Search Results: nanoparticles-and-the-immune-system

Nanoparticles and the Immune System

Safety and Effects

Author: Diana Boraschi,Albert Duschl

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124079210

Category: Medical

Page: 138

View: 1581

Nanoparticles and the Immune System provides a reference text for toxicologists, materials scientists and regulators and covers the key issues of interaction of nanomaterials with the immune system. The book discusses several issues that toxicologists and regulators need to know: identification of endpoints that are relevant for assessing hazard, evaluating impact on immunologically frail populations, and how to evaluate chronic/cumulative effects. In addition, the book addresses the possibility of turning the immunomodulating properties of certain nanomaterials to our advantage for amplifying immune responses in certain diseases or preventive strategies (e.g. vaccination). Identifies endpoints relevant for assessing hazardous situations, evaluating the impact on immunologically frail populations and how to gauge chronic/cumulative effects Raises the awareness of the importance of knowing the effects of the new nanomaterials on our immune system

Interaction of Nanomaterials With the Immune System: Role in Nanosafety and Nanomedicine

Author: Paola Italiani,Diana Boraschi,Lucio R. C. Castellano,Paulo Bonan,Eliton S. Medeiros

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889453871

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7581

The immune system has the double role of maintaining tissue integrity and homeostasis and of protecting the organism from possible dangers, from invading pathogens to environmentally-borne dangerous chemicals. New chemicals recognisable by the immune system are engineered nanomaterials/ nanoparticles, new agents in our environment that are becoming common due to their presence in many products, from constructions and building material (e.g., solar cells, pigments and paints, tilesand masonry materials) to daily products (e.g., food packaging, cosmetics, and cigarettes). Human beings can be accidentally exposed to engineered nanomaterials when these are released from products containing them or during production in workplaces. Furthermore, intentional exposure occurs in medicine, as engineered nanoparticles are used as tools for improving delivery of drugs and vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and contrast agents in therapeutic, preventive and diagnostic strategies. Nanoparticles that come in contact with the immune system after unintentional exposure need to be eliminated from the organism as they represent a potential threat. In this case, however, due to their peculiar characteristics of size, shape, surface charge and persistence, nanoparticles may elicit undesirable reactions and have detrimental effects on the immune system, such as cytotoxicity, inflammation, anaphylaxis, immunosuppression. Conversely, nanomedicines need to escape immune recognition/elimination and must persist in the organism long enough for reaching their target and exerting their beneficial effects. Immune cells and molecules at the body surface (airway and digestive mucosae, skin) are the first that come in contact with nanomaterials upon accidental exposure, while immune effectors in blood are those that more easily come in contact with nanomedical products. Thus, evaluating the interaction of the immune system with nanoparticles/nanomaterials is a topic of key importance both in nanotoxicology and in nanomedicine. Immuno-nanosafety studies consider both accidental exposure to nanoparticles, which may occur by skin contact, ingestion or inhalation (at doses and with a frequency that are not known), and medical exposure, which takes place with a defined administration schedule (route, dose, frequency). Many studies focus on the interaction between the immune system and nanoparticles that, for medical purposes, have been specifically modified to stimulate immunity or to avoid immune recognition, as in the case of vaccine carriers/adjuvants or drug delivery systems, respectively. The aims of this Research Topic is to provide an overview of recent strategies: 1.for assessing the immunosafety of engineered nanomaterials/nanoparticles, in particular in terms of activation of inflammatory responses, such as complement activation and allergic reactions, based on the nanomaterial intrinsic characteristics and on the possible carry-over of bioactive contaminants such as LPS. Production of new nanoparticles taking into account their effects on immune responses, in order to avoid undesirable effects on one hand, and to design particles with desirable effects for medical applications on the other hand; 2.for designing more effective nanomedicines by either avoiding or exploiting their interaction with the immune systems, with particular focus on cancer diagnosis and therapy, and vaccination. This collection of articles gives a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of the interaction of nanoparticles with the immune system from the two perspectives of safety and medical use, and aims at providing immunologists with the relevant knowledge for designing improved strategies for immunologically safe nanomaterial applications.

Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials

Author: Marina A. Dobrovolskaia,Scott E. McNeil

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814390259

Category: Medical

Page: 692

View: 9676

The Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature, methodologies, and translational and regulatory considerations in the field of nanoimmunotoxicology. The main subject is the immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Focus areas include interactions between engineered nanomaterials and red blood cells, platelets, endothelial cells, professional phagocytes, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, complement and coagulation systems, and plasma proteins, with discussions on nanoparticle sterility and sterilization. Each chapter presents a broad literature review of the given focus area, describes protocols and resources available to support research in the individual focus areas, highlights challenges, and outlines unanswered questions and future directions. In addition, the Handbook includes an overview of and serves a guide to the physicochemical characterization of engineered nanomaterials essential to conducting meaningful immunological studies of nanoparticles. Regulations related to immunotoxicity testing of materials prior to their translation into the clinic are also reviewed.The Handbook is written by top experts in the field of nanomedicine, nanotechnology, and translational bionanotechnology, representing academia, government, industry, and consulting organizations, and regulatory agencies. The Handbook is designed to serve as a textbook for students, a practical guide for research laboratories, and an informational resource for scientific consultants, reviewers, and policy makers. It is written such that both experts and beginners will find the information highly useful and applicable.

Immune Recognition

Author: Alan Rosenthal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323142133

Category: Nature

Page: 876

View: 9013

Immune Recognition is a modified compilation of an experimental leukocyte culture conference about various aspects of macrophage and lymphocyte biology in relation to the eponymous central theme. The book is divided into nine sections. Section I covers non-antigenic signals and receptors for lymphocyte activation; the recognition of chemically modified autologous cells; surface membrane saccharides; and B and T cell activation. Section II is about antigenic signals; the activation of macrophages; and the induction of autosensitization of initiator lymphocytes. Sections III and IV discuss the early membrane and biochemical events in lymphocyte activation. Sections V to IX cover the coupling of cytoplasmic and nuclear events to membrane cycles; cellular and molecular basis of cell recognition and interaction in nonlymphocyte systems; the genetic control of immunocompetent cell interactions; and cellular mechanisms that regulate the immune response. The text is intended for doctors who specialize in immunology and want to know more about the different factors that cause the recognition of the immune system.

Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health

Author: Bengt Fadeel,Antonio Pietroiusti,Anna A. Shvedova

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128094907

Category: Medical

Page: 486

View: 9738

Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials: Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health, Second Edition, provides a systematic evaluation of representative engineered nanomaterials (ENM) of high volume production and their high economic importance. Each class of nanomaterials discussed includes information on what scientists, industry, regulatory agencies, and the general public need to know about nanosafety. Written by leading international experts in nanotoxicology and nanomedicine, this book gives a comprehensive view of the health impact of ENM, focusing on their potential adverse effects in exposed workers, consumers, and patients. All chapters have been updated with new sections on the endocrine system and other organ systems. In addition, other newly added sections include introductory chapters on the physio-chemical characterization of nanomaterials and interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems, as well as a new chapter that explores risk assessment and management of nanomaterials. This book fills an important need in terms of bridging the gap between experimental findings and human exposure to ENM, also detailing the clinical and pathological consequences of such exposure in the human population. Uses a schematic, non-exhaustive approach to summarizes the most important research data in this field Discusses the health implications of experimental data in nanotoxicology Presents a completely revised edition that focuses on the human health impacts of engineered nanomaterials, including many organ-specific chapters

Nanoparticulate Vaccine Delivery Systems

Author: Martin J. D'Souza

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814613312

Category: Medical

Page: 244

View: 6352

Recent years have seen the development of novel technologies that use nanoparticles and microparticles to deliver vaccines by the oral and microneedle-based transdermal route of administration. These new technologies enable the formulation of vaccine particles containing vaccine antigens, without loss of their biological activity during the formulation process. Also, multiple antigens, targeting ligands, and adjuvants can all be encapsulated within the same particle. When administered orally, these particles are designed to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach and are targeted to Peyer’s patches and the gut-associated mucosal immune system. Since these vaccines are particulate in nature, they are readily taken up by phagocytic antigen-presenting cells, such as M cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in Peyer’s patches of the intestines, resulting in a strong immune response and antibody production. Since no needles are required for oral vaccines, this method of vaccine delivery is inexpensive and suitable for mass vaccination in the developing world as well as the developed world. This book discusses studies conducted on a wide array of vaccines, including vaccines for infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid, influenza, pneumonia, meningitis, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B. It also discusses recent studies on vaccines for cancers such as melanoma and ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer.

