racially mixed, harmonious nation. Hence, both upper and working classes participated, although with different agendas, in the construction of a wide array of silences that together have prevented serious debate about racialized domination. This book explores the ongoing, constant racialization of Puerto Rican workers to explore the 'class-making' of race.

Brave New Weed

Adventures into the Uncharted World of Cannabis

Author: Joe Dolce

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0062499947

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 7458

The former editor-in-chief of Details and Star adventures into the fascinating "brave new world" of cannabis, tracing its history and possible future as he investigates the social, medical, legal, and cultural ramifications of this surprisingly versatile plant. Pot. Weed. Grass. Mary Jane. We all think we know what cannabis is and what we use it for. But do we? Our collective understanding of this surprising plant has been muddled by politics and morality; what we think we know isn’t the real story. A war on cannabis has been waged in the United States since the early years of the twentieth century, yet in the past decade, society has undergone a massive shift in perspective that has allowed us to reconsider our beliefs. In Brave New Weed, Joe Dolce travels the globe to "tear down the cannabis closet" and de-mystify this new frontier, seeking answers to the questions we didn’t know we should ask. Dolce heads to a host of places, including Amsterdam, Israel, California, and Colorado, where he skillfully unfolds the odd, shocking, and wildly funny history of this complex plant. From the outlandish stories of murder trials where defendants claimed "insanity due to marijuana consumption" to the groundbreaking success stories about the plant’s impressive medicinal benefits, Dolce paints a fresh and much-needed portrait of cannabis, our changing attitudes toward it, and the brave new direction science and cultural acceptance are leading us. Enlightening, entertaining, and thought-provoking, Brave New Weed is a compelling read that will surprise and educate proponents on both sides of the cannabis debate.

Tropical Freedom

Climate, Settler Colonialism, and Black Exclusion in the Age of Emancipation

Author: Ikuko Asaka

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780822368816

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 8486

Ikuko Asaka examines emancipation's intersection with settler colonialism in North America, showing how emancipation efforts in the United States and present-day Canada were accompanied by attempts to relocate freed blacks to tropical regions, thereby conceiving freedom as a racially segregated condition based upon geography and climate.

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