Introduces students to the basic biological and psychological processes and their development. It discusses pattern recognition, culture and attention and includes a brief discussion of artificial intelligence.
Perception is one of the oldest and most deeply investigated topics in the field of psychology, and it also raises some profound philosophical questions. It is concerned with how we use the information reaching our senses to guide and control our behavior as well as to create our particular, subjective experiences of the surrounding world. In this Very Short Introduction, Brian J. Rogers discusses the philosophical question of what it means to perceive, as well as describing how we are able to perceive the particular characteristics of objects and scenes such as their lightness, color, form, depth, and motion. What we perceive, however, does not always correspond to what exists in the world and, as Rogers shows, the study of illusions can be useful in telling us something about the nature and limitations of our perceptual processes. Rogers also explores perception from an evolutionary perspective, explaining how evolutionary pressures have shaped the perceptual systems of humans and other animals. He shows that perception is not necessarily a separate and independent process but rather part of a "perceptual system," involving both the extraction of perceptual information and the control of action. Rogers goes on to cover the significant progress made recently in the understanding of perception through the use of precise and controlled psychophysical methods, single cell recordings, and imaging techniques. There have also been many insights from attempts to model perceptual processes in artificial systems. As Rogers shows, these attempts have revealed how difficult it is to program machines to perform even the most simple of perceptual tasks that we take for granted. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
What is the nature of, and what is the relationship between, external objects and our visual perceptual experience of them? In this book, Frank Jackson defends the answers provided by the traditional Representative theory of perception. He argues, among other things that we are never immediately aware of external objects, that they are the causes of our perceptual experiences and that they have only the primary qualities. In the course of the argument, sense data and the distinction between mediate and immediate perception receive detailed defences and the author criticises attempts to reduce perceiving the believing and to show that the Representative theory makes the external world unknowable. Jackson recognises that his views are unfashionable but argues in detail that they are to be preferred to their currently favoured competitors. It will become an obvious point of reference for all future work on the philosophy of perception.
David A. Kenny's pioneering contribution takes a social relations approach to basic questions of person perception in social interaction. Enlightening and provocative, this volume provides a comprehensive theoretical overview of "interpersonal perception," a field of research that holds great promise for shedding light on social behavior. Blending meticulous analysis with thoughtful interpretation, the book demonstrates how interpersonal perception enhances the traditional study of person perception by capturing the richness of social behavior. To introduce the topic, Kenny clearly explicates the differences between person perception and interpersonal perception, showing that while the traditional paradigm is guided by descriptions of hypothetical people, interpersonal perception takes into account the bidirectional reality of dyadic interaction. The book addresses three fundamentally different types of perceptions: * How we see other people * How we see ourselves * How we think we are seen by others Nine different questions are based on the relationships among these perceptions. To answer these questions, the author sets forth the Social Relations Model, a research paradigm that posits people as both perceivers and targets. The model is flexible in that it allows for the possibility of meta- and self-perception, and it considers the impact of particular interactions with another on an individual's behavioral changes. The collection, interpretation, analysis, and summary of data are covered here in depth. The main body of the work examines specific theoretical issues within interpersonal perception. Devoting one chapter to each issue--labeled assimilation, consensus, uniqueness, reciprocity, target accuracy, assumed reciprocity, meta-accuracy, assumed similarity, and self-other agreement--Kenny presents the relevant research evidence for each one. The book concludes with a synthesis of the major issues, an examination of the links between behavior and perception, and a discussion of the insights the available evidence can yield about social relations. This unique volume is invaluable reading for all social scientists interested in person perception. Offering the first available overview of this significant new field of research, Interpersonal Perception is also an important text for courses on the subject.
"Crary approaches these issues through analyses of works by three key modernist painters - Manet, Seurat, and Cezanne - who each engaged in a singular confrontation with the disruptions, vacancies, and rifts within a perceptual field. Each in his own way discovered that sustained attentiveness, rather than fixing or securing the world, led to perceptual disintegration and loss of presence, and each used this discovery as the basis for a reinvention of representation practices.".
The answer to why, in spite of all the effort, knowledge, and technological means, the human mind has not been explained is provided in this look at the brain-mind connection. This analysis argues that the transformation from physical processes in the brain to mental representations and conscious perception can be explained by accepted, easy-to-understand scientific data. Various mental phenomena are examined, including choice capabilities, time perception, sleep, and dreams.
Foundations of Perception provides a comprehensive general introduction to perception. All the major and minor senses are covered, not only examining them from a perceptual perspective but also taking into account their biological and physical context. In addition to covering all material essential to understanding the functioning of the senses, each chapter also includes a 'Tutorials' section. This provides an opportunity for more advanced students to explore supplementary information on recent or controversial developments in subjects such as: The physics and biology of audition ; Shape and object perception ; Individual differences in perception.
The contemporary concept of social perception is considered to be an umbrella term that includes various other traditional and related phenomena such as person perception, impression and attitude formation, social cognition, attribution, stereotypes, prejudice, social categorisation, and social comparison and implicit personality theories. This new book presents research on issues related to social perception and behavioural responses which follow. These include child perceptions, social class issues, perceived attractiveness theories, occupational prestige and related communication factors.