Search Results: parliamentary-versus-presidential-government-oxford-readings-in-politics-and-government

Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government

Author: Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198780443

Category: Political Science

Page: 257

View: 3889

Parliamentary and presidential governments--exemplified by most European countries for the former and the United States and Latin America for the latter--are the two principal forms of democracy in the modern world. Their respective advantages and disadvantages have been long debated, at first mainly by British and American political observers but with increasing frequency in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America, but also in Western and Eastern Europe and Asia. The recent world-wide wave of democratization has intensified both the debate and its significance. This volume brings together the most important statement on the subject by advocates and analysts--from Montesquieu and Madison to Lipset and Linz. It also treats the merits of less frequently used democratic types, such as French-style semi-presidentialism, that may be regarded as intermediate forms between parliamentarism and presidentialism.

Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy

Author: Jose Antonio Cheibub

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521542449

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

View: 4267

This book questions the reasons why presidential democracies more likely to break down than parliamentary ones.

Achieving Democracy

Democratization in Theory and Practice

Author: Mary Fran T. Malone

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441183256

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 1388

Democracy is the ability to participate freely and equally in the political and economic affairs of the country. Americans have relied on philosophical pragmatism and on the impulse of political progressivism to express those creedal democratic values. Achieving Democracy argues that, in the last 30 years, however, by focusing on free markets and small government, America has since lost its grasp on these crucial democratic values. Economically, the vast majority of Americans have been made worse off due to a historically unprecedented redistribution of wealth from the lower and middle classes to the top one percent. Politically, partisan gridlock has hampered efforts to seek fairer taxes, responsive and effective regulation, reliable health care, and better education, among other needs. Achieving Democracy critiques the history of the last 30 years of neoliberal government in the United States, and enables an understanding of the dynamic and changing nature of contemporary government and the future of the regulatory state. Sidney A. Shapiro and Joseph P. Tomain demonstrate how lessons from the past can be applied today to regain essential democratic losses within the successful framework of a progressive government to ultimately construct a good society for all citizens.


Author: Philip Norton

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 1429

Collecting fifteen essays by some of the world's most respected scholars and political theorists, Legislatures offers the first substantial anthology of original writings on this important topic. The volume spans three centuries of political thought, presenting selections from Montesquieu, Bagehot, and Bryce--three scholar-politicians who established the model for legislative studies--as well as works by such contemporary pioneers as Bernard Crick, Anthony King, Samuel Beer, and Nelson Polsby. The volume is divided into five thematic sections, each preceded by an introduction explaining the significance of the writings that follow; the final section includes extracts from official publications that have had a practical impact upon legislative development.

The West European Party System

Author: Peter Mair

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198275838

Category: Nature

Page: 364

View: 8935

The analysis of party systems in Western Europe has long constituted a major focus of concern in comparative political science. Now for the first time, many of the classic writings in this field have been collected into a single volume. The collection contains seminal writings by Weber, Neumann, Duverger, Kirchheimer, Daalder, Rokkan, and Sartori, as well as a selection from the more recent debates on changes in European party systems, including the contributions of Pedersen, Wolinetz, and Inglehart. The writings cover the development, stabilization, and transformation of party systems and include some of the key analyses which have sought to distinguish between different types of party systems.

Introduction to Caribbean Politics

Author: Cynthia Barrow-Giles

Publisher: N.A


Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 5052

This is an introductory text for students of Caribbean Politics at the undergraduate level. It provides a broad historical sweep from the slave era to the contemporary period, characterised by issues of structural adjustments and globalisation, and in between, the years of worker revolt and protest. The text is structured and presented around a number of core concepts used to analyse Caribbean politics and political systems. Understanding of each concept is aided and enriched by selected readings from both published works as well as original articles specially commissioned for this book. This student-friendly text contains summaries of the key concepts discussed in each section, questions to test students' understanding, suggestions for further reading and a self-assessment section. Key concepts/issues include: 1. Imperialism, Colonialism, Neo-Colonialism, Re-Colonisation 2. Struggles of the working class people 3. The politics of constitutional decolonisation and the Westminster model 4. Party systems and electoral politic 5. Trade Unionism 6. The Politics of change: alternative development strategies 7. Regional integration.

Presidents and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Manuel Alcántara,Jean Blondel,Jean-Louis Thiébault

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351622706

Category: Political Science

Page: 266

View: 6434

This new textbook provides students with a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the presidents and presidential leadership in Latin America. Unlike other texts, Presidents and Democracy in Latin America integrates both political analysis and major theoretical perspectives with extensive country-specific material. Part One examines the developments in recent years in Latin American presidentialism and identifies different characteristics of society and politics which have influenced Latin American governments. The personalization of political life and of presidential government help to illustrate the character of Latin American politics, specifically on the type of political career of those who occupied the presidential office, the leadership style of these presidents and the type of government which they led. Part Two studies two presidents in each of six countries in the region which reflect the broad trends in the political and electoral life: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Each case study first provides the biographical background of the president; it outlines the political career of the president both inside and outside of a party, including at the local level; the popularity of the president at the time of the presidential election is given, as well as the mode of selection of the candidates (selection by party leaders only, by party members or by a primary). The relation of the president with the government or ministers, especially if there is a coalition government, is detailed. This textbook will be essential reading for all students of Latin American Politics and is highly recommended for those studying executive politics, political leadership, and the state of democratic governance in Latin America.


