Search Results: pharmacological-effects-of-ethanol-on-the-nervous-system

Pharmacological Effects of Ethanol on the Nervous System

Author: Richard A. Deitrich,V. Gene Erwin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849383892

Category: Medical

Page: 480

View: 6197

This book dissects the effects of ethanol on the major neurotransmitter systems affected by ethanol and correlates these actions with the behavioral consequences. The subject is approached first from the perspective of the neurochemical system and the behaviors resulting from ethanol's effects on that system. The behaviors themselves are discussed in later chapters. Some older theories of the effects of ethanol such as the membrane fluidization hypothesis are evaluated in light of new and updated information. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as the structural damage in the brain by long term ethanol exposure are also discussed.

The Pharmacology of Alcohol and Alcohol Dependence

Author: Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195100945

Category: Medical

Page: 525

View: 6465

This is a comprehensive review of the pharmacological effects of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of alcoholism. The book draws on general pharmacology, neuropharmacology, and alcohol studies to explore its theme. The second volume in the ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM series, it focuses on the pharmacologic mechanisms underlying the development of alcoholism. The first section on basic pharmacology is concerned with those aspects that are common to all of alcohol's effects. These include pharmacokinetics, general metabolism, and cross-tolerance. The second section on neuropharmacology describes the effects of alcohol on various brain functions, including circulation and metabolism. The third section provides an in-depth review of the neurobiology of physical dependence, withdrawal, and physiological tolerance. The book as a whole gives a comprehensive and authoritative picture of the complex pharmacologic actions of alcohol, particularly on the nervous system. For clinicians and researchers in the field of alcohol and alcoholism, it will serve as a fundamental reference.

The Consequences of Alcoholism

Medical, Neuropsychiatric, Economic, Cross-Cultural

Author: Marc Galanter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306471485

Category: Medical

Page: 500

View: 2764

From the President of the Research Society on Alcoholism On behalf of the Research Society on Alcoholism, I am pleased to introduce this 14th volume of Recent Developments in Alcoholism about the consequences of alcoholism. Current concepts are presented in well-organized sections that focus on the medical, neuropsychiatric, economic, and biobehavioral con- quences of alcoholism. This volume contains up-to-date discussions of these issues. The editors and associate editors should be congratulated for bringing together such important information. This volume will be a valuable resource for investigators and therapists alike. Ivan Diamond M.D., Ph.D. President, Research Society on Alcoholism From the President of the American Society of Addiction Medicine On behalf of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, I am pleased to announce that our society once again will cosponsor Recent Developments in Alcoholism. This volume addresses the issues of age, gender, socioeconomy, and behaviors as they relate to alcohol research and the disease of alcoholism. The medical consequences of alcoholism are ably edited by Dr. Charles L- ber, while the neuropsychiatric consequences of alcoholism are addressed by Drs. Gottheil. This volume is rounded out with the in-depth discussion of the economic consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Fuller, and an inter- tional perspective on the behavioral consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Paredes.

Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology

Author: Henry E. Adams,Patricia B. Sutker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461530083

Category: Psychology

Page: 864

View: 3291

The first edition of Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology was published in 1984, al most a decade ago. In the interim there has been an explosion of information in psychopathology. Proliferation of knowledge has included a widening base of research data and changing or new concepts and theories regarding classification, measurement methods, and etiology of abnormal behaviors and mental disorders. It has been an active and productive period for biological and behavioral scientists and clinicians, particularly in terms of changing notions of the complex interaction of environmental and biological factors in many disorders. For example, with the classic disorders-such as anxiety and dissociative disorders-our understanding, while far from perfect, has been greatly enhanced in recent years. Whereas there was almost a vacuum of empirical knowledge ten years ago about the personality disorders, concentrated efforts have been undertaken to investigate classification, comorbidities, and expression of the personality disorders, and variants in normal personality traits. In addition, scientific advances in the fields of behavioral medicine, health psychology, and neuropsychology have greatly contributed to our knowledge of psychopathology and the interplay of psychobiological factors. It is now commonly acknowledged that psychopathology is not limited to the traditional mental illness categories; it also plays a significant role in many physical illnesses, such as cancer and AIDS. With these developments, it became clear that the first edition of this handbook was outdated and that a revision was needed.

