This 2006 book provides an accessible, yet technically sound treatment of modal logic and its philosophical applications.

This is a graduate-level text for a first course in propositional modal logic. It is written from the semantical point of view rather than the more usual proof theoretic approach, and the book covers all basic material including the propositional languages, the semantics and correspondence results, and proof systems and completeness results--as well as some topics not usually covered in a modal logic course, such as bisimulation. Important features of the book are the many exercises and extensive set of solutions that are included.

Das gesamte Wissen der Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie. Die Sach- und Personenartikel des Nachschlagewerks erfassen nicht nur den klassischen Bestand des philosophischen Wissens, sondern werden auch den neueren Entwicklungen in der Philosophie gerecht. Insbesondere in den Bereichen Logik, Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie sowie Sprachphilosophie. Jetzt erscheint der fünfte Band der Neuauflage mit über 70 neuen Artikeln u. a. zu diesen Begriffen: antike Logik, Lüge, Macht, Medizin, Nano und Neurowissenschaften. Mit neuen Personenartikeln, darunter Luhmann, Lyotard, Maturana.

Introduces students to non-classical logic, syllogistic, to quantificational and modal logic. The book includes exercises throughout and a glossary of terms and symbols.

In 1973 a workshop was held at The University of Western Ontario on topics of common interest to philosophers and linguists. This volume con tains most of the papers presented at the workshop. Also included are previously unpublished essays by R. Dougherty and H. Lasnik as well as a comment on G. Lakoff's paper by B. van Fraassen. K. Donnellan's paper was presented at the workshop and subsequently appeared in The Philosophical Review. We thank the editors of this journal for permission to publish the paper here. The papers by D. Lewis, R. Stalnaker, G. Lakoff, B. Partee and H. Herzberger appeared earlier in Journal of Philosophical Logic by arrangement of the editors with B. van Fraassen and D. Reidel Publishing Company. The editors thank the officers of The University of Western Ontario for making the workshop possible and Pauline Campbell for making the workshop work. THE EDITORS DAVID LEWIS COUNTERFACTUALS AND COMPARATIVE POSSIBILITY* In the last dozen years or so, our understanding of modality has been much improved by means of possible-world semantics: the project of analyzing modal language by systematically specifying the conditions under which a modal sentence is true at a possible world. I hope to do the same for counterfactual conditionals. I write A 0-C for the counter factual conditional with antecedent A and consequent C. It may be read as 'H it were the case that A, then it would be the case that C' or some more idiomatic paraphrase thereof.

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter

Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

suchquestionsforcenturies(unrestrictedbythecapabilitiesofanyhard ware). Theprinciplesgoverningtheinteractionofseveralprocesses,forexample, areabstractansimilartoprinciplesgoverningthecooperationoftwolarge organisation.Adetailedrulebasedeffectivebutrigidbureaucracyisvery muchsimilartoacomplexcomputerprogramhandlingandmanipulating data. Myguessisthattheprinciplesunderlyingoneareverymuchthe sameasthoseunderlyingtheother. Ibelievethedayisnotfarawayinthefuturewhenthecomputerscientist willwakeuponemorningwiththerealisationthatheisactuallyakindof formalphilosopher! TheprojectednumberofvolumesforthisHandbookisabout18.The subjecthasevolvedanditsareashavebecomeinterrelatedtosuchanextent thatitnolongermakessensetodedicatevolumestotopics.However,the volumesdofollowsomenaturalgroupingsofchapters. Iwouldliketothankourauthorsarereadersfortheircontributionsand theircommitmentinmakingthisHandbookasuccess. Thanksalsoto ourpublicationadministratorMrsJ.Spurrforherusualdedicationand excellenceandtoKluwerAcademicPublishersfortheircontinuingsupport fortheHandbook. DovGabbay King'sCollegeLondon x Logic II IT Natural Program Artificialin Logic p- language controlspec telligence gramming processing ification, verification, concurrency Temporal Expressive Expressive Planning. Extension of logic poweroftense power for re Time depen Horn clause operators. currentevents. dent data. with time Temporal Specification Eventcalculus. capability. indices. Sepa of tempo- Persistence Eventcalculus. rationofpast ral control. throughtime Temporallogic fromfuture Decisionprob the Frame programming. Problem.Tem lems. Model checking. poral query language. temporal transactions. Modal logic. generalised Actionlogic Beliefrevision. Negation by Multi-modal quantifiers Inferential failure and logics databases modality Algorithmic Discourse rep New logics. Generaltheory Proceduralap proof resentation. Generic theo of reasoning. proachtologic Direct com- remprovers Non-monotonic putation on systems linguisticinput Non Resolving Loopchecking. Intrinsiclogical Negation by monotonic ambigui- Non-monotonic discipline for failure.Deduc reasoning ties. Machine decisionsabout AI. Evolving tivedatabases translation. loops. Faults and com Document insystems. municating classification. databases Relevance theory Probabilistic logicalanalysis Realtimesys Expert sys Semantics for and fuzzy oflanguage tems tems.Machine logicprograms logic learning Intuitionistic Quantifiers in Constructive Intuitionistic Horn clause logic logic reasoning and logicisabetter logic is really proof theory logical basis intuitionistic.