An Introduction to Modern Democratic Government

Author: Munroe Eagles,Larry Johnston

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1551118580

Category: Political Science

Page: 496

View: 3243

"Extremely thorough and well-researched. The inclusion of a discussion of political science and of political philosophy is welcome, as it helps ground the discussion of modern institutions and processes in the history of political thought." - Robert Kelly, University of the Pacific

Foundations of Comparative Politics

Author: Kenneth Newton,Jan W. van Deth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139482122

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3755

This student-friendly introduction to the key theories and concepts of comparative politics now provides even broader coverage of the world's democracies, with examples drawn from across the globe. Foundations of Comparative Politics contains a wealth of information, clearly structured and easy to read, with clear definition of Key Terms. It covers all the important themes in the field, including constitutional design and institutions; mass and elite politics; policy-making and implementation; and the future of the state and democracy in a globalising world. A new chapter on studying comparative politics, and new 'What Have We Learned?' and 'Lessons of Comparison' summary sections help students pull together the lessons of each chapter. Combining facts and theory throughout, debate is stimulated through the use of Controversy boxes, and Fact Files and Briefings give students interesting data that illustrates the key issues in the text. Online resources, including MCQs and Powerpoint slides, complete the package.

Pressure Groups

Author: Jeremy John Richardson

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198780526

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 3577

Since the early 1950s pressure groups have been recognized as playing a key role in the policy process in western democracies. As legislatures and political parties have declined in influence, the relationship between pressure groups and government has become highly developed. This has presented both problems and opportunities for the participation of ordinary citizens in the governmental process. This book reviews some of the key theoretical concepts developed in the study of pressure groups and presents a series of up-to-date studies of their role in particular countries, including the U.K., the U.S., France, and the former Soviet Union. It is an authoritative collection, edited by one of Britain's leading pressure group analysts, and will be invaluable for both students and practitioners who want to understand current developments in the lobbying process.

The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics

Author: Erik Jones,Gianfranco Pasquino

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199669740

Category: Italy

Page: 664

View: 5152

The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics provides a comprehensive look at the political life of one of Europe's most exciting and turbulent democracies. Under the hegemonic influence of Christian Democracy in the early post-World War II decades, Italy went through a period of rapid growth and political transformation. In part this resulted in tumult and a crisis of governability; however, it also gave rise to innovation in the form of Eurocommunism and new forms of political accommodation. The great strength of Italy lay in its constitution; its great weakness lay in certain legacies of the past. Organized crime - popularly but not exclusively associated with the mafia - is one example. A self-contained and well entrenched 'caste' of political and economic elites is another. These weaknesses became apparent in the breakdown of political order in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This ushered in a combination of populist political mobilization and experimentation with electoral systems design, and the result has been more evolutionary than transformative. Italian politics today is different from what it was during the immediate post-World War II period, but it still shows many of the influences of the past.

Patterns of Democracy

Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries

Author: Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300172028

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 6508

In this updated and expanded edition of his classic text, Arend Lijphart offers a broader and deeper analysis of worldwide democratic institutions than ever before. Examining thirty-six democracies during the period from 1945 to 2010, Lijphart arrives at important—and unexpected—conclusions about what type of democracy works best. Praise for the previous edition: "Magnificent. . . . The best-researched book on democracy in the world today."—Malcolm Mackerras, American Review of Politics "I can't think of another scholar as well qualified as Lijphart to write a book of this kind. He has an amazing grasp of the relevant literature, and he's compiled an unmatched collection of data."—Robert A. Dahl, Yale University "This sound comparative research . . . will continue to be a standard in graduate and undergraduate courses in comparative politics."—Choice

Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences

Author: Bernard Grofman,Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875862675

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 1252

..." a usful volume on the impact of electoral laws...includes a very good bibliography and index...establishes a broader international and interdisciplinary perspective on the methods of representation." - American Political Science Review

Presidents with Prime Ministers

Do Direct Elections Matter?

