Search Results: negotiating-the-nuclear-non-proliferation-treaty

Negotiating the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Origins of the Nuclear Order

Author: Roland Popp,Liviu Horovitz,Andreas Wenger

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315536560

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 1275

This volume offers a critical historical assessment of the negotiation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and of the origins of the nonproliferation regime. The NPT has been signed by 190 states and was indefinitely extended in 1995, rendering it the most successful arms control treaty in history. Nevertheless, little is known about the motivations and strategic calculi of the various middle and small powers in regard to their ultimate decision to join the treaty despite its discriminatory nature. While the NPT continues to be central to current nonproliferation efforts, its underlying mechanisms remain under-researched. Based on newly declassified archival sources and using previously inaccessible evidence, the contributions in this volume examine the underlying rationales of the specific positions taken by various states during the NPT negotiations. Starting from a critical appraisal of our current knowledge of the genesis of the nonproliferation regime, contributors from diverse national and disciplinary backgrounds focus on both European and non-European states in order to enrich our understanding of how the global nuclear order came into being. This book will be of much interest to students of nuclear proliferation, Cold War history, security studies and IR.

International Negotiations on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: 1960-1969

Page: 183

View: 6204

The Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

Author: Ian Bellany,Coit D. Blacker,Joseph Gallacher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135173184

Category: History

Page: 142

View: 375

This study looks at the interpretations and effects of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and offers readings of its possible future effects.

Justice and Fairness in International Negotiation

Author: Cecilia Albin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521797252

Category: Philosophy

Page: 263

View: 3912

This book argues that principles of justice and fairness play an important part in international negotiations.

Avoiding Armageddon

Europe, the United States, and the Struggle for Nuclear Nonproliferation, 1945-1970

Author: Susanna Schrafstetter,Stephen Robert Twigge

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275975999

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 7370

Traces the struggle of the international community, namely Western Europe, to halt the nuclear arms race and prevent the annihilation of humanity, from the destruction of Hiroshima to the conclusion of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968.

A Diplomacy of Hope

Canada and Disarmament, 1945-1988

Author: Albert Legault,Michel Fortmann

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 9780773509559

Category: History

Page: 663

View: 1469

A Diplomacy of Hope is the first comprehensive survey of the history of Canadian diplomacy in the area of arms control and disarmament. Taking much of their information from Canadian archival sources, Albert Legault and Michel Fortmann cover all major negotiations on arms control and disarmament in which Canada has participated since 1945.

Arms Control

New Approaches to Theory and Policy

Author: Nancy W. Gallagher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136314318

Category: History

Page: 184

View: 3977

Contents: Bridging the Gaps on Arms Control Nancy W. Gallagher. Arms Control in the Information Age Emily O. Goldman. A New Role for Transparency Ann M. Florini. Beyond Deterrence, Defence, and Arms Control Gloria Duffy. Nuclear Arms Control through Multilateral Negotiations Rebecca Johnson. The Impact of Govermental Context on Negotiation and Implementation: Constraints and Opportunities for Change Amy Sands. The Politics of Verification: Why How Much?' is Not Enough Nancy W. Gallagher.

U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy

Confronting Today's Threats

Author: George Bunn,Christopher F. Chyba

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815713673

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 1099

What role should nuclear weapons play in today's world? How can the United States promote international security while safeguarding its own interests? U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy informs this debate with an analysis of current nuclear weapons policies and strategies, including those for deterring, preventing, or preempting nuclear attack; preventing further proliferation, to nations and terrorists; modifying weapons designs; and revising the U.S. nuclear posture. Presidents Bush and Clinton made major changes in U.S. policy after the Cold War, and George W. Bush's administration made further, more radical changes after 9/11. Leaked portions of 2001's Nuclear Posture Review, for example, described more aggressive possible uses for nuclear weapons. This important volume examines the significance of such changes and suggests a way forward for U.S. policy, emphasizing stronger security of nuclear weapons and materials, international compliance with nonproliferation obligations, attention to the demand side of proliferation, and reduced reliance on nuclear weapons in U.S. foreign policy.

