Search Results: monitoring-plant-and-animal-populations

Monitoring Plant and Animal Populations

A Handbook for Field Biologists

Author: Caryl L. Elzinga,Daniel W. Salzer,John W. Willoughby,James P. Gibbs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144431310X

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 1833

Monitoring Plant and Animal Populations offers an overview of population monitoring issues that is accessible to the typical field biologist and land managers with a modest statistical background. The text includes concrete guidelines for ecologists to follow to design a statistically defensible monitoring program. User-friendly, practical guide, written in a highly readable format. The authors provide an interdisciplinary scope to address the current, widespread interest in monitoring in many environmental fields, including pure and applied ecology, conservation biology, and wildlife management. Emphasizes the role of monitoring in adaptive management. Defines important terminology and contrasts monitoring with other data-collection activities. Covers the applicable principles of sampling and shows how to design a monitoring project. Provides a step-by-step overview of the monitoring process, illustrated by flow charts and references. The authors also offer guidelines for analyzing and interpreting monitoring data. Illustrates the foundation of management objectives and describes their components, types, and development. Describes common field techniques for measuring important attributes of animal and plant populations. Reviews different methods for recording monitoring data in the field, managing the data, and communicating data to policy makers.

Monitoring Plant and Animal Populations

A Handbook for Field Biologists

Author: Caryl L. Elzinga,Daniel W. Salzer,John W. Willoughby,James P. Gibbs

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780632044429

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 2000

Monitoring Plant and Animal Populations offers an overview of population monitoring issues that is accessible to the typical field biologist and land managers with a modest statistical background. The text includes concrete guidelines for ecologists to follow to design a statistically defensible monitoring program. User-friendly, practical guide, written in a highly readable format. The authors provide an interdisciplinary scope to address the current, widespread interest in monitoring in many environmental fields, including pure and applied ecology, conservation biology, and wildlife management. Emphasizes the role of monitoring in adaptive management. Defines important terminology and contrasts monitoring with other data-collection activities. Covers the applicable principles of sampling and shows how to design a monitoring project. Provides a step-by-step overview of the monitoring process, illustrated by flow charts and references. The authors also offer guidelines for analyzing and interpreting monitoring data. Illustrates the foundation of management objectives and describes their components, types, and development. Describes common field techniques for measuring important attributes of animal and plant populations. Reviews different methods for recording monitoring data in the field, managing the data, and communicating data to policy makers.

Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats

A Practitioner's Guide

Author: Brenda McComb,Benjamin Zuckerberg,David Vesely,Christopher Jordan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420070583

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 4837

In the face of so many unprecedented changes in our environment, the pressure is on scientists to lead the way toward a more sustainable future. Written by a team of ecologists, Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide provides a framework that natural resource managers and researchers can use to design monitoring programs that will benefit future generations by distilling the information needed to make informed decisions. In addition, this text is valuable for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses that are focused on monitoring animal populations. With the aid of more than 90 illustrations and a four-page color insert, this book offers practical guidance for the entire monitoring process, from incorporating stakeholder input and data collection, to data management, analysis, and reporting. It establishes the basis for why, what, how, where, and when monitoring should be conducted; describes how to analyze and interpret the data; explains how to budget for monitoring efforts; and discusses how to assemble reports of use in decision-making. The book takes a multi-scaled and multi-taxa approach, focusing on monitoring vertebrate populations and upland habitats, but the recommendations and suggestions presented are applicable to a variety of monitoring programs. Lastly, the book explores the future of monitoring techniques, enabling researchers to better plan for the future of wildlife populations and their habitats. Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide furthers the goal of achieving a world in which biodiversity is allowed to evolve and flourish in the face of such uncertainties as climate change, invasive species proliferation, land use expansion, and population growth.

Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations

Author: Caryl Elzinga,Daniel Salzer,John Willoughby

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781505683066

Category:

Page: 492

View: 8979

This technical reference applies to monitoring situations involving a single plant species, such as an indicator species, key species, or weed. It was originally developed for monitoring special status plants, which have some recognized status at the Federal, State, or agency level because of their rarity or vulnerability. Most examples and discussions in this technical reference focus on these special status species, but the methods described are also applicable to any single-species monitoring and even some community monitoring situations.We thus hope wildlife biologists, range conservationists, botanists, and ecologists will all find this technical reference helpful.

Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation

Author: Charles D. Bonham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118534522

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 3645

Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd Edition presents up-to-date methods for analyzing species frequency, plant cover, density and biomass data. Each method is presented in detail with a full discussion of its strengths and weaknesses from field applications through statistical characteristics of bias and use of the correct probability distribution to describe and analyze data. This practical book also covers the use of satellite imagery to obtain measurement data on cover, density and biomass. Field data collection includes current applications of statistical sampling and analysis designs that should be used to obtain and analyze these data. This new and thoroughly updated edition of a classic text will be essential reading for everyone involved in measuring and assessing vegetation and plant biomass, including researchers and practitioners in vegetation science, plant ecology, forestry, global change scientists and conservation scientists. Provides a comprehensive catalogue of sampling, surveying and measuring techniques in vegetation science Updated to include new technologies and developments in the field New coverage of prediction models for large areas, including satellite mapping and remote sensing techniques Includes up-to-date applications of statistical sampling and analysis designs used to obtain and analyse data Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, allowing an informed choice of alternative approaches Clear diagrams to explain best-practice in methodology The companion website for this book can be found at www.wiley.com/go/bonham/measurements

Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats

A Practitioner's Guide

Author: Brenda McComb,Benjamin Zuckerberg,David Vesely,Christopher Jordan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420070583

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 3015

In the face of so many unprecedented changes in our environment, the pressure is on scientists to lead the way toward a more sustainable future. Written by a team of ecologists, Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide provides a framework that natural resource managers and researchers can use to design monitoring programs that will benefit future generations by distilling the information needed to make informed decisions. In addition, this text is valuable for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses that are focused on monitoring animal populations. With the aid of more than 90 illustrations and a four-page color insert, this book offers practical guidance for the entire monitoring process, from incorporating stakeholder input and data collection, to data management, analysis, and reporting. It establishes the basis for why, what, how, where, and when monitoring should be conducted; describes how to analyze and interpret the data; explains how to budget for monitoring efforts; and discusses how to assemble reports of use in decision-making. The book takes a multi-scaled and multi-taxa approach, focusing on monitoring vertebrate populations and upland habitats, but the recommendations and suggestions presented are applicable to a variety of monitoring programs. Lastly, the book explores the future of monitoring techniques, enabling researchers to better plan for the future of wildlife populations and their habitats. Monitoring Animal Populations and Their Habitats: A Practitioner’s Guide furthers the goal of achieving a world in which biodiversity is allowed to evolve and flourish in the face of such uncertainties as climate change, invasive species proliferation, land use expansion, and population growth.

Monitoring Threatened Species and Ecological Communities

Author: Sarah Legge,Natasha Robinson,David Lindenmayer,Benjamin Scheele,Darren Southwell,Brendan Wintle

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 1486307728

Category: Nature

Page: 480

View: 9946

Monitoring is integral to all aspects of policy and management for threatened biodiversity. It is fundamental to assessing the conservation status and trends of listed species and ecological communities. Monitoring data can be used to diagnose the causes of decline, to measure management effectiveness and to report on investment. It is also a valuable public engagement tool. Yet in Australia, monitoring threatened biodiversity is not always optimally managed. Monitoring Threatened Species and Ecological Communities aims to improve the standard of monitoring for Australia's threatened biodiversity. It gathers insights from some of the most experienced managers and scientists involved with monitoring programs for threatened species and ecological communities in Australia, and evaluates current monitoring programs, establishing a baseline against which the quality of future monitoring activity can be managed. Case studies provide examples of practical pathways to improve the quality of biodiversity monitoring, and guidelines to improve future programs are proposed. This book will benefit scientists, conservation managers, policy makers and those with an interest in threatened species monitoring and management.