Author: Margit Tavits

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199553327

Category: Political Science

Page: 273

View: 7885

This book is about presidents in parliamentary systems. One commonly recurring political debate within parliamentary systems is over whether or not the public should directly elect the head of state. Despite the importance of this topic in practical politics, political scientists have offered little empirical evidence, yet made bold assumptions about the consequences of popular elections for heads of state. A common argument is that direct elections enhance presidents' legitimacythereby increasing their activism and encouraging authoritarian tendencies. Another popular assumption is that direct presidential elections are more heavily contested and partisan, polarizing and dividing political elites and the electorate. Proponents of direct elections argue that such electionswill help decrease voter alienation and apathy. This book challenges the conventional wisdom. Using both quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence from democratic systems across the world, this book demonstrates that compared to indirect selection methods, direct elections do not yield more active and contentious presidents, do not polarize political elites or society, and do not remedy political apathy. Rather, presidential activism in both "semi-presidential" and "pure parliamentary"systems is shaped by political opportunity framework - the institutional strength and partisan composition of both parliament and government. Further, because holding the presidency provides parties with an electoral asset, direct and indirect presidential elections can be equally contentious andpolarizing. Last, but not least, rather than decreasing apathy, direct election is associated with increased voter fatigue and decreased turnout in parliamentary elections by about seven percentage points.

The Evolution of Electoral and Party Systems in the Nordic Countries

Author: Arend Lijphart,Bernard Grofman

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875861687

Category: Election law

Page: 314

View: 3954

"This is a book that all scholars of electoral systems or electoral history will need to read, and most will want to own. Much of the historical material reported is not available anywhere else in English, and much of it appears to be first-time reports of primary materials. Quite readable and very well-organized." -Cambridge Univ. Press referee

The Politics of Parliamentary Debate

Author: Sven-Oliver Proksch,Jonathan B. Slapin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110707276X

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 6007

Explains how parties and their members of parliament structure parliamentary debate, providing novel insights into intra-party politics and representation.


Author: George Tsebelis,Jeannette Money

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521589727

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 7060

This book examines how the chambers of bicameral legislatures interact when they produce legislation.

Politics And Society In Ukraine

Author: Paul D'anieri

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429977794

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 2901

With NATO expanding into central Europe, Ukraine has become a pivotal state for the future of European stability, yet it is a country about which little is known in the west. Politics and Society in Ukraine fills that gap, providing the first comprehensive and detailed study of the contemporary Ukrainian political system. Beginning with a discussion of the legacy of the Soviet Union, the authors illuminate Ukraines regional and ethnic tensions, governmental system, efforts at reform, and foreign policy. They consider all of those issues from a comparative perspective that readers unfamiliar with Ukraine will find illuminating. The authors are three of the leading authorities on Ukrainian politics, and each has extensive experience in the country. This book provides much-needed analysis of a crucial country. }With the expansion of NATO, Ukraine is frequently described as the linchpin of security in Central Europe. And after Russia, it is the largest and most important of the post-Soviet states. Yet it is a country about which most westerners know very little, subsumed as it was for decades beneath the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Ukrainian Politics and Society is the first comprehensive study of politics in post-Soviet Ukraine, and is therefore vital reading for anyone concerned with European security, or with politics in the former Soviet Union.The authors extensive experience in Ukraine allows them to explain the paradoxes of Ukrainian politics that have led to so many false predictions concerning the future of the Ukrainian state. Their examination of nationality politics shows why ethnic and regional differences have tended to recede rather than to spin out of control, as they have elsewhere in the region. At the same time, these differences hamstring the countrys political system, and the authors show how difficult a task it is for democratic institutions to provide effective government in a country with little consensus. By viewing economic reform in its profoundly political context, the authors expose the chasm between the theory and practice of economic reform. Understanding of how to make profits has not been lacking, but government regulation to ensure that profit-seeking behavior leads to functioning markets has been conspicuously absent.By examining in detail how Ukrainian politics has followed theoretical expectations and where it has contradicted them, the authors arrive at conclusions with implications well beyond Ukraine. Ukraine must first build a state and a nation before it can successfully reform its economy or build a genuine democracy. For Ukraine and its people, the task is daunting. For the west, whose security increasingly relies on stability in Ukraine, this book provides the knowledge necessary to approach the problem, as well as good reason not to ignore it. }

Electoral Systems and Party Systems

A Study of Twenty-seven Democracies, 1945-1990

Author: Arend Lijphart,Don Aitkin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198273479

Category: Philosophy

Page: 209

View: 6770

The most definitive treatment of electoral systems, this book describes and classifies the 70 different systems used by 27 democracies in 384 elections since 1945.

France After 2012

Author: Gabriel Goodliffe,Riccardo Brizzi

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782385495

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 9998

In May 2012, French voters rejected the liberalizing policies of Nicolas Sarkozy and elected his opponent, the Socialist François Hollande, president. In June 2012, the incumbent president's center-right UMP party was swept out of government in the ensuing parliamentary elections, giving way to a new center-left majority in the National Assembly. This book analyzes the contexts and results of the 2012 presidential and parliamentary elections in France. It assesses the legacies of the Sarkozy presidency that informed the 2012 electoral campaigns, scrutinizing his domestic social and economic policies on the one hand and European and foreign policies on the other. In turn, the elections' outcomes are also analyzed from the standpoint of various political parties and other institutional interests in France, and the results are situated within the broader run of French political history. Finally, the book examines the principal challenges facing the Hollande administration and new government of Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault, and assesses how effectively these have been met during their first year in office.

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