CNS Injuries

Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies

Author: Martin Berry,Ann Logan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048544

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 9674

The basic science of the cellular and molecular responses of the brain to injury is a rapidly expanding area of research that provides evidence of growing opportunities for pharmacological intervention in the clinic. CNS Injuries: Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies is an up-to-date examination of new developments in our understanding of the cellular and trophic responses to CNS injuries and the potential treatment. This text collates reviews of the most important areas of study regarding injury response including inflammatory and immune reactions scarring neuron death demyelination and remyelination axonal regeneration re-establishment of neuronal connectivity Providing a record of recent advances that will help point the way to future developments, this enlightening reference is sure to benefit researchers and practitioners in a broad range of disciplines, including: neurology, pharmacology, pathology, toxicology, immunology, and many others.

Alcohol as a Drug

A Curriculum on Pharmacology, Neurology, and Toxicology

Author: Charles Earl Becker,Robert L. Roe,Robert Augustine Scott

Publisher: Krieger Publishing Company


Category: Medical

Page: 99

View: 963

Alcohol and the Brain

Chronic Effects

Author: R.E. Tarter,D.H. Van Thiel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475791348

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 7896

Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption disrupts a number of biologic sys tems. Central nervous system pathology, associated with long-standing alcohol ingestion, has particularly deleterious consequences to the individual. Compro mising brain functional integrity ultimately militates against psychosocial ad justment, and this process is inevitably reflected as a substantial economic loss to society in the form of costs for providing medical and social services, as well as disability and absenteeism from work. This book marshals the literature pertinent to the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on brain structure and functioning. The material is divided into two parts: basic research and clinical issues. In the first section, the manifest neurologic consequences are described across the different levels of biologic organization, these being brain morphology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuro psychology. In recognition of the multifactorial etiology of alcohol-related brain pathology, the influence and role of hepatic, endocrine, and nutritional factors are also examined. The second section addresses clinical syndromes and dis orders. It will be noted that evidence accrued from recent research suggests that neurologic disturbances may actually antedate the onset of drinking in some alcoholics. Other clinically important issues discussed are the effects of alcohol on neurologic development, aging, and dementia. The book concludes with a discussion of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, its mechanisms and manifes tations. A fundamental objective of the editors was to illustrate that the consequences of chronic alcohol excess can be comprehensively understood within the per spective of interrelated hierarchical systems of brain organization.

The Biology of Alcoholism

Vol. 7 The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Biological Factors

Author: Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461335183

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 635

View: 9639

The previous volume, The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Psychosocial Factors, attempted to describe the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors that lead to the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholism. The preface to that volume presented our particular view of the bio-. psycho-social interaction as a progressive process in which earlier developments produce new pathogenetic mechanisms, which in turn lead to still other cyclical feedback activities. Although influences from each of the three phenomenologic levels are at work during each stage of the clinical course, it would appear that social factors are most significant in the early phase, psychological factors at the intermediate level, and biological ones toward the end. These differences are only relative, however, for influences of all three types surely are operative during all stages of the syndrome. This appears to be particularly true for the biological parameters of activity. Don Goodwin (1976), who has supplied much of the data that support the role of hereditary factors in alcoholism, is wont to say that all living behavior is biological-by definition. The operational evidence for this is perhaps more evident in alcoholism than in other syndromes. For example, the general social indifference of many Asians to alcohol may reflect the presence of an atypical isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase rather than some independently derived cultural norm.