Biodiversity of Fungi

Inventory and Monitoring Methods

Author: Mercedes S. Foster,Gerald F. Bills

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080470262

Category: Science

Page: 777

View: 2881

Biodiversity of Fungi is essential for anyone collecting and/or monitoring any fungi. Fascinating and beautiful, fungi are vital components of nearly all ecosystems and impact human health and our economy in a myriad of ways. Standardized methods for documenting diversity and distribution have been lacking. A wealth of information, especially regrading sampling protocols, compiled by an international team of fungal biologists, make Biodiversity of Fungi an incredible and fundamental resource for the study of organismal biodiversity. Chapters cover everything from what is a fungus, to maintaining and organizing a permanent study collection with associated databases; from protocols for sampling slime molds to insect associated fungi; from fungi growing on and in animals and plants to mushrooms and truffles. The chapters are arranged both ecologically and by sampling method rather than by taxonomic group for ease of use. The information presented here is intended for everyone interested in fungi, anyone who needs tools to study them in nature including naturalists, land managers, ecologists, mycologists, and even citizen scientists and sophiscated amateurs. Covers all groups of fungi - from molds to mushrooms, even slime molds Describes sampling protocols for many groups of fungi Arranged by sampling method and ecology to coincide with users needs Beautifully illustrated to document the range of fungi treated and techniques discussed Natural history data are provided for each group of fungi to enable users to modify suggested protocols to meet their needs

Reintroduction of Fish and Wildlife Populations

Author: David S. Jachowski,Joshua J. Millspaugh,Paul L. Angermeier,Rob Slotow

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520284615

Category: Nature

Page: 408

View: 9607

Reintroduction of Fish and Wildlife Populations provides a practical step-by-step guide to successfully planning, implementing, and evaluating the reestablishment of animal populations in former habitats or their introduction in new environments. In each chapter, experts in reintroduction biology outline a comprehensive synthesis of core concepts, issues, techniques, and perspectives. This manual and reference supports scientists and managers from fisheries and wildlife professions as they plan reintroductions, initiate releases of individuals, and manage restored populations over time. Covering a broad range of taxonomic groups, ecosystems, and global regions, this edited volume is an essential guide for academics, students, and professionals in natural resource management.

Methods For Monitoring Tiger And Prey Populations

Author: K. Ullas Karanth,James D. Nichols

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811054363

Category: Science

Page: 303

View: 1370

This book addresses issues of monitoring populations of tigers, ungulate prey species and habitat occupancy, with relevance to similar assessments of large mammal species and general biodiversity. It covers issues of rigorous sampling, modeling, estimation and adaptive management of animal populations using cutting-edge tools, such as camera-traps, genetic identification and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), applied under the modern statistical approach of Bayesian and likelihood-based inference. Of special focus here are animal survey data derived for use under spatial capture-recapture, occupancy, distance sampling, mixture-modeling and connectivity analysees. Because tigers are an icons of global conservation, in last five decades,enormous amounts of commitment and resources have been invested by tiger range countries and the conservation community for saving wild tigers. However, status of the big cat remains precarious. Rigorous monitoring of surviving wild tiger populations continues to be essential for both understanding and recovering wild tigers. However, many tiger monitoring programs lack the necessary rigor to generate the reliable results. While the deployment of technologies, analyses, computing power and human-resource investments in tiger monitoring have greatly progressed in the last couple of decades, a full comprehension of their correct deployment has not kept pace in practice. In this volume, Dr. Ullas Karanth and Dr. James Nichols, world leaders in tiger biology and quantitative ecology, respectively, address this key challenge. The have collaborated with an extraordinary array of 30 scientists with expertise in a range of necessary disciplines - biology and ecology of tigers, prey and habitats; advanced statistical theory and practice; computation and programming; practical field-sampling methods that employ technologies as varied as camera traps, genetic analyses and geographic information systems. The book is a 'tour de force' of cutting-edge methodologies for assessing not just tigers but also other predators and their prey. The 14 chapters here are lucidly presented in a coherent sequence to provide tiger-specific answers to fundamental questions in animal population assessment: why monitor, what to monitor and how to monitor. While highlighting robust methods, the authors also clearly point out those that are in use, but unreliable. The managerial dimension of tiger conservation described here, the task of matching monitoring objectives with skills and resources to integrate tiger conservation under an adaptive framework, also renders this volume useful to wildlife scientists as well as conservationists.

