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Psychiatry, the Mentally Ill, and the Tobacco Industry in America
Author: Laura D. Hirshbein
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Current public health literature suggests that the mentally ill may represent as much as half of the smokers in America. In Smoking Privileges, Laura D. Hirshbein highlights the complex problem of mentally ill smokers, placing it in the context of changes in psychiatry, in the tobacco and pharmaceutical industries, and in the experience of mental illness over the last century.Hirshbein, a medical historian and clinical psychiatrist, first shows how cigarettes functioned in the old system of psychiatric care, revealing that mental health providers long ago noted the important role of cigarettes within treatment settings and the strong attachment of many mentally ill individuals to their cigarettes. Hirshbein also relates how, as the sale of cigarettes dwindled, the tobacco industry quietly researched alternative markets, including those who smoked for psychological reasons, ultimately discovering connections between mental states and smoking, and the addictive properties of nicotine. However, Smoking Privileges warns that to see smoking among the mentally ill only in terms of addiction misses how this behavior fits into the broader context of their lives. Cigarettes not only helped structure their relationships with other people, but also have been important objects of attachment. Indeed, even after psychiatric hospitals belatedly instituted smoking bans in the late twentieth century, smoking remained an integral part of life for many seriously ill patients, with implications not only for public health but for the ongoing treatment of psychiatric disorders. Making matters worse, well-meaning tobacco-control policies have had the unintended consequence of further stigmatizing the mentally ill.A groundbreaking look at a little-known public health problem, Smoking Privileges illuminates the intersection of smoking and mental illness, and offers a new perspective on public policy regarding cigarettes.
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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Food and Beverages Industry provides extensive coverage of new developments, state-of-the-art technologies, and potential future trends compiled from the latest ideas across the entire arena of biotechnology and bioengineering. This volume reviews current developments in the application of food biotechnology and engineering for food and beverage production. As there have been significant advances in the areas of food fermentation, processing, and beverage production, this title highlights the advances in specific transformation processes, including those used for alcoholic beverage and fermented food production. Taking a food process and engineering point-of-view, the book also aims to select important bioengineering principles, highlighting how they can be quantitatively applied in the food and beverages industry. Contains comprehensive coverage of food and beverage production Covers all types of fermentation processes and their application in various food products Includes unique coverage of the biochemical processes involved in beverages production