Elementary Pharmacology & Toxicology 4e

Author: R D Budhiraja

Publisher: Popular Prakashan

ISBN: 9788179914724


Page: N.A

View: 5198

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

Author: Bronwen Bryant,Kathleen Knights

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0729579298

Category: Medical

Page: 3764

View: 6295

A new edition of the landmark pharmacology textbook for health science students in Australia and New Zealand The third edition of Pharmacology for Health Professionals continues to be the one-stop pharmacology reference for students studying health science. Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition is thoroughly revised and updated to include the latest information on the clinical use of drugs, as well as their application to specific disciplines within the health professions. Working from a multidisciplinary approach throughout, this invaluable resource is ordered by body system and retains the features that have proved popular with health science students and lecturers, such as clinical interest boxes, drug monographs, chapter summaries and review exercises. This authoritative pharmacology textbook gives a comprehensive introduction to important pharmacology principles and concepts, with a strong focus on therapeutics. Written specifically for the Australasian region, Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition reflects local generic drug names, drug availability and clinical uses, along with local aspects of scheduling, drug legislation and ethical issues. Elsevier’s Evolve website provides an extensive ancillary package for students and lecturers, including: • drug mechanism animations for pharmacology lecturers • a courseware management system for pharmacology lecturers • an updated test bank for pharmacology lecturers • a comprehensive image collection for pharmacology lecturers • answers to end of chapter review questions, downloadable for lecturers to share with students if desired • updated discipline-specific information for nursing, midwifery, paramedic and complementary medicines, including supplementary content, crosswords, case studies with accompanying questions, and discipline-specific learning objectives • a dosage calculations companion with self-test questions to help pharmacology students learn the essentials of drug calculations • chapter-by chapter-self-assessment quizzes for pharmacology students • web links for further information • clinical interest boxes discussing items of special interest, such as drug research, complementary medicines, Indigenous medications, and specialist New Zealand pharmacology content • icons indicating when additional online material is available for nursing, midwifery, paramedic or complementary medicine students in Australia and New Zealand • integration of anatomy and physiology throughout • an extensively updated section on ‘over the counter’ drugs and complementary therapies • an updated section on the legal and ethical foundations of pharmacotherapy, with regulations changes including extended prescribing rights in other professions such as nursing and podiatry • newly updated overviews of neoplasia and cancer to reflect new research • new drug monographs describing prototypes of key drug groups or commonly prescribed drugs and including recommended dosage and administration information • new easy-to-read layout and design • a paramedic-specific drug table (online)

Alcohol, Nutrition And the Nervous System

Author: Simone Parvez

Publisher: VSP

ISBN: 9789067640503

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 9166

Metabolic Aspects of Alcoholism

Author: Charles S. Lieber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401161534

Category: Medical

Page: 308

View: 7823

In the first annual report on Alcohol and. Health to Congress (December, 1971), the then HEW Secretary Elliot L. Richardson called alcohol 'the most abused drug in the United States'. The report revealed that nine million Americans are alcohol abusers and that alcoholic individuals represent almost 10 % of the nation's work force. With spreading alcoholism, the incidence of physical damage due to alcohol has greatly increased. A question which is often raised is 'in which way does an alcoholic differ from a non-alcoholic?' Inquiries have focused on psychological make-up, behavioural differences and socioeconomic factors. More recently, however, physical differences have been delineated. Prior to the development of various disease entities, chronic ethanol exposure results in profound biochemical and morphological changes. Consequently an alcoholic does not respond normally to alcohol, or other drugs or even other toxic agents. Some of these persistent biochemical and morphological changes are the consequences of the injurious effects of ethanol, whereas others may represent the possible adaptive responses to the profound changes in intermediary metabolism which are a direct and im mediate consequence of the oxidation of ethanol itself. Differentiation between the effects of ethanol directly linked to its oxidation, and the adaptive and injurious effects of ethanol are not simple, and overlap is common. In general, however, metabolic effects are associated with the presence of relatively low ethanol concentrations, whereas injurious effects occur with high ethanol concentrations and/or after prolonged intake. High ethanol con centrations also produce so-called pharmacological effects.

Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior

The Pharmacology of Drug Use Disorders

Author: John Brick,Carlton K. Erickson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135122180

Category: Psychology

Page: 232

View: 8049

Explore the brain and discover the clinical and pharmacological issues surrounding drug abuse and dependence. The authors, research scientists with years of experience in alcohol and drug studies, provide definitions, historic discoveries about the nervous system, and original, eye-catching illustrations to discuss the brain/behavior relationship, basic neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the mechanistic actions of mood-altering drugs. You will learn about: • how psychoactive drugs affect cognition, behavior, and emotion • the brain/behavior relationship • the specific effects of major addictive and psychoactive drug groups • new definitions and thinking about abuse and dependence • the medical and forensic consequences of drugs use Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior uses a balance of instruction, illustrations, and tables and formulas that will give you a broad, lasting introduction to this intriguing subject. Whether you're a nurse, chemical dependency counselor, psychologist, or clinician, this book will be a quick reference guide long after the first reading.

Alcohol health and research world

Author: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.),United States. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration,National Institutes of Health (U.S.)

Publisher: N.A


Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 7139

Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Bioactive Natural Products

Author: Atta-ur-Rahman

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080542058

Category: Science

Page: 812

View: 2611

Studies in Natural Products Chemistry: Bioactive Natural Products (Part I) contains articles written by leading authorities in their respective fields of research. It presents current frontiers and future guidelines for research based on important discoveries made in the field of bioactive natural products. Volume 28 is part of a great family of useful reference books Illustrates the types of critical discoveries that emerge from the interface of chemistry and biology Contributions are from well-respected authors

CNS and Behavioural Pharmacology

Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Pharmacology

Author: M. Airaksinen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483157784

Category: Medical

Page: 354

View: 6896

CNS and Behavioural Pharmacology is the third volume of the proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Pharmacology, organized by the Finnish Pharmacological Society and held in Helsinki, Finland, on July 20-25, 1975. Contributors focus on the findings concerning the central nervous system (CNS) and on the developments in behavioral pharmacology and related areas of research. This volume has 33 chapters divided into five sections. After discussing the application of psychopharmacology to the conservation of wild animals such as ungulates, this book turns its attention to alcohol dependence and the interactions between neurotransmitters and the hypothalamic releasing hormones. The reader is methodically introduced to the pharmacology of emotive behavior, with emphasis on drug effects in mental and emotional disorders as well as the action of psychotropic drugs on emotions, motivations, and social behavior of animals. The final section is devoted to the pharmacological aspects of the cerebrospinal fluid-transport system. This section covers topics such as the metabolism of biogenic amines in the human CNS; the importance of dopamine metabolism for the clinical effects and side effects of neuroleptics; and composite transport systems for organic acids and bases in choroid plexus. This book will be of interest to scientists representing all the major areas of pharmacology, including clinical pharmacology and toxicology, as well as to internists, psychiatrists, neurologists, and anesthesiologists.

Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Author: John Brick

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113686458X


Page: 638

View: 8926

The essential newly-expanded reference that needs to be on the desk of every health care professional who encounters substance abusers. Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition is the newly-updated classic reference text that provides even more detailed and expanded information on the pharmacological, toxicological, and neuropsychological consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. Eight new chapters of crucial information have been added. Written by leading experts in the fields of medical physiology, psychopharmacology, and neuropsychology, this valuable resource provides the detailed alcohol and drug information health professionals in all fields need to know. Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition greatly expands on the expert information provided in the first edition. This text provides reviews of the cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, psychological, and hepatic effects of commonly abused drugs. The book also provides in-depth explanations of the mechanisms by which these psychoactive drugs exert their biobehavioral effects as well as current thinking about—and definitions of—abuse, dependence, and alcohol/drug use. The Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition includes vital information on: alcohol, including definitions of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence the relationship between alcohol and accidental injuries, alcohol’s effect on skeletal and major organ systems, and its effect on risk factors for certain cancers effects of alcohol and other drugs on neuropsychological function the effects of alcohol on neuron signaling, neurotransmitter function, and alcoholic brain damage and cognitive dysfunction fetal alcohol effects chronic effects of marijuana use on psychological and physical health, including a fair and balanced discussion of the medical marijuana issue the consequences of opiate abuse and methadone pharmacotherapy, including a comparison of the effects of methadone and heroin on organ systems cocaine’s history, the various forms of the drug, and the adverse effects of cocaine on cardiovascular, neurologic, and pulmonary systems the medical consequences of inhalants ranging from benzene to xylene the prenatal effects of nicotine, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates terminology that appears in the current literature on alcohol New topics in the Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition include chapters discussing: chemical dependency in psychiatric patients medical consequences of steroids OTC medications hallucinogens health effects of tobacco, nicotine, and exposure to tobacco smoke interactions of alcohol with other drugs and other medications periodontal effects of alcohol and drug abuse in the oral cavity imaging studies of structural brain changes The Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition is an invaluable resource for physicians, scientists, nurses, psychologists, and alcohol and drug counselors.

International Review of Neurobiology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080857732

Category: Medical

Page: 380

View: 8126

Since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology has been a well known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. This important serial is now being combined with Neuroscience Perspectives and Methods in Neurosciences. This combination results in a series that reaches a wider audience and publishes a greater number of thematic volumes. Modulation of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter receptors by protein phosphorylation The use-dependent regulation of GABAA receptors Mechanisms of synaptic transmission in the neostriatum Regulation of neurotransmitters function by the neuronal cytoskeleton The anatomy and physiology of opioids in the hippocampus The molecular biology and pharmacology of the cannabinoid receptor The use of invertebrate and mammalian model systems in the study of the anesthetic drug action Ethanol effects on ion channels and locomotion

Handbook of Forensic Medicine

Author: Burkhard Madea

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118570626

Category: Medical

Page: 1312

View: 7699

Forensic Medicine encompasses all areas in which medicine and law interact. This book covers diverse aspects of forensic medicine including forensic pathology, traumatology and violent death, sudden and unexpected death, clinical forensic medicine, toxicology, traffic medicine, identification, haemogenetics and medical law. A knowledge of all these subdisciplines is necessary in order to solve routine as well as more unusual cases. Taking a comprehensive approach the book m.oves beyond a focus on forensic pathology to include clinical forensic medicine and forensic toxicology. All aspects of forensic medicine are covered to meet the specialist needs of daily casework. Aspects of routine analysis and quality control are addressed in each chapter. The book provides coverage of the latest developments in forensic molecular biology, forensic toxicology, molecular pathology and immunohistochemistry. A must-have reference for every specialist in the field this book is set to become the bench-mark for the international forensic medical community.

The Biology of Alcoholism

Volume 2: Physiology and Behavior

Author: Benjamin Kissin,Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146840895X

Category: Psychology

Page: 552

View: 5756

Alcoholism is a uniquely human condition. Although some forms of alcohol dependence can be induced experimentally in a variety of laboratory animals, the complete spectrum of alcoholism with all of its physical, psychological, and social implications occurs only in man. The special quality of this relationship becomes more significant when one considers that the manifestations of most physical disease syndromes in animals and man are more similar than they are different. The uniqueness of alcoholism lies in the fact that it is one of the few physical diseases which reflects at all levels the problems of individuals coping with the complexities of human society. In order to present a more coherent picture of these complex relationships, we have attempted to impose a logical sequence upon the material. This sequence lies along a dual parameter-from the physical to the social and from the theor etical to the empirical. Consequently, it was natural for the first volume in this series to deal with biochemistry, the most basic and physical aspect of the inter action of alcohol and man. It is equally natural for this, the second volume, to deal with physiology and behavior, for these levels of phenomenology-partic ularly the latter-are already more empirical and psychological in their mani festations. Finally, the third volume, clinical pathology, describes the disease itself, with all of the medical and social implications carried in the word "alcoholism.

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