Mathematical modeling of atmospheric composition is a formidable scientific and computational challenge. This comprehensive presentation of the modeling methods used in atmospheric chemistry focuses on both theory and practice, from the fundamental principles behind models, through to their applications in interpreting observations. An encyclopaedic coverage of methods used in atmospheric modeling, including their advantages and disadvantages, makes this a one-stop resource with a large scope. Particular emphasis is given to the mathematical formulation of chemical, radiative, and aerosol processes; advection and turbulent transport; emission and deposition processes; as well as major chapters on model evaluation and inverse modeling. The modeling of atmospheric chemistry is an intrinsically interdisciplinary endeavour, bringing together meteorology, radiative transfer, physical chemistry and biogeochemistry, making the book of value to a broad readership. Introductory chapters and a review of the relevant mathematics make this book instantly accessible to graduate students and researchers in the atmospheric sciences.
Atmospheric chemistry is central to understanding global changes ? ozone depletion, appearance of the polar ozone holes, and compositional changes which worsen the greenhouse effect. Because of its importance, work is progressing on many fronts.This volume emphasizes the troposhere and stratosphere and has chapters on gas phase, condensed phase, and heterogeneous chemistry. Present progress is emphasized, and important future directions are also described.This book fills a need not satisfied by any others and will be popular for some years to come. It informs students and newcomers to the field of the many facets of atmospheric chemistry and can be used as a text for advanced students. It is also a valuable desk reference summarizing activities by quite a number of the most active research groups.Chapter 18 by Kolb et al. on heterogeneous chemistry is especially noteworthy because it represents a unique joint effort by several groups working on a very timely subject; they describe a conceptual framework and establish conventions which will be standard in future papers on this subject.
21. Simulating Future Climate G. J. Boer 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 2 International Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . 490 3 Simulating Historical and Future Climate 492 4 Climate Change in the 20th Century . . . 495 5 Simulating Future Climate Change 498 6 Climate Impact, Adaptation, and Mitigation 501 7 Summary . 502 Index 505 PREFACE Numerical modeling ofthe global atmosphere has entered a new era. Whereas atmospheric modeling was once the domain ofa few research units at universities or government laboratories, it can now be performed almost anywhere thanks to the affordability of computing power. Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) are being used by a rapidly growing scientific community in a wide range of applications. With widespread interest in anthropogenic climate change, GCMs have a role also in informing policy discussions. Many of the scientists using GCMs have backgrounds in fields other than atmospheric sciences and may be unaware of how GCMs are constructed. Recognizing this explosion in the application of GCMs, we organized a two week course in order to give young scientists who are relatively new to the field of atmospheric modeling a thorough grounding in the basic principles on which GCMs are constructed, an insight into their strengths and weaknesses, and guid ance on how meaningful numerical experiments are formulated and analyzed. Sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and other institu tions, this Advanced Study Institute (ASI) took place May 25-June 5, 1998, at II Ciocco, a remote hotel on a Tuscan hillside in Italy.
A major environmental concern is the increasing burden on all scales of photo-oxidants, acidifying substances and potential nutrients in the troposphere. These lead to episodes of summer smog, and appreciable damage to eco-systems both on land and at sea. Underlying the environmental effects is the complex scientific problem of linking the man-made and biological emissions to the myriad chemical reactions that transform the pollutants as they are transported to and deposited in the surroundings and also pristine areas remote from the sources. The project, the scientific results of which are described in this book, was set up to study the problem in an inter-disciplinary way by co-ordinating the work of more than 150 research groups in some 20 countries.
This well-received and comprehensive textbook on atmospheric processes and numerical methods has been thoroughly revised. This edition includes a wide range of new numerical techniques for solving problems in areas such as cloud microphysics, ocean-atmosphere exchange processes and atmospheric radiative properties. It also contains improved descriptions of atmospheric physics, dynamics, radiation, and aerosol and cloud processes. It is essential reading for researchers, scientists and advanced students to successfully study air pollution and meteorology.
International Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 21-23, 1998 Proceedings
Author: Peter Sloot
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 1998 International Conference and Exhibition on High-Performance Computing and Networking, HPCN EUROPE 1998, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in April 1998. The book presents 85 revised full papers together with 58 posters selected out of a total of more than 220 Submissions. The book is divided in topical sections on industrial and general applications, computational science, and HPF+. All current aspects in high-performance computing and networking are covered, in particular simulation, visualisation, medical applications, nummerical computations, parallel and distributed processing, software engineering, computer and network architectures.
This book collates the written contributions of the Second Conference on Air Pollution Modelling and Simulation (APMS 2001). A wide range of current topics is covered, focusing on three challenging issues: (1) the modelling issue of complex, multiphase, atmospheric chemistry; (2) the numerical issue associated with comprehensive three-dimensional chemistry-transport models; and (3) the key issues of data assimilation and inverse modelling. State-of-the art research is presented with many operational procedures applied at either forecast agencies or companies.
Modeling of Chemical Reactions covers detailed chemical kinetics models for chemical reactions. Including a comprehensive treatment of pressure dependent reactions, which are frequently not incorporated into detailed chemical kinetic models, and the use of modern computational quantum chemistry, which has recently become an extraordinarily useful component of the reaction kinetics toolkit. It is intended both for those who need to model complex chemical reaction processes but have little background in the area, and those who are already have experience and would benefit from having a wide range of useful material gathered in one volume. The range of subject matter is wider than that found in many previous treatments of this subject. The technical level of the material is also quite wide, so that non-experts can gain a grasp of fundamentals, and experts also can find the book useful. A solid introduction to kinetics Material on computational quantum chemistry, an important new area for kinetics Contains a chapter on construction of mechanisms, an approach only found in this book