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Where Does India Stand?

Author: Carl Paddock

Publisher: Epitome Books

ISBN: 9380297149

Category: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Page: 254

View: 4458

Where Does India Stand? Barack Obama has made the CTBT a priority in his non-proliferation policy and has promised to seek Senate ratification of the Treaty. Once the US ratifies the CTBT, there will be extreme pressure on India to sign it. Should India sign the CTBT or link it to complete nuclear disarmament? What will be in India's interests? This book tries to address all these issues. Going deep into the historical background of the CTBT, it examines India's stand on it. Also, it analyses the impact of nuclearization of India and Pakistan on South Asia, the Indo-US nuclear deal, the security interests of the US and the Pakistan factor.

Security Without Nuclear Weapons?

Different Perspectives on Non-nuclear Security

Author: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Publisher: A Sipri Publications

ISBN: 9780198291435

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 6899

This book examines the question: is the elimination of nuclear weapons politically feasible and technically practical? With the end of the cold war, a re-thinking of the nuclear foundations of international security is imperative. There are no compelling reasons to perpetuate a cold war era nuclear security approach. Neither is the world ready to abolish nuclear weapons by agreement. What it is ready for, however, is a radical reappraisal of conventional strategic and disarmament wisdom. The book's explicit focus on non-nuclear security takes issue with prevailing pro- and anti-nuclear views. The study challenges the assumptions of the strategic community that there is no alternative to nuclear security in an anarchic international system, and of the advocates of radical nuclear disarmament who propose solutions at the expense of security. Instead, the contributors argue that nuclear weapons abolition should be seen as a long-term process, pursued on a broad political front, aimed at a steady transformation of international politics that encourages security co-operation between states. Individual chapters of the book address the major conceptual, technical, and economic issues in the design of a non-nuclear security regime. Other chapters explore more specialized issues as they relate to the feasibility of the elimination of nuclear weapons: elite perceptions and the decision-making process, verification, nuclear proliferation, fissile materials and warheads, alliances and regional hegemonies, and deterrence.

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and India

Author: Rajiv Nayan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317986105

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 1889

The relationship of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty with India has been an interesting subject in the field of security studies. The nuclearisation of India and its subsequent rise are further forcing the world to redefine its relationship with the treaty. However, the international response is quite mixed. The old mindset still thinks that India may join the treaty as a Non-Nuclear Weapon State. Scholars appear divided whether India should join the treaty as a nuclear weapon country. The book discusses current crises of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty which are going to figure in the 2010 Review Conference of the treaty. This book was published as a special issue of The Strategic Analysis.

Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1999-2000

Author: Helge Ole Bergesen,Georg Parmann,Oystein B. Thommessen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134055463

Category: Political Science

Page: 378

View: 2339

List of Contents Current Issues and Key Themes Agreements on Environment and Development Systematically listed key data and illustrations concerning the most important international agreements presented on the basis of information from the organizations in question and other sources, covering such matters as: objectives ? scope ? time and place of establishment ? status of participation ? affiliated instruments and organizations ? major activities ? secretariat ? finance ? rules and standards ? monitoring and implementation ? decision-making bodies ? key publications ? Internet sources. This edition includes the new Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in decision Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters and the Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade. Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs), including UN specialized agencies objectives ? type of organization ? membership ? date of establishment ? secretariat ? activities ? decision-making bodies ? finance ? key publications ? Internet sources. International Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) objectives ? type of organization ? membership ? date of establishment ? secretariat ? activities ? budget ? key publications ? Internet sources. Country Profiles Summaries of the performance and main commitments of 15 OECD countries in addition to Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, South Africa, and Thailand. Originally published in 1999