Environmental Influences on the Immune System

Author: Charlotte Esser

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3709118905

Category: Medical

Page: 378

View: 9926

This book brings together articles on the overarching theme of how the environment shapes the immune system. The immune system is commonly assumed to respond to harmful pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. However, harmless bacteria, chemicals, stress, normal food and other factors can also trigger, shape or interfere with the immune system, often producing adverse effects. Yet, it is also becoming increasingly accepted that some of these interactions are physiological and necessary for a healthy immune system. Examples of negative effects include the immunosuppressive effects of UV irradiation, or the immunotoxic effects of man-made chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Autoimmunity or allergies can be the adverse consequences of interaction between the immune system and chemical compounds such as drugs. Positive effects can come from natural exposure levels to bacteria, healthy life-style or the diet. There is a great need to understand how communication between the environment and the immune system works. This book addresses this need. It covers environmental factors (such as bacteria, sun exposure), human factors (such as age, exercise or stress), and important man-made factors (such as air pollution). A chapter on human rights complements the scientific chapters. The book is intended for immunologists, toxicologists and researchers who want to know how the immune system works and is triggered, as well as for medical doctors in environmental medicine and the general public interested in immunology.

Lessons in Immunity

From Single-cell Organisms to Mammals

Author: Loriano Ballarin,Matteo Cammarata

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128032537

Category: Medical

Page: 324

View: 2030

Lessons in Immunity: From Single-cell Organisms to Mammals stems from the activity of the Italian Association of Developmental and Comparative Immunobiology (IADCI), represented by the editors. This book is presented as a series of short overviews that report on the current state of various relevant fields of immunobiology from an evolutionary perspective. The overviews are written by authors directly involved in the research, and most are members of the IADCI or have otherwise been involved in the related research for their respective overview. This publication offers scientists and teachers an easy and updated reference tool. Provides simple and updated reviews on the immunobiology of a wide spectrum of organisms, considered in an evolutionary context Focuses on both cells and humoral components of a variety of non-classical model organisms Offers in a single volume many contributions which can help with understanding the evolution of immune responses and the main adaptations in animal phyla Presents a valuable holistic cross-sectional approach for teaching immunology and its applications

Biomaterials and Immune Response

Complications, Mechanisms and Immunomodulation

Author: Nihal Engin Vrana

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351377558

Category: Medical

Page: 249

View: 5256

The interactions of the biomaterials with the host immune system is crucial for their functionality. This book aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the role of the immune system in biomaterial applications. For this end, the book has dedicated chapters for i) explaining immune cells taking part in immune response to biomaterials/immune systems interface; ii) the effect of biomaterial shape, form and physicochemical properties on the response of immune system; iii) biofilm formation on implanted materials as a failure of immune system/biomaterial interactions; iv) tissue-specific effects of immune response and its consequences for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; v) immune reaction in a clinical context (periodontology). In the field of biomaterials there are significant advances in using immunomodulation techniques to improve the success rates of implantable materials. For better understanding of such techniques it is required to have a full grasp of the biomaterial–immune system interactions. This would greatly enhance the understanding of why the human body reacts to implants in a certain way and how to improve the clinical outcomes by developing immune-instructive biomaterials.

Protein and Peptide Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012802870X

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 4277

Published continuously since 1944, the Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology series has been the essential resource for protein chemists. Each volume brings forth new information about protocols and analysis of proteins. Each thematically organized volume is guest edited by leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics. Describes advances in application of powerful techniques in a wide bioscience area Chapters are written by authorities in their field Targeted to a wide audience of researchers, specialists, and students The information provided in the volume is well supported by a number of high quality illustrations, figures, and tables

Immunological Engineering

Author: D.W. Jirsch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401161828

Category: Medical

Page: 361

View: 6397

Immunology has become one of the most important of the life sciences. As research unravels the mystery of the lymphocyte, a central role of the immune system in health preservation has become evident. The paediatric immunodeficiency disorders or 'experiments of nature' have demonstrated the division of cellular and humoral immunity; specific functional defects are now readily identified. The tendency of persons with immune dysfunction to develop neoplasms has suggested that surveillance mechanisms within the immune apparatus prevent tumour development. Malignancies, in fact, do seem to provoke certain immune responses, begging numerous therapeutic questions. Transplantation surgery, or the demand for 'new parts' has led to description of those antigens important in tissue-typing. Genetic loci have been found responsible for transplantation antigen display; as well, they influence clinical resistance or susceptibility to a wide variety of infections, auto-immune or neoplastic diseases. Clinicians have been quick to recognize the therapeutic implications of laboratory work and to use this knowledge in disease treatment. Precise patient-tissue matching and immunosuppressive treatment make renal allo transplantation safer and more successful than ever before. Both paediatric and adult immune deficiency states are now often recognized; treatment may involve general immune support or specific manipulations with, perhaps, bone marrow or thymus grafts or treatment with lymphocyte transfer factor. Transplantation of bone marrow has been used not only to correct certain immune defects but to correct marrow failure of diverse origin.

