Search Results: nonproliferation-policy-and-nuclear-posture

Nonproliferation Policy and Nuclear Posture

Causes and Consequences for the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

Author: Neil Narang,Erik Gartzke,Matthew Kroenig

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317406761

Category: Political Science

Page: 354

View: 4148

This volume examines the causes and consequences of nuclear postures and nonproliferation policies. The real-world importance of nuclear weapons has led to the production of a voluminous scholarly literature on the causes and consequences of nuclear weapons proliferation. Missing from this literature, however, is a more nuanced analysis that moves beyond a binary treatment of nuclear weapons possession, to an exploration of how different nuclear postures and nonproliferation policies may influence the proliferation of nuclear weapons and subsequent security outcomes. This volume addresses this deficit by focusing on the causes and consequences of nuclear postures and nonproliferation policies. It is the aim of this book to advance the development of a new empirical research agenda that brings systematic research methods to bear on new dimensions of the nuclear weapons phenomenon. Prior to the contributions in this volume, there has been little evidence to suggest that nuclear postures and policies have a meaningful impact on the spread of nuclear weapons or security outcomes. This book brings together a new generation of scholars, advancing innovative theoretical positions, and performing quantitative tests using original data on nuclear postures, nonproliferation policies, and WMD proliferation. Together, the chapters in this volume make novel theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to the field of nuclear weapons proliferation. This book will be of much interest to students of nuclear proliferation, international relations and security studies.

The Logic of American Nuclear Strategy

Why Strategic Superiority Matters

Author: Matthew Kroenig

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190849193

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4713

For decades, the reigning scholarly wisdom about nuclear weapons policy has been that the United States only needs the ability to absorb an enemy nuclear attack and still be able to respond with a devastating counterattack. So long as the US, or any other nation, retains such an assured retaliation capability, no sane leader would intentionally launch a nuclear attack against it, and nuclear deterrence will hold. According to this theory, possessing more weapons than necessary for a second-strike capability is illogical. This argument is reasonable, but, when compared to the empirical record, it raises an important puzzle. Empirically, we see that the United States has always maintained a nuclear posture that is much more robust than a mere second-strike capability. In The Logic of American Nuclear Strategy, Matthew Kroenig challenges the conventional wisdom and explains why a robust nuclear posture, above and beyond a mere second-strike capability, contributes to a state's national security goals. In fact, when a state has a robust nuclear weapons force, such a capability reduces its expected costs in a war, provides it with bargaining leverage, and ultimately enhances nuclear deterrence. This book provides a novel theoretical explanation for why military nuclear advantages translate into geopolitical advantages. In so doing, it helps resolve one of the most-intractable puzzles in international security studies. Buoyed by an innovative thesis and a vast array of historical and quantitative evidence, The Logic of American Nuclear Strategy will force scholars to reconsider their basic assumptions about the logic of nuclear deterrence.

U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy

Confronting Today's Threats

Author: George Bunn,Christopher F. Chyba

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815713673

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 5604

What role should nuclear weapons play in today's world? How can the United States promote international security while safeguarding its own interests? U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy informs this debate with an analysis of current nuclear weapons policies and strategies, including those for deterring, preventing, or preempting nuclear attack; preventing further proliferation, to nations and terrorists; modifying weapons designs; and revising the U.S. nuclear posture. Presidents Bush and Clinton made major changes in U.S. policy after the Cold War, and George W. Bush's administration made further, more radical changes after 9/11. Leaked portions of 2001's Nuclear Posture Review, for example, described more aggressive possible uses for nuclear weapons. This important volume examines the significance of such changes and suggests a way forward for U.S. policy, emphasizing stronger security of nuclear weapons and materials, international compliance with nonproliferation obligations, attention to the demand side of proliferation, and reduced reliance on nuclear weapons in U.S. foreign policy.

Opaque Nuclear Proliferation

Methodological and Policy Implications

Author: Benjamin Frankel

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780714634180

Category: History

Page: 201

View: 9810

This examination of nuclear arms control addresses the question of what kind of posture do second generation nuclear weapons states adopt in a world in which the presumption of non-proliferation is accepted?

Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons

Author: Bhumitra Chakma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134132549

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 7557

Pakistan is a vitally important country in the contemporary global political system. It is a de facto nuclear state, and a pivotal country in the War on Terror. This book provides a comprehensive study of a nuclear-armed Pakistan, investigating the implications of its emergence as a nuclear weapons state. Setting out the historical background of Pakistani nuclear development, the book examines the lessons for proliferation that can be drawn from the Pakistan case. It explains the changes and continuities of Pakistan’s nuclear policy, assessing its emerging force posture and the implications for Pakistani, South Asian and global security. It also considers the extent to which Pakistan can be said to have a nuclear doctrine, the Pakistani nuclear command and control system, and the relationship between Pakistan and the Non-Proliferation regime. Addressing the issue of whether Pakistan should be viewed as a proliferator, and the implications of a nuclear Pakistan for global terrorism, Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons is an important study of all the major issues surrounding Pakistan’s emergence as a nuclear power.

India's Emerging Nuclear Posture

Between Recessed Deterrent and Ready Arsenal

Author: Ashley J. Tellis

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 9780833027818

Category: Political Science

Page: 885

View: 4974

After a hiatus of almost 24 years, India startled the international community by resuming nuclear testing in May 1998. Pakistan responded later the same month with five nuclear tests of its own. The belief that the nuclear tests in South Asia have not only altered the strategic environment in the region but also transformed New Delhi into a nuclear weapons power recurs constantly in Indian strategic and political analyses. This book will address these issues in the context of a broader understanding of India's strategic interests, its institutional structures, and its security goals. The author argues that the truth of the matter is much more complex than most Indian analysts believe and that despite demonstrating and ability to successfully undertake nuclear explosions, India still has some way to go before it can acquire the capabilties that would make it a consequential nuclear power.

Postures for Non-Proliferation

Arms Limitation and Security Policies to Minimize Nuclear Proliferation

Author: Enid C. B. Schoettle

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

View: 1168

Bog om ikke-spredning af kernevåben, skrevet af gæstestudine ved instituttet, Enid C. B. Schoettle.

Reluctant Restraint: The Evolution of China's Nonproliferation Policies and Practices, 1980-2004

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804768245

Category:

Page: 357

View: 4613

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

What's the Connection and what Does that Mean for U.S. Security and Obama Administration Policy? : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held August 1, 2012

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Strategic Forces Subcommittee

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Deterrence (Strategy)

Page: 208

View: 4558

Cross-Domain Deterrence

Strategy in an Era of Complexity

Author: Erik Gartzke,Jon R. Lindsay

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190908661

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 335

The complexity of the twenty-first century threat landscape contrasts markedly with the bilateral nuclear bargaining context envisioned by classical deterrence theory. Nuclear and conventional arsenals continue to develop alongside anti-satellite programs, autonomous robotics or drones, cyber operations, biotechnology, and other innovations barely imagined in the early nuclear age. The concept of cross-domain deterrence (CDD) emerged near the end of the George W. Bush administration as policymakers and commanders confronted emerging threats to vital military systems in space and cyberspace. The Pentagon now recognizes five operational environments or so-called domains (land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace), and CDD poses serious problems in practice. In Cross-Domain Deterrence, Erik Gartzke and Jon R. Lindsay assess the theoretical relevance of CDD for the field of International Relations. As a general concept, CDD posits that how actors choose to deter affects the quality of the deterrence they achieve. Contributors to this volume include senior and junior scholars and national security practitioners. Their chapters probe the analytical utility of CDD by examining how differences across, and combinations of, different military and non-military instruments can affect choices and outcomes in coercive policy in historical and contemporary cases.