Nuclear Authority

The IAEA and the Absolute Weapon

Author: Robert L. Brown

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626161836

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9397

Once dismissed as ineffectual, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has in the past twenty years emerged as a powerful international organization. Member states allow the IAEA to render judgment on matters vital to peace and security while nations around the globe comply with its rules and commands on proliferation, safety, and a range of other issues. Robert L. Brown details the IAEA’s role in facilitating both control of nuclear weapons and the safe exploitation of nuclear power. As he shows, the IAEA has acquired a surprising amount of power as states, for political and technological reasons, turn to it to supply policy cooperation and to act as an agent for their security and safety. The agency’s success in gaining and holding authority rests in part on its ability to apply politically neutral expertise that produces beneficial policy outcomes. But Brown also delves into the puzzle of how an agency created by states to aid cooperation has acquired power over them.

The Future of Arms Control

Author: Michael A. Levi,Michael E. O'Hanlon

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815797555

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 3860

Arms control, for decades at the core of the foreign policy consensus, today is among the more contentious issues in American politics. It is pilloried and considered out of mode in many conservative quarters, while being viewed as nearly sacrosanct in many liberal circles. In this new book, Michael Levi and Michael O'Hanlon argue that neither the left nor the right has a correct view of the proper utility of arms control in the age of terror. Arms control in the traditional sense--lengthy treaties to limit nuclear and other military competitions among the great powers--is no longer particularly useful. Nor should arms control be pursued as a means to the end of constraining the power of nations or of promoting global government. It is still a critical tool, though, for controlling dangerous technologies, particularly those that, in the hands of hostile states or terrorist organizations, could cause massive death and destruction. Arms control and coercive action, including military force, must be integrated into an overall strategy for preventing proliferation, now more than ever before. Arms control should be used to gain earlier warning of illicit activities inside dangerous states, allowing the international community to take coercive action in a timely way. The authors propose three new criteria to guide future arms control efforts, designed to respond to today's geopolitical realities. Arms control must focus on the dangers of catastrophic technology, not so much in the hands of major powers as of small states and terrorist groups. Their criteria lead to a natural focus on nuclear and biological technologies. Much tougher measures to prevent countries from gaining nuclear weapons technoloty while purportedly complying with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and procedures for controlling dangerous biological technologies will be most prominent in this framework, while lower priority is giben to efforts such as bilateral nuclear accords and most types of arms control for outer space. This book provides a framework for an effective arms control strategy in a new age of international security.

Interpreting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Author: Daniel H. Joyner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191648787

Category: Law

Page: 200

View: 2898

The 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty has proven the most complicated and controversial of all arms control treaties, both in principle and in practice. Statements of nuclear-weapon States from the Cold War to the present, led by the United States, show a disproportionate prioritization of the non-proliferation pillar of the Treaty, and an unwarranted underprioritization of the civilian energy development and disarmament pillars of the treaty. This book argues that the way in which nuclear-weapon States have interpreted the Treaty has laid the legal foundation for a number of policies related to trade in civilian nuclear energy technologies and nuclear weapons disarmament. These policies circumscribe the rights of non-nuclear-weapon States under Article IV of the Treaty by imposing conditions on the supply of civilian nuclear technologies. They also provide for the renewal and maintaintenance, and in some cases further development of the nuclear weapons arsenals of nuclear-weapon States. The book provides a legal analysis of this trend in treaty interpretation by nuclear-weapon States and the policies for which it has provided legal justification. It argues, through a close and systematic examination of the Treaty by reference to the rules of treaty interpretation found in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, that this disproportionate prioritization of the non-proliferation pillar of the Treaty leads to erroneous legal interpretations in light of the original balance of principles underlying the Treaty, prejudicing the legitimate legal interests of non-nuclear-weapon States.

