This book dissects the effects of ethanol on the major neurotransmitter systems affected by ethanol and correlates these actions with the behavioral consequences. The subject is approached first from the perspective of the neurochemical system and the behaviors resulting from ethanol's effects on that system. The behaviors themselves are discussed in later chapters. Some older theories of the effects of ethanol such as the membrane fluidization hypothesis are evaluated in light of new and updated information. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as the structural damage in the brain by long term ethanol exposure are also discussed.
This is a comprehensive review of the pharmacological effects of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of alcoholism. The book draws on general pharmacology, neuropharmacology, and alcohol studies to explore its theme. The second volume in the ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM series, it focuses on the pharmacologic mechanisms underlying the development of alcoholism. The first section on basic pharmacology is concerned with those aspects that are common to all of alcohol's effects. These include pharmacokinetics, general metabolism, and cross-tolerance. The second section on neuropharmacology describes the effects of alcohol on various brain functions, including circulation and metabolism. The third section provides an in-depth review of the neurobiology of physical dependence, withdrawal, and physiological tolerance. The book as a whole gives a comprehensive and authoritative picture of the complex pharmacologic actions of alcohol, particularly on the nervous system. For clinicians and researchers in the field of alcohol and alcoholism, it will serve as a fundamental reference.
From the President of the Research Society on Alcoholism On behalf of the Research Society on Alcoholism, I am pleased to introduce this 14th volume of Recent Developments in Alcoholism about the consequences of alcoholism. Current concepts are presented in well-organized sections that focus on the medical, neuropsychiatric, economic, and biobehavioral con- quences of alcoholism. This volume contains up-to-date discussions of these issues. The editors and associate editors should be congratulated for bringing together such important information. This volume will be a valuable resource for investigators and therapists alike. Ivan Diamond M.D., Ph.D. President, Research Society on Alcoholism From the President of the American Society of Addiction Medicine On behalf of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, I am pleased to announce that our society once again will cosponsor Recent Developments in Alcoholism. This volume addresses the issues of age, gender, socioeconomy, and behaviors as they relate to alcohol research and the disease of alcoholism. The medical consequences of alcoholism are ably edited by Dr. Charles L- ber, while the neuropsychiatric consequences of alcoholism are addressed by Drs. Gottheil. This volume is rounded out with the in-depth discussion of the economic consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Fuller, and an inter- tional perspective on the behavioral consequences of alcoholism, edited by Dr. Paredes.
The first edition of Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology was published in 1984, al most a decade ago. In the interim there has been an explosion of information in psychopathology. Proliferation of knowledge has included a widening base of research data and changing or new concepts and theories regarding classification, measurement methods, and etiology of abnormal behaviors and mental disorders. It has been an active and productive period for biological and behavioral scientists and clinicians, particularly in terms of changing notions of the complex interaction of environmental and biological factors in many disorders. For example, with the classic disorders-such as anxiety and dissociative disorders-our understanding, while far from perfect, has been greatly enhanced in recent years. Whereas there was almost a vacuum of empirical knowledge ten years ago about the personality disorders, concentrated efforts have been undertaken to investigate classification, comorbidities, and expression of the personality disorders, and variants in normal personality traits. In addition, scientific advances in the fields of behavioral medicine, health psychology, and neuropsychology have greatly contributed to our knowledge of psychopathology and the interplay of psychobiological factors. It is now commonly acknowledged that psychopathology is not limited to the traditional mental illness categories; it also plays a significant role in many physical illnesses, such as cancer and AIDS. With these developments, it became clear that the first edition of this handbook was outdated and that a revision was needed.
