Search Results: pharmacological-effects-of-ethanol-on-the-nervous-system

Pharmacological Effects of Ethanol on the Nervous System

Author: Richard A. Deitrich,V. Gene Erwin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849383892

Category: Medical

Page: 480

View: 4034

This book dissects the effects of ethanol on the major neurotransmitter systems affected by ethanol and correlates these actions with the behavioral consequences. The subject is approached first from the perspective of the neurochemical system and the behaviors resulting from ethanol's effects on that system. The behaviors themselves are discussed in later chapters. Some older theories of the effects of ethanol such as the membrane fluidization hypothesis are evaluated in light of new and updated information. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as the structural damage in the brain by long term ethanol exposure are also discussed.

The Pharmacology of Alcohol and Alcohol Dependence

Author: Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195100945

Category: Medical

Page: 525

View: 8360

This is a comprehensive review of the pharmacological effects of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of alcoholism. The book draws on general pharmacology, neuropharmacology, and alcohol studies to explore its theme. The second volume in the ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM series, it focuses on the pharmacologic mechanisms underlying the development of alcoholism. The first section on basic pharmacology is concerned with those aspects that are common to all of alcohol's effects. These include pharmacokinetics, general metabolism, and cross-tolerance. The second section on neuropharmacology describes the effects of alcohol on various brain functions, including circulation and metabolism. The third section provides an in-depth review of the neurobiology of physical dependence, withdrawal, and physiological tolerance. The book as a whole gives a comprehensive and authoritative picture of the complex pharmacologic actions of alcohol, particularly on the nervous system. For clinicians and researchers in the field of alcohol and alcoholism, it will serve as a fundamental reference.

The Consequences of Alcoholism

Medical, Neuropsychiatric, Economic, Cross-Cultural

Author: Marc Galanter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306471485

Category: Medical

Page: 500

View: 5392

From the President of the Research Society on Alcoholism On behalf of the Research Society on Alcoholism, I am pleased to introduce this 14th volume of Recent Developments in Alcoholism about the consequences of alcoholism. Current concepts are presented in well-organized sections that focus on the medical, neuropsychiatric, economic, and biobehavioral con- quences of alcoholism. This volume contains up-to-date discussions of these issues. The editors and associate editors should be congratulated for bringing together such important information. This volume will be a valuable resource for investigators and therapists alike. Ivan Diamond M.D., Ph.D. President, Research Society on Alcoholism From the President of the American Society of Addiction Medicine On behalf of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, I am pleased to announce that our society once again will cosponsor Recent Developments in Alcoholism. This volume addresses the issues of age, gender, socioeconomy, and behaviors as they relate to alcohol research and the disease of alcoholism. The medical consequences of alcoholism are ably edited by Dr. Charles L- ber, while the neuropsychiatric consequences of alcoholism are addressed by Drs. Gottheil. This volume is rounded out with the in-depth discussion of the economic consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Fuller, and an inter- tional perspective on the behavioral consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Paredes.

Alcohol's Effect on Organ Function

Author: Dianne M. Welsh

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 0788174207


Page: 96

View: 2914

Presents a selection of articles on the effect of alcohol use on organ function. Topics include: alcohol's effects on liver function, alcohol-related pancreatic damage, alcohol and the cardiovascular system, alcohol's contribution to compromised immunity, the hemotological complications of alcoholism, the endocrine system and alcohol-related hormonal imbalances, impairments of brain and behavior, alcohol's role in gastrointestinal tract disorders, and alcohol's impact on kidney function. Diagrams.

Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

Author: Antonio Noronha,Changhai Cui,Robert Adron Harris,John C. Crabbe

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124071554

Category: Science

Page: 566

View: 4467

Recent scientific advances have provided substantial information on the brain circuits and pathways relevant to various aspects of dependence. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence highlights the most recent data at the molecular, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels, fostering an understanding how neuroplasticity and neuroadaptation occur, and how different neural pathways and neurocircuits contribute to dependence. Highlights recent advances in understanding alcohol addiction from molecular, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels Integrates several emerging areas of research and discusses the application of novel research techniques to the understanding of alcohol dependence Chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe — the broadest, most expert coverage available

