Nanoparticles and the Immune System provides a reference text for toxicologists, materials scientists and regulators and covers the key issues of interaction of nanomaterials with the immune system. The book discusses several issues that toxicologists and regulators need to know: identification of endpoints that are relevant for assessing hazard, evaluating impact on immunologically frail populations, and how to evaluate chronic/cumulative effects. In addition, the book addresses the possibility of turning the immunomodulating properties of certain nanomaterials to our advantage for amplifying immune responses in certain diseases or preventive strategies (e.g. vaccination). Identifies endpoints relevant for assessing hazardous situations, evaluating the impact on immunologically frail populations and how to gauge chronic/cumulative effects Raises the awareness of the importance of knowing the effects of the new nanomaterials on our immune system
The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.
Nanobiomaterials exhibit distinctive characteristics, including mechanical, electrical, and optical properties, which make them suitable for a variety of biological applications. Because of their versatility, they are poised to play a central role in nanobiotechnology and make significant contributions to biomedical research and healthcare. Nanobiomaterials Handbook offers a broad introduction for those new to the subject and serves as a useful reference for advanced professionals. Analyzing major topics and disciplines in this arena, this volume: Defines scope, current status, and future prospects of nanobiomaterials Surveys nanobiomaterials and examines various synthesis and processing techniques important for developing nanobiomaterials Explores the unique nanoscopic physicochemical properties of nanobiomaterials Discusses potential applications, emphasizing unique challenges in the design, fabrication, and evaluation of biomaterials for a particular application or field Provides a detailed overview of the interactions between bionanomaterials/biological systems and the biocompatibility issues associated with bionanomaterials Advances in nanobiomaterials requires a multidisciplinary approach spanning major fields in physical and biological sciences, engineering, and medicine with considerable collaboration between ethicists, regulatory bodies, and industry. This volume brings together the work of a team of world-renowned experts from various fields who discuss the vast potential for nanobiomaterials in a myriad of applications.
The enormous advances in the immunologic aspects of biotherapeutics and nanomedicines in the past two decades has necessitated an authoritative and comprehensive reference source that can be relied upon by immunologists, biomedical researchers, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, regulators, venture capitalists, and policy makers alike. This text provides a thorough understanding of immunology, therapeutic potential, clinical applications, adverse reactions, and approaches to overcoming immunotoxicity of biotherapeutics and nanomedicines. It also tackles critical, yet often overlooked topics such as immune aspects of nano-bio interactions, current FDA regulatory guidances, complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), advances in nanovaccines, and immunogenicity testing of protein therapeutics.
The Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature, methodologies, and translational and regulatory considerations in the field of nanoimmunotoxicology. The main subject is the immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Focus areas include interactions between engineered nanomaterials and red blood cells, platelets, endothelial cells, professional phagocytes, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, complement and coagulation systems, and plasma proteins, with discussions on nanoparticle sterility and sterilization. Each chapter presents a broad literature review of the given focus area, describes protocols and resources available to support research in the individual focus areas, highlights challenges, and outlines unanswered questions and future directions. In addition, the Handbook includes an overview of and serves a guide to the physicochemical characterization of engineered nanomaterials essential to conducting meaningful immunological studies of nanoparticles. Regulations related to immunotoxicity testing of materials prior to their translation into the clinic are also reviewed.The Handbook is written by top experts in the field of nanomedicine, nanotechnology, and translational bionanotechnology, representing academia, government, industry, and consulting organizations, and regulatory agencies. The Handbook is designed to serve as a textbook for students, a practical guide for research laboratories, and an informational resource for scientific consultants, reviewers, and policy makers. It is written such that both experts and beginners will find the information highly useful and applicable.
Nanomaterials, with their unique size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown promising advantages as drug and gene delivery vehicles, ultra-sensitive intracellular detectors and novel therapeutic drugs. Nanopharmaceutics is one of the disciplines that will benefit the most from this technology. Nanotechnology will have a revolutionary impact on cancer diagnosis and therapy due to the exceptional characteristics of nanopharmaceutics. This book provides an overview of some tools, methods, and materials of nanotechnology that offer potential applications in pharmaceutics, followed by a series of examples showing applications that are already in development. It may very well inspire researchers to develop a new generation of pharmaceutics with inventive non-traditional approach and employ nanoscale science for the benefit of the patient.
Abstract: The interaction of inorganic nanoparticles and many biological fluids often withstands the formation of a Protein Corona enveloping the nanoparticle. This Protein Corona provides the biological identity to the nanoparticle that the immune system will detect. The formation of this Protein Corona depends not only on the composition of the nanoparticle, its size, shape, surface state and exposure time, but also on the type of media, nanoparticle to protein ratio and the presence of ions and other molecular species that interfere in the interaction between proteins and nanoparticles. This has important implications on immune safety, biocompatibility and the use of nanoparticles in medicine.
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Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritablechanges in the regulation of gene activity and expression thatoccur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. Thisdynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impactacross the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology whereepigenetic differences can mean that different individuals responddifferently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensionalcharacter of this emerging area of toxicology, describingcutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes,the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well asthe potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatoryenvironments. An international team of experts consider theinterplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas,including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, andcomputational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics andmetabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact indevelopment and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight intothe current trends and future directions of research in thisrapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, riskassessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.