Micro- and Nanotechnology in Vaccine Development

Author: Mariusz Skwarczynski,Istvan Toth

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0323400299

Category: Medical

Page: 460

View: 2722

This book provides a comprehensive overview of how use of micro- and nanotechnology (MNT) has allowed major new advance in vaccine development research, and the challenges that immunologists face in making further progress. MNT allows the creation of particles that exploit the inherent ability of the human immune system to recognize small particles such as viruses and toxins. In combination with minimal protective epitope design, this permits the creation of immunogenic particles that stimulate a response against the targeted pathogen. The finely tuned response of the human immune system to small particles makes it unsurprising that many of the lead adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems currently under investigation are based on nanoparticles. Provides a comprehensive and unparalleled overview of the role of micro- and nanotechnology in vaccine development Allows researchers to quickly familiarize themselves with the broad spectrum of vaccines and how micro- and nanotechnologies are applied to their development Includes a combination of overview chapters setting out general principles, and focused content dealing with specific vaccines, making it useful to readers from a variety of disciplines

Functionalized Nanomaterials for the Management of Microbial Infection

A Strategy to Address Microbial Drug Resistance

Author: Rabah Boukherroub,Sabine Szunerits,Djamel Drider

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 032341737X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 338

View: 6646

Functionalized Nanomaterials for the Management of Microbial Infection: A Strategy to Address Microbial Drug Resistance introduces the reader to the newly developing use of nanotechnology to combat microbial drug resistance. Excessive use of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents has produced an inexorable rise in antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. The use of nanotechnology is currently the most promising strategy to overcome microbial drug resistance. This book shows how, due to their small size, nanoparticles can surmount existing drug resistance mechanisms, including decreased uptake and increased efflux of the drug from the microbial cell, biofilm formation, and intracellular bacteria. In particular, chapters cover the use of nanoparticles to raise intracellular antimicrobial levels, thus directly targeting sites of infection and packaging multiple antimicrobial agents onto a single nanoparticle. Provides the information users need to integrate antibacterial nanoparticles into future treatments Gives readers with backgrounds in nanotechnology, chemistry, and materials science an understanding of the main issues concerning microbial drug resistance and its challenges Includes real-life case studies that illustrates how functionalized nanomaterials are used to manage microbial infection

Emerging Applications of Nanoparticles and Architectural Nanostructures

Current Prospects and Future Trends

Author: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf,Ahmed Barhoum

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 0128135166

Category: Science

Page: 668

View: 7607

Emerging Applications of Nanoparticles and Architecture Nanostructures: Current Prospects and Future Trends discusses the most important current applications of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures in a comprehensive, detailed manner. The book covers major applications of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures, taking into account their unusual shapes and high surface areas. In particular, coverage is given to applications in aerospace, automotive, batteries, sensors, smart textile design, energy conversion, color imaging, printing, computer chips, medical implants, pharmacy, cosmetics, and more. In addition, the book discusses the future of research in these areas. This is a valuable reference for both materials scientists, chemical and mechanical engineers working both in R&D and academia who want to learn more on how nanoparticles and nanomaterials are commercially applied. Provides an in-depth look at the properties of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures in terms of their applicability for industrial uses Analyzes the most recent advances and industrial applications of different types of nanoparticles and architecture nanostructures, taking into account their unusual structures and compositions Identifies novel nanometric particles and architectures that are of particular value for applications and the techniques required to use them effectively

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

Author: Ecaterina Andronescu,Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323461492

Category: Medical

Page: 1024

View: 5865

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery extensively covers the various nanostructured products that have been tested as carriers in target drug delivery systems. In addition, the book analyses the advantages of, and issues related to, using nanostructured materials in drug delivery systems, also detailing various nanocarrier preparation techniques. As delivering the drug to the target site is a major problem in providing effective treatment for many diseases, this book covers the latest advancements in numerous nanotechnological products that are being used in disease detection, controlled drug delivery, as biosensors, and in tissue engineering that have been developed for more efficient patient healthcare. Due to the versatility of nanostructured materials, it is now possible to deliver a drug at its target site in a more accurate and efficient way. This volume is an up-to-date, state-of-the-art work that highlights the principal mechanistic aspects related to the delivery of active nanoscale therapeutic agents (natural or synthetic) and their release profile in different environmental media. It highlights nanoscale encapsulation strategies and discusses both organic and inorganic nanomaterials as carriers and delivery platforms. Demonstrates how nanostructures are successfully employed in drug delivery stems and as drug delivery agents, allowing biomaterials scientists and biochemists to create more effective drug delivery systems Offers an overview of recent research into the use of nanostructures in drug delivery techniques in a cogent, synthesized way, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this area Includes examples of how the application of nanostructures have improved the efficiency of drug delivery systems, showing medical scientists how they are beneficial