Alcohol and the Nervous System

Author: Edith V. Sullivan,Adolf Pfefferbaum

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444626220

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 7435

Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world, yet alcoholism remains a serious addiction affecting nearly 20 million Americans. Our current understanding of alcohol's effect on brain structure and related functional damage is being revolutionized by genetic research, basic neuroscience, brain imaging science, and systematic study of cognitive, sensory, and motor abilities. Volume 125 of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology is a comprehensive, in-depth treatise of studies on alcohol and the brain covering the basic understanding of alcohol's effect on the central nervous system, the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism, and prospect for recovery. The chapters within will be of interest to clinical neurologists, neuropsychologists, and researchers in all facets and levels of the neuroscience of alcohol and alcoholism. The first focused reference specifically on alcohol and the brain Details our current understanding of how alcohol impacts the central nervous system Covers clinical and social impact of alcohol abuse disorders and the biomedical consequences of alcohol abuse Includes section on neuroimaging of neurochemical markers and brain function

Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems

Intermediary Metabolism and Neurochemistry

Author: Ronald G. Thurman,John R. Williamson,Henry R. Drott

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483265382

Category: Science

Page: 698

View: 1907

Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems, Volume III: Intermediary Metabolism and Neurochemistry contains some of the papers presented at the Second International Symposium on Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems, held at the University of Pennsylvania in October 1976. Experts in the field from a wide variety of backgrounds tackled the problems of alcohol and aldehyde metabolism, discussed research findings, and examined controversial issues such as the effects of alcohol and aldehydes on intermediary metabolism. Comprised of 64 chapters, this volume begins with an analysis of the non-equilibrium behavior of biochemical systems, followed by a discussion on the configurational specificity of glycolytic enzymes. The reader is methodically introduced to redox compartmentation and the measurement of intracellular compartmentation of metabolites in rat liver; effect of chronic alcohol and oxygen tension on the development of hepatic necrosis in rats; and actions of ethanol metabolism on fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Subsequent chapters focus on regional metabolic rate in the central nervous system as related to function; effects of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives of catecholamines and aldehydes on tyrosine hydroxylase; and lowering of blood acetaldehyde levels as a therapeutic approach to alcoholism. This book will be of value to practitioners and researchers from a variety of disciplines, including neurochemistry, biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, and pharmacology.

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition

A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series

Author: Vinood B. Patel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128010037

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 8501

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study or treat alcohol-related diseases. Experts from across the field of alcohol research explain how alcohol disrupts normal fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolic processes occurring in the liver as well as other parts of the body. The book discusses how this can lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It also explores how alcohol affects nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to anemia and reduced amounts of fat soluble vitamins. This book explores both the primary and secondary consequences of alcohol consumption. Chapters in the first section investigate the basic science of alcohol metabolism – focusing on how alcohol and its toxic metabolites disrupt and impair normal nutrient regulation at the molecular level. Further chapters explore how alcohol affects many extra-hepatic organs and tissues as well as the secondary consequences of alcohol consumption such as reduced levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and trace elements like zinc. Offers a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study alcohol-related diseases and attempt to treat them through nutritional strategies Explores how alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde disrupt and impair normal macro and micro nutrient regulation at the molecular level Investigates how alcohol affects and interferes with cell signaling, cell death pathways, calcium homeostasis leading to osteoporosis, oxygen balance, as well as the pathophysiology of alcohol consumption and abuse

Pharmacology of Alcohol

Author: Dora B. Goldstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 179

View: 9700

Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment

Author: Edward D. Levin,Jerry J. Buccafusco

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420004336

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 7046

The costs associated with a drug’s clinical trials are so significant that it has become necessary to validate both its safety and efficacy in animal models prior to the continued study of the drug in humans. Featuring contributions from distinguished researchers in the field of cognitive therapy research, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment examines some of the most popular and successful animal archetypes used in the context of drug discovery. It provides integrated coverage of the latest research concerning neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction, assimilating reviews of this research within the context of each chapter. This approach is unique in that it brings together molecular and neurochemical methodologies, behavioral applications in translational models, and clinical applications. The book comprehensively discusses a wide variety of animal models of cognitive impairment, including genetic, lesion, pharmacological, and aging related impairments. It also explores the significance of this research in regards to the treatment of various addictions and disorders such as stroke, autism, Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Edited by two renowned authorities in the field, Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment is a timely book that provides integrated coverage of cutting-edge research that concerns neuronal systems relevant to cognitive function and dysfunction.