India's Nuclear Policy

Author: Bharat Karnad

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0275999467

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 9348

This book examines the Indian nuclear policy, doctrine, strategy and posture, clarifying the elastic concept of credible minimum deterrence at the center of the country's approach to nuclear security. This concept, Karnad demonstrates, permits the Indian nuclear forces to be beefed up, size and quality-wise, and to acquire strategic reach and clout, even as the qualifier minimum suggests an overarching concern for moderation and economical use of resources, and strengthens India's claims to be a responsible nuclear weapon state. Based on interviews with Indian political leaders, nuclear scientists, and military and civilian nuclear policy planners, it provides unique insights into the workings of India's nuclear decision-making and deterrence system. Moreover, by juxtaposing the Indian nuclear policy and thinking against the theories of nuclear war and strategic deterrence, nuclear escalation, and nuclear coercion, offers a strong theoretical grounding for the Indian approach to nuclear war and peace, nuclear deterrence and escalation, nonproliferation and disarmament, and to limited war in a nuclearized environment. It refutes the alarmist notions about a nuclear flashpoint in South Asia, etc. which derive from stereotyped analysis of India-Pakistan wars, and examines India's likely conflict scenarios involving China and, minorly, Pakistan.

China's Changing Nuclear Posture

Reactions to the South Asian Nuclear Tests

Author: Ming Zhang

Publisher: Brookings Inst Press

ISBN: 9780870031601

Category: Political Science

Page: 88

View: 4619

This inside look at the history and politics of China's changing nuclear posture is based on extensive analysis of Chinese and Western documents and interviews conducted in China. The new data, future scenarios, and unique perspective make it essential reading for any assessment of China's nuclear future. A Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Book

The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy

Author: Committee on International Security and Arms Control,National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309518377

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 101

View: 989

The debate about appropriate purposes and policies for U.S. nuclear weapons has been under way since the beginning of the nuclear age. With the end of the Cold War, the debate has entered a new phase, propelled by the post-Cold War transformations of the international political landscape. This volume--based on an exhaustive reexamination of issues addressed in The Future of the U.S.-Soviet Nuclear Relationship (NRC, 1991)--describes the state to which U.S. and Russian nuclear forces and policies have evolved since the Cold War ended. The book evaluates a regime of progressive constraints for future U.S. nuclear weapons policy that includes further reductions in nuclear forces, changes in nuclear operations to preserve deterrence but enhance operational safety, and measures to help prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. In addition, it examines the conditions and means by which comprehensive nuclear disarmament could become feasible and desirable.

The United Kingdom and Nuclear Deterrence

Author: Jeremy Stocker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134974612

Category: History

Page: 99

View: 8007

In December 2003 the British government announced that within a few years it would need to take decisions about the future of Britain's strategic nuclear deterrent. Exactly three years later, its plans were revealed in a White Paper. The existing Trident system is to be given a life-extension, which includes building new submarines to carry the missiles, costing £15–20 billion. Britain has a substantial nuclear legacy, having owned nuclear weapons for over half a century. The strategic context for the deterrent has changed completely with the end of the Cold War, but nuclear weapons retain much of their salience. This Adelphi Paper argues that it makes sense to remain a nuclear power in an uncertain and nuclear-armed world. Given that deterrence needs are now less acute, but more complex than in the past, the paper asserts that deterrence also needs to be aligned with non-proliferation policies, which seek to reduce the scale of threats that need to be deterred. Somewhat overlooked in current policy are appropriate measures of defence, which can raise the nuclear threshold and, if required, mitigate the effects of deterrence failure. It concludes that the government's decisions about the future form of the deterrent are very sensible, but cautions that they still need to be integrated into a broader policy that embraces diplomacy, deterrence and defence to counter the risks posed by nuclear proliferation.

An Elusive Consensus

Nuclear Weapons and American Security after the Cold War

Author: Janne E. Nolan

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815791195

Category: Political Science

Page: 139

View: 8915

The United States continues to maintain a large nuclear arsenal guided by a deterrence strategy little changed since the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. Notwithstanding changes in the size and composition of nuclear forces brought about since 1991, the fundamental rationales and planning principles which informed U.S. nuclear policy for decades remain in place--despite the disappearance of a superpower nuclear enemy. In this work, Janne E. Nolan traces the effort to articulate a post-cold war nuclear doctrine through decisions taken in the Bush and Clinton administrations, focusing on the leadership styles of presidents, bureaucratic politics, and broader foreign policy objectives. Based on in-depth interviews with policy participants, this study illuminates in detail the dynamics by which the U.S. government has tried to reflect the dramatically altered international arena in its nuclear policies. In two major policy developments--the 1994 Nuclear Posture Review and the decision to sign the African Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty--U.S. policy makers sought to define the utility of nuclear weapons after the cold war and to gain broad-based consensus. For many reasons, these efforts were largely unsuccessful in developing coherent policies, with the absence of sustained presidential leadership proving most decisive.