Immune Effects of Biopharmaceuticals and Nanomedicines

Author: Raj Bawa,Janos Szebeni,Gerald F. Audette,Thomas J Webster

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789814774529

Category:

Page: 950

View: 2594

The enormous advances in the immunology of biotherapeutics and nanomedicines in the past two decades have necessitated an authoritative and comprehensive reference that can be relied upon by immunologists, biomedical researchers, physicians, pharmaceutical and formulation scientists, clinicians, regulatory personnel, technology transfer officers, venture capitalists, and policy makers alike. This book provides a broad survey of various interconnected topics, all accomplished in a user‐friendly format. The chapters are devoted to the immune stimulatory and suppressive effects of antibodies, peptides and other biopharmaceuticals, drug carrier liposomes, micelles, polymers, polymeric vesicles, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and other nanomedicines (with and without surface targeting ligands). The text discusses the state of the art in nanoparticle‐formulated therapeutic and preventive vaccines along with their potential molecular mechanisms underlying immunogenicity. The latter phenomenon is addressed as an adverse effect of monoclonal antibody-based biopharmaceuticals and nanomedicines. Yet another adverse immune effect of monoclonals and nanomedicines, complement activation‐related pseudoallergy (CARPA), is discussed in unprecedented detail in terms of occurrence, prediction, prevention, and mechanism. The range of the contributing authors accurately reflects the diverse and rapidly evolving fields of biotherapeutics, nanomedicines, nanoimmunology, and nanotoxicology. The book's multidisciplinary and in‐depth approach makes it a standard reference in this expansive and interdisciplinary field.

Protein-Nanoparticle Interactions

The Bio-Nano Interface

Author: Masoud Rahman,Sophie Laurent,Nancy Tawil,L'Hocine Yahia,Morteza Mahmoudi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642375553

Category: Science

Page: 86

View: 7593

In recent years, the fabrication of nanomaterials and exploration of their properties have attracted the attention of various scientific disciplines such as biology, physics, chemistry, and engineering. Although nanoparticulate systems are of significant interest in various scientific and technological areas, there is little known about the safety of these nanoscale objects. It has now been established that the surfaces of nanoparticles are immediately covered by biomolecules (e.g. proteins, ions, and enzymes) upon their entrance into a biological medium. This interaction with the biological medium modulates the surface of the nanoparticles, conferring a “biological identity” to their surfaces (referred to as a “corona”), which determines the subsequent cellular/tissue responses. The new interface between the nanoparticles and the biological medium/proteins, called “bio-nano interface,” has been very rarely studied in detail to date, though the interest in this topic is rapidly growing. In this book, the importance of the physiochemical characteristics of nanoparticles for the properties of the protein corona is discussed in detail, followed by comprehensive descriptions of the methods for assessing the protein-nanoparticle interactions. The advantages and limitations of available corona evaluation methods (e.g. spectroscopy methods, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and differential centrifugal sedimentation) are examined in detail, followed by a discussion of the possibilities for enhancing the current methods and a call for new techniques. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of protein-nanoparticle interaction phenomena are explored and discussed, with a focus on the biological impacts.

Nanoscience in Dermatology

Author: Michael R. Hamblin,Pinar Avci,Tarl Prow

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128029455

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 1571

Nanoscience in Dermatology covers one of the two fastest growing areas within dermatological science, nanoscience and nanotechnology in dermatology. Recently, great progress has been made in the research and development of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials related to various applications in medicine and, in general, the life sciences. There is increasing enthusiasm for nanotechnology applications in dermatology (drug delivery, diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, sensors, etc.) for understanding skin biology, improving early detection and treatment of skin diseases, and in the design and optimization of cosmetics. Light sensitive nanoparticles have recently been explored, opening a new era for the combined applications of light with nanotechnology, also called photonanodermatology. However, concerns have been raised regarding the adverse effects of intentional and unintentional nanoparticle exposure and their toxicity. Written by experts working in these exciting fields, this book extensively covers nanotechnology applications, together with the fundamentals and toxicity aspects. It not only addresses current applications of nanotechnology, but also discusses future trends of these ever-growing and rapidly changing fields, providing scientists and dermatologists with a clear understanding of the advantages and challenges of nanotechnology in skin medicine. Provides knowledge of current and future applications of nanoscience and nanotechnology in dermatology Outlines the fundamentals, methods, toxicity aspects, and other relevant aspects for nanotechnology based applications in dermatology Coherently structured book written by experts working in the fields covered

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