Alcohol, Drugs of Abuse, and Immune Functions

Author: Ronald R. Watson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849383120

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 4784

Substance abusers are an immunocompromised population, vulnerable to a wide array of new and resurgent infectious diseases - in spite of modern treatment. For example, opportunistic infections like tuberculosis are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. Alcohol- and drug-induced disorders are wide-ranging, gaining prominence as the spectrum of emerging diseases broadens. Alcohol, Drugs of Abuse, and Immune Functions reviews the role of these immunosuppressants as cofactors in disease. It covers the basic biology and immunology of impairments to defense against infectious disease. Alcohol and drug use is consistently associated with immunosuppression, although it isn't known if it is the substance itself, a metabolite, or an indirect effect that alters disease resistance. This text explores the advances toward answering this question, examines alcohol in different settings, its relationship to important cells, and the effects it can have on vital organs such as the liver and the lungs.

Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology

Author: Henry E. Adams,Patricia B. Sutker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461530083

Category: Psychology

Page: 864

View: 9174

The first edition of Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology was published in 1984, al most a decade ago. In the interim there has been an explosion of information in psychopathology. Proliferation of knowledge has included a widening base of research data and changing or new concepts and theories regarding classification, measurement methods, and etiology of abnormal behaviors and mental disorders. It has been an active and productive period for biological and behavioral scientists and clinicians, particularly in terms of changing notions of the complex interaction of environmental and biological factors in many disorders. For example, with the classic disorders-such as anxiety and dissociative disorders-our understanding, while far from perfect, has been greatly enhanced in recent years. Whereas there was almost a vacuum of empirical knowledge ten years ago about the personality disorders, concentrated efforts have been undertaken to investigate classification, comorbidities, and expression of the personality disorders, and variants in normal personality traits. In addition, scientific advances in the fields of behavioral medicine, health psychology, and neuropsychology have greatly contributed to our knowledge of psychopathology and the interplay of psychobiological factors. It is now commonly acknowledged that psychopathology is not limited to the traditional mental illness categories; it also plays a significant role in many physical illnesses, such as cancer and AIDS. With these developments, it became clear that the first edition of this handbook was outdated and that a revision was needed.

CNS Injuries

Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies

Author: Martin Berry,Ann Logan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048544

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 6986

The basic science of the cellular and molecular responses of the brain to injury is a rapidly expanding area of research that provides evidence of growing opportunities for pharmacological intervention in the clinic. CNS Injuries: Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies is an up-to-date examination of new developments in our understanding of the cellular and trophic responses to CNS injuries and the potential treatment. This text collates reviews of the most important areas of study regarding injury response including inflammatory and immune reactions scarring neuron death demyelination and remyelination axonal regeneration re-establishment of neuronal connectivity Providing a record of recent advances that will help point the way to future developments, this enlightening reference is sure to benefit researchers and practitioners in a broad range of disciplines, including: neurology, pharmacology, pathology, toxicology, immunology, and many others.

Alcohol and the Brain

Chronic Effects

Author: R.E. Tarter,D.H. Van Thiel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475791348

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 4341

Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption disrupts a number of biologic sys tems. Central nervous system pathology, associated with long-standing alcohol ingestion, has particularly deleterious consequences to the individual. Compro mising brain functional integrity ultimately militates against psychosocial ad justment, and this process is inevitably reflected as a substantial economic loss to society in the form of costs for providing medical and social services, as well as disability and absenteeism from work. This book marshals the literature pertinent to the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on brain structure and functioning. The material is divided into two parts: basic research and clinical issues. In the first section, the manifest neurologic consequences are described across the different levels of biologic organization, these being brain morphology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuro psychology. In recognition of the multifactorial etiology of alcohol-related brain pathology, the influence and role of hepatic, endocrine, and nutritional factors are also examined. The second section addresses clinical syndromes and dis orders. It will be noted that evidence accrued from recent research suggests that neurologic disturbances may actually antedate the onset of drinking in some alcoholics. Other clinically important issues discussed are the effects of alcohol on neurologic development, aging, and dementia. The book concludes with a discussion of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, its mechanisms and manifes tations. A fundamental objective of the editors was to illustrate that the consequences of chronic alcohol excess can be comprehensively understood within the per spective of interrelated hierarchical systems of brain organization.