Nuclear Wastelands

A Global Guide to Nuclear Weapons Production and Its Health and Environmental Effects

Author: Arjun Makhijani,Howard Hu,Katherine Yih

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262632041

Category: Political Science

Page: 668

View: 7443

A handbook for scholars, students, policy makers, journalists, and peace and environmental activists, Nuclear Wastelands provides concise histories of the development of nuclear weapons programs of every declared and de facto nuclear weapons power, as well as detailed surveys of the health and environmental effects of this development both in these countries and in non-nuclear nations involved in nuclear weapons testing and uranium mining.Among the more obvious but largely deferred costs of the Cold War are those related to the management of radioactive waste. The world is burdened with thousands of unwanted nuclear devices and mounting surpluses of weapons-grade plutonium and enriched uranium. In addition, the process of weapons production and testing has left many lands, aquifers, rivers, lakes, and seas contaminated by a multitude of weapons-related poisons. This book follows the production process step by step and country by country from uranium mining to the final assembly and storage of weapons, analyzing the potential hazards of each step and compiling the most complete information available on the actual health and environmental effects, in each country involved.Nuclear Wastelands includes a wealth of information that has only recently come to light, particularly on the nuclear weapons program of the former Soviet Union. It also features critical analyses of official public communications concerning the health and environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production, bringing to light governmental secrecy and outright deception that have led to the subversion of democratic principles, and have camouflaged the damage done to the very people and lands the weapons were meant to safeguard.

Best of Intentions

America's Campaign Against Strategic Weapons Proliferation

Author: Henry D. Sokolski

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275967529

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 8988

Sokolski examines the United States' efforts to prevent the spread of strategic weapons since 1945 and draws on its history to recommend how to improve future nonproliferation policies. The most comprehensive historical analysis of U.S. nonproliferation policy ever written.

The Legality of Threat Or Use of Nuclear Weapons

A Guide to the Historic Opinion of the International Court of Justice

Author: John Burroughs

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 9783825835163

Category: Law

Page: 169

View: 1684

" ""The threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law ... There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control."" - Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, 8 July 1996 ""This book shows how courageous states from the developing world, working in concert with visionary lawyers, physicians and other sectors of international civil society, boldly obtained astonishing results from the highest court in the world. The World Court clearly ruled that the threat or use of nuclear weapons is illegal in almost all conceivable circumstances. The Court further underlined the unconditional obligation of the nuclear weapon states to begin and conclude negotiations on nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. It is now up to all of us to determine the follow-up, whatever the opposition. We cannot end this century without clear commitments and steps to eliminate nuclear weapons."" - Razali Ismail, Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, President of the United Nations General Assembly, 1996-1997 ""It is not often that a judicial opinion on a given question is both hailed and criticized by participants on all sides of the question. This book, written by a leading member of the team that helped to prepare the case on the illegality of the threat and use of nuclear weapons, explains succinctly what the World Court, and the judges in their separate statements, did and did not say. In so doing, it makes a compelling case for the proposition that the Opinion represents a milestone on the road to nuclear abolition."" - Peter Weiss, Co-President, International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms The 20th century has been defined in large part by the unleashing of the terrible destructive power of the atom, and the subsequent struggle to overcome the threat of nuclear annihilation. If humankind survives, the 8 July 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, and the extraordinary process that led up to it, will have played an essential role. The (Il)legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a concise yet thorough guide to the case. In straightforward language, it describes the history of this unprecedented initiative and summarizes and explains states' arguments to the Court, the Court's findings, and the separate statements of the judges. The author provides cogent expert analysis and, most importantly, reveals how the opinion imparts hope and points the way to the future: "" The Court has authoritatively interpreted law which states acknowledge they must follow, including humanitarian law protecting civilians from indiscriminate effects of warfare, the United Nations Charter, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The implications are profound: abandonment of reliance on the threat and use of nuclear weapons as an instrument of national policy, and expeditious elimination of nuclear arsenals. The opinion can be cited as an authoritative statement of the law in any political or legal setting - including the United Nations and national courts and parliaments - in which nuclear weapon policies are challenged."" John Burroughs, an attorney for the Western States Legal Foundation in California, served as the legal coordinator for the World Court Project/International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms at the November 1995 hearings before the International Court of Justice. "

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