Conservation and the Genetics of Populations

Author: Fred W. Allendorf,Gordon H. Luikart,Sally N. Aitken

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118408578

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 9019

Loss of biodiversity is among the greatest problems facing the world today. Conservation and the Genetics of Populations gives a comprehensive overview of the essential background, concepts, and tools needed to understand how genetic information can be used to conserve species threatened with extinction, and to manage species of ecological or commercial importance. New molecular techniques, statistical methods, and computer programs, genetic principles, and methods are becoming increasingly useful in the conservation of biological diversity. Using a balance of data and theory, coupled with basic and applied research examples, this book examines genetic and phenotypic variation in natural populations, the principles and mechanisms of evolutionary change, the interpretation of genetic data from natural populations, and how these can be applied to conservation. The book includes examples from plants, animals, and microbes in wild and captive populations. This second edition contains new chapters on Climate Change and Exploited Populations as well as new sections on genomics, genetic monitoring, emerging diseases, metagenomics, and more. One-third of the references in this edition were published after the first edition. Each of the 22 chapters and the statistical appendix have a Guest Box written by an expert in that particular topic (including James Crow, Louis Bernatchez, Loren Rieseberg, Rick Shine, and Lisette Waits). This book is essential for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of conservation genetics, natural resource management, and conservation biology, as well as professional conservation biologists working for wildlife and habitat management agencies. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations.

Monitoring Bird Populations by Point Counts

Author: C. John Ralph,John R. Sauer,Sam Droege

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9780788143441

Category:

Page: 181

View: 5128

Point counts of birds are the most widely used quantitative method and involve an observer recording birds from a single point for a standardized time period. In response to the need for standardization of methods to monitor bird populations by census, researchers met to present data from various investigations working under a wide variety of conditions, and to examine various aspects of point count methodology. Statistical aspects of sampling and analysis were discussed and applied to the objectives of point counts. The final chapter presents these standards and their applications to point count methodology.

Sampling Rare or Elusive Species

Concepts, Designs, and Techniques for Estimating Population Parameters

Author: William Thompson

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781610911061

Category: Nature

Page: 429

View: 8300

Information regarding population status and abundance of rare species plays a key role in resource management decisions. Ideally, data should be collected using statistically sound sampling methods, but by their very nature, rare or elusive species pose a difficult sampling challenge. Sampling Rare or Elusive Species describes the latest sampling designs and survey methods for reliably estimating occupancy, abundance, and other population parameters of rare, elusive, or otherwise hard-to-detect plants and animals. It offers a mixture of theory and application, with actual examples from terrestrial, aquatic, and marine habitats around the world. Sampling Rare or Elusive Species is the first volume devoted entirely to this topic and provides natural resource professionals with a suite of innovative approaches to gathering population status and trend data. It represents an invaluable reference for natural resource professionals around the world, including fish and wildlife biologists, ecologists, biometricians, natural resource managers, and all others whose work or research involves rare or elusive species.

Routledge Handbook of Ecological and Environmental Restoration

Author: Stuart K. Allison,Stephen D. Murphy

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 131741375X

Category: Nature

Page: 604

View: 9566

Ecological restoration is a rapidly evolving discipline that is engaged with developing both methodologies and strategies for repairing damaged and polluted ecosystems and environments. During the last decade the rapid pace of climate change coupled with continuing habitat destruction and the spread of non-native species to new habitats has forced restoration ecologists to re-evaluate their goals and the methods they use. This comprehensive handbook brings together an internationally respected group of established and rising experts in the field. The book begins with a description of current practices and the state of knowledge in particular areas of restoration, and then identifies new directions that will help the field achieve increasing levels of future success. Part I provides basic background about ecological and environmental restoration. Part II systematically reviews restoration in key ecosystem types located throughout the world. In Part III, management and policy issues are examined in detail, offering the first comprehensive treatment of policy relevance in the field, while Part IV looks to the future. Ultimately, good ecological restoration depends upon a combination of good science, policy, planning and outreach – all issues that are addressed in this unrivalled volume.

Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards

Author: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Animals as Monitors of Environmental Hazards,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309040469

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 9731

Studying animals in the environment may be a realistic and highly beneficial approach to identifying unknown chemical contaminants before they cause human harm. Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards presents an overview of animal-monitoring programs, including detailed case studies of how animal health problems--such as the effects of DDT on wild bird populations--have led researchers to the sources of human health hazards. The authors examine the components and characteristics required for an effective animal-monitoring program, and they evaluate numerous existing programs, including in situ research, where an animal is placed in a natural setting for monitoring purposes.

Status of Pollinators in North America

Author: Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309102898

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 322

View: 6473

Pollinators--insects, birds, bats, and other animals that carry pollen from the male to the female parts of flowers for plant reproduction--are an essential part of natural and agricultural ecosystems throughout North America. For example, most fruit, vegetable, and seed crops and some crops that provide fiber, drugs, and fuel depend on animals for pollination. This report provides evidence for the decline of some pollinator species in North America, including America's most important managed pollinator, the honey bee, as well as some butterflies, bats, and hummingbirds. For most managed and wild pollinator species, however, population trends have not been assessed because populations have not been monitored over time. In addition, for wild species with demonstrated declines, it is often difficult to determine the causes or consequences of their decline. This report outlines priorities for research and monitoring that are needed to improve information on the status of pollinators and establishes a framework for conservation and restoration of pollinator species and communities.

Ecological Census Techniques

A Handbook

Author: William J. Sutherland

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458019

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 9823

This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census.

Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Author: Richard Frankham,Jonathan D. Ballou,Katherine Ralls,Michele R. Dubash,Charles B. Fenster,Paul Sunnucks

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198783396

Category: Nature

Page: 528

View: 5435

One of the greatest unmet challenges in conservation biology is the genetic management of fragmented populations of threatened animal and plant species. More than a million small, isolated, population fragments of threatened species are likely suffering inbreeding depression and loss of evolutionary potential, resulting in elevated extinction risks. Although these effects can often be reversed by re-establishing gene flow between population fragments, managers very rarely do this. On the contrary, genetic methods are used mainly to document genetic differentiation among populations, with most studies concluding that genetically differentiated populations should be managed separately, thereby isolating them yet further and dooming many to eventual extinction! Many small population fragments are going extinct principally for genetic reasons. Although the rapidly advancing field of molecular genetics is continually providing new tools to measure the extent of population fragmentation and its genetic consequences, adequate guidance on how to use these data for effective conservation is still lacking. This accessible, authoritative text is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students interested in conservation biology, conservation genetics, and wildlife management. It will also be of particular relevance to conservation practitioners and natural resource managers, as well as a broader academic audience of conservation biologists and evolutionary ecologists.

Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range

Author: Committee on Ungulate Management in Yellowstone National Park,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309083451

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 6892

Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range discusses the complex management challenges in Yellowstone National Park. Controversy over the National Park Service's approach of "natural regulation" has heightened in recent years because of changes in vegetation and other ecosystem components in Yellowstone's northern range. Natural regulation minimizes human impacts, including management intervention by the National Park Service, on the park ecosystem. Many have attributed these changes to increased size of elk and other ungulate herds. This report examines the evidence that increased ungulate populations are responsible for the changes in vegetation and that the changes represent a major and serious change in the Yellowstone ecosystem. According to the authors, any human intervention to protect species such as the aspen and those that depend on them should be prudently localized rather than ecosystem-wide. An ecosystem--wide approach, such as reducing ungulate populations, could be more disruptive. The report concludes that although dramatic ecological change does not appear to be imminent, approaches to dealing with potential human--caused changes in the ecosystem, including those related to climate change, should be considered now. The need for research and public education is also compelling.

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