Elementary Pharmacology & Toxicology 4e

Author: R D Budhiraja

Publisher: Popular Prakashan

ISBN: 9788179914724


Page: N.A

View: 7516


The Science and Lore of Alcohol and Caffeine

Author: Stephen Braun

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195092899

Category: Cooking

Page: 214

View: 4217

Discusses both the scientific and cultural impact of alcohol and caffeine, the world's most widely-consumed mind-altering substances

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Author: Robert Vink,Mihai Nechifor

Publisher: University of Adelaide Press

ISBN: 0987073052

Category: Medical

Page: 342

View: 4577

The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

The Biology of Alcoholism

Vol. 7 The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Biological Factors

Author: Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461335183

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 635

View: 6330

The previous volume, The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Psychosocial Factors, attempted to describe the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors that lead to the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholism. The preface to that volume presented our particular view of the bio-. psycho-social interaction as a progressive process in which earlier developments produce new pathogenetic mechanisms, which in turn lead to still other cyclical feedback activities. Although influences from each of the three phenomenologic levels are at work during each stage of the clinical course, it would appear that social factors are most significant in the early phase, psychological factors at the intermediate level, and biological ones toward the end. These differences are only relative, however, for influences of all three types surely are operative during all stages of the syndrome. This appears to be particularly true for the biological parameters of activity. Don Goodwin (1976), who has supplied much of the data that support the role of hereditary factors in alcoholism, is wont to say that all living behavior is biological-by definition. The operational evidence for this is perhaps more evident in alcoholism than in other syndromes. For example, the general social indifference of many Asians to alcohol may reflect the presence of an atypical isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase rather than some independently derived cultural norm.

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241562358

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 335

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence provides an authoritative summary of current knowledge of the biological basis of substance use behaviours including their relationship with environmental factors. The report focuses on a wide range of psychoactive substances including tobacco alcohol and illicit drugs. New developments in neuroscience research are discussed (e.g. mechanisms governing craving tolerance neuroadaptation immunotherapies and the concept of dependence) as well the ethical implications of these developments. As the product of consultations with and contributions from many international experts and partners the best available evidence is provided from the various schools of thought and areas of research in the field of neuroscience. The most comprehensive overview on substance abuse written to date is provided in this book.... - The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence is targeted at individuals with more than a basic knowledge of neuroscience including scientists from a number of disciplines. It is expected that this publication will be of interest to health care workers clinicians social workers university students science teachers and informed policy makers. ...This is an outstanding publication with a very useful text for workers and researchers in the filed of substance abuse and dependence especially psychiatrists psychologists or trainees in these fields.... - South African Medical Journal

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

Author: Bronwen Bryant,Kathleen Knights

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0729579298

Category: Medical

Page: 3764

View: 6147

A new edition of the landmark pharmacology textbook for health science students in Australia and New Zealand The third edition of Pharmacology for Health Professionals continues to be the one-stop pharmacology reference for students studying health science. Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition is thoroughly revised and updated to include the latest information on the clinical use of drugs, as well as their application to specific disciplines within the health professions. Working from a multidisciplinary approach throughout, this invaluable resource is ordered by body system and retains the features that have proved popular with health science students and lecturers, such as clinical interest boxes, drug monographs, chapter summaries and review exercises. This authoritative pharmacology textbook gives a comprehensive introduction to important pharmacology principles and concepts, with a strong focus on therapeutics. Written specifically for the Australasian region, Pharmacology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition reflects local generic drug names, drug availability and clinical uses, along with local aspects of scheduling, drug legislation and ethical issues. Elsevier’s Evolve website provides an extensive ancillary package for students and lecturers, including: • drug mechanism animations for pharmacology lecturers • a courseware management system for pharmacology lecturers • an updated test bank for pharmacology lecturers • a comprehensive image collection for pharmacology lecturers • answers to end of chapter review questions, downloadable for lecturers to share with students if desired • updated discipline-specific information for nursing, midwifery, paramedic and complementary medicines, including supplementary content, crosswords, case studies with accompanying questions, and discipline-specific learning objectives • a dosage calculations companion with self-test questions to help pharmacology students learn the essentials of drug calculations • chapter-by chapter-self-assessment quizzes for pharmacology students • web links for further information • clinical interest boxes discussing items of special interest, such as drug research, complementary medicines, Indigenous medications, and specialist New Zealand pharmacology content • icons indicating when additional online material is available for nursing, midwifery, paramedic or complementary medicine students in Australia and New Zealand • integration of anatomy and physiology throughout • an extensively updated section on ‘over the counter’ drugs and complementary therapies • an updated section on the legal and ethical foundations of pharmacotherapy, with regulations changes including extended prescribing rights in other professions such as nursing and podiatry • newly updated overviews of neoplasia and cancer to reflect new research • new drug monographs describing prototypes of key drug groups or commonly prescribed drugs and including recommended dosage and administration information • new easy-to-read layout and design • a paramedic-specific drug table (online)

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