The basic science of the cellular and molecular responses of the brain to injury is a rapidly expanding area of research that provides evidence of growing opportunities for pharmacological intervention in the clinic. CNS Injuries: Cellular Responses and Pharmacological Strategies is an up-to-date examination of new developments in our understanding of the cellular and trophic responses to CNS injuries and the potential treatment. This text collates reviews of the most important areas of study regarding injury response including inflammatory and immune reactions scarring neuron death demyelination and remyelination axonal regeneration re-establishment of neuronal connectivity Providing a record of recent advances that will help point the way to future developments, this enlightening reference is sure to benefit researchers and practitioners in a broad range of disciplines, including: neurology, pharmacology, pathology, toxicology, immunology, and many others.
Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption disrupts a number of biologic sys tems. Central nervous system pathology, associated with long-standing alcohol ingestion, has particularly deleterious consequences to the individual. Compro mising brain functional integrity ultimately militates against psychosocial ad justment, and this process is inevitably reflected as a substantial economic loss to society in the form of costs for providing medical and social services, as well as disability and absenteeism from work. This book marshals the literature pertinent to the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on brain structure and functioning. The material is divided into two parts: basic research and clinical issues. In the first section, the manifest neurologic consequences are described across the different levels of biologic organization, these being brain morphology, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neuro psychology. In recognition of the multifactorial etiology of alcohol-related brain pathology, the influence and role of hepatic, endocrine, and nutritional factors are also examined. The second section addresses clinical syndromes and dis orders. It will be noted that evidence accrued from recent research suggests that neurologic disturbances may actually antedate the onset of drinking in some alcoholics. Other clinically important issues discussed are the effects of alcohol on neurologic development, aging, and dementia. The book concludes with a discussion of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, its mechanisms and manifes tations. A fundamental objective of the editors was to illustrate that the consequences of chronic alcohol excess can be comprehensively understood within the per spective of interrelated hierarchical systems of brain organization.
Vol. 7 The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Biological Factors
Author: Henri Begleiter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
The previous volume, The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Psychosocial Factors, attempted to describe the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors that lead to the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholism. The preface to that volume presented our particular view of the bio-. psycho-social interaction as a progressive process in which earlier developments produce new pathogenetic mechanisms, which in turn lead to still other cyclical feedback activities. Although influences from each of the three phenomenologic levels are at work during each stage of the clinical course, it would appear that social factors are most significant in the early phase, psychological factors at the intermediate level, and biological ones toward the end. These differences are only relative, however, for influences of all three types surely are operative during all stages of the syndrome. This appears to be particularly true for the biological parameters of activity. Don Goodwin (1976), who has supplied much of the data that support the role of hereditary factors in alcoholism, is wont to say that all living behavior is biological-by definition. The operational evidence for this is perhaps more evident in alcoholism than in other syndromes. For example, the general social indifference of many Asians to alcohol may reflect the presence of an atypical isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase rather than some independently derived cultural norm.
In the first annual report on Alcohol and. Health to Congress (December, 1971), the then HEW Secretary Elliot L. Richardson called alcohol 'the most abused drug in the United States'. The report revealed that nine million Americans are alcohol abusers and that alcoholic individuals represent almost 10 % of the nation's work force. With spreading alcoholism, the incidence of physical damage due to alcohol has greatly increased. A question which is often raised is 'in which way does an alcoholic differ from a non-alcoholic?' Inquiries have focused on psychological make-up, behavioural differences and socioeconomic factors. More recently, however, physical differences have been delineated. Prior to the development of various disease entities, chronic ethanol exposure results in profound biochemical and morphological changes. Consequently an alcoholic does not respond normally to alcohol, or other drugs or even other toxic agents. Some of these persistent biochemical and morphological changes are the consequences of the injurious effects of ethanol, whereas others may represent the possible adaptive responses to the profound changes in intermediary metabolism which are a direct and im mediate consequence of the oxidation of ethanol itself. Differentiation between the effects of ethanol directly linked to its oxidation, and the adaptive and injurious effects of ethanol are not simple, and overlap is common. In general, however, metabolic effects are associated with the presence of relatively low ethanol concentrations, whereas injurious effects occur with high ethanol concentrations and/or after prolonged intake. High ethanol con centrations also produce so-called pharmacological effects.