This volume brings together a group of logic-minded philosophers and philosophically oriented logicians to address a diversity of topics on the structural analysis of non-classical logics. It mainly focuses on the construction of different types of models for various non-classical logics of current interest, including modal logics, epistemic logics, dynamic logics, and observational predicate logic. The book presents a wide range of applications of two well-known approaches in current research: (i) structural modeling of certain philosophical issues in the framework of non-classic logics, such as admissible models for modal logic, structural models for modal epistemology and for counterfactuals, and epistemological models for common knowledge and for public announcements; (ii) conceptual analysis of logical properties of, and formal semantics for, non-classical logics, such as sub-formula property, truthmaking, epistemic modality, behavioral strategies, speech acts and assertions. The structural analysis provided in this volume will appeal not only to graduate students and experts in non-classic logics, but also to readers from a wide range of disciplines, including computer science, cognitive science, linguistics, game theory and theory of action, to mention a few.

A textbook on modal logic, intended for readers already acquainted with the elements of formal logic, containing nearly 500 exercises. Brian F. Chellas provides a systematic introduction to the principal ideas and results in contemporary treatments of modality, including theorems on completeness and decidability. Illustrative chapters focus on deontic logic and conditionality. Modality is a rapidly expanding branch of logic, and familiarity with the subject is now regarded as a necessary part of every philosopher's technical equipment. Chellas here offers an up-to-date and reliable guide essential for the student.

Free logic, an alternative to traditional logic, has been seen as a useful avenue of approach to a number of philosophical issues of contemporary interest. In this collection, Karel Lambert, one of the pioneers in, and the most prominent exponent of, free logic, brings together a variety of published essays bearing on the application of free logic to philosophical topics ranging from set theory and logic to metaphysics and the philosophy of religion. The work of such distinguished philosophers as Bas van Fraassen, Dana Scott, Tyler Burge, and Jaakko Hintikka is represented. Lambert provides an introductory essay placing free logic in the logical tradition beginning with Aristotle, developing it as the natural culmination of a trend begun in the Port Royal logic of the 1600s, and continuing through current predicate logic--the trend to rid logic of existence assumptions. His Introduction also provides a useful systematic overview of free logic, including both a standard syntax and some semantical options.

*2nd Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, AI*IA, Palermo, Italy, October, 29-31, 1991. Proceedings*

Author: Associazione italiana per l'intelligenza artificiale. Congress

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540547129

Category: Computers

Page: 479

View: 5300

A broad introduction to the subject; many exercises with full solutions are provided.

This is the first volume on category theory for a broad philosophical readership. It is designed to show the interest and significance of category theory for a range of philosophical interests: mathematics, proof theory, computation, cognition, scientific modelling, physics, ontology, the structure of the world. Each chapter is written by either a category-theorist or a philosopher working in one of the represented areas, in an accessible waythat builds on the concepts that are already familiar to philosophers working in these areas.