2010 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference

Key Issues and Implications

Author: Paul K. Kerr

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437933211

Category:

Page: 30

View: 9056

This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Contents: (1) Intro.: Overview of the NPT; (2) Past NPT Review Conf.: 1995, 2000, 2005; (3) Issues for the 2010 Conf.: Disarmament: New U.S.-Russian START Agreement; U.S. Nuclear Posture Review, Negative Security Assurances; Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty; Fissile Material Cut-Off Negotiations; Non-proliferation and Compliance: Safeguards; Non-compliance; NPT Withdrawal; Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones; Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy; Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Universality of the Treaty; WMD-Free Zone in the Middle East; (4) Possible Outcomes and Potential Impact; (5) Legislation in the 111th Cong. Append.: (A) Text of the NPT; (B) Resolution on the Middle East (1995); ( C) 13 Practical Steps (2000). Illus.

Pakistan and United States nuclear nonproliferation policy

hearing before the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security, and Science, and Asian and Pacific Affairs, and International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, first session, October 22, 1987

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Security, and Science,United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs,United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nuclear nonproliferation

Page: 172

View: 1514

State Behavior and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime

Author: Jeffrey R. Fields

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820347299

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 8658

"This is an edited collection of essays that asks--and attempts to answer--a series of questions about global efforts of nuclear nonproliferation. Though there is almost universal membership in the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), why is there reluctance on the part of some countries to support measures to strengthen the regime through other means Various tools and instruments used to bolster the NPT--such as sanctions on resistant states, robust export controls, and anti-smuggling efforts--are resisted by some states, who often simultaneously argue that the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the spread of its technology is undesirable. Indeed, many member states pursue policies that are directly counterproductive to strengthening the NPT. For example, the United States has signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with India, a nuclear weapons-producing country that has not signed the NPT"--

US Nuclear Weapons Policy After the Cold War

Russians, 'Rogues' and Domestic Division

Author: Nick Ritchie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134036434

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 4545

This book offers an in-depth examination of America’s nuclear weapons policy since the end of the Cold War. Exploring nuclear forces structure, arms control, regional planning and the weapons production complex, the volume identifies competing sets of ideas about nuclear weapons and domestic political constraints on major shifts in policy. It provides a detailed analysis of the complex evolution of policy, the factors affecting policy formulation, competing understandings of the role of nuclear weapons in US national security discourse, and the likely future direction of policy. The book argues that US policy has not proceeded in a linear, rational and internally consistent direction, and that it entered a second post-Cold War phase under President George W. Bush. However, domestic political processes and lack of political and military interest in America’s nuclear forces have constrained major shifts in nuclear weapons policy. This book will be of much interest to students of US foreign policy, nuclear proliferation, strategic studies and IR in general.

Stable Nuclear Zero

The Vision and its Implications for Disarmament Policy

Author: Sverre Lodgaard

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315536641

Category: Political Science

Page: 164

View: 6496

This volume examines the conditions necessary for a stable nuclear-weapons-free world and the implications for nuclear disarmament policy. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a road map to nuclear zero, but it is a rudimentary one and it says nothing about the kind of zero to aim for. Preferably, this would be a world where the inhibitions against reversal are strong enough to make it stably non-nuclear. What then are the requirements of stable zero? The literature on nuclear disarmament has paid little attention to this question. By and large, the focus has been on the next steps, and discussions tend to stop where the NPT stops: with the elimination of the weapons. This book seeks to fill a lacuna by examining the requirements of stable zero and their implications for the road map to that goal, starting from the vision to the present day. The volume highlights that a clear conception of the goal not only is important in itself, but can shed light on what kind of disarmament process to promote. This book will be of much interest to students of nuclear proliferation, global governance, security studies and IR.

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