Search Results: protective-relaying-principles-and-applications-fourth-edition

Protective Relaying

Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition

Author: J. Lewis Blackburn,Thomas J. Domin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439888124

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 695

View: 3846

For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Protective Relaying

Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition

Author: J. Lewis Blackburn,Thomas J. Domin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439888116

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 695

View: 7336

For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Protective Relaying

Principles and Applications, Third Edition

Author: J. Lewis Blackburn,Thomas J. Domin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420017845

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 664

View: 4148

Technological advances and structural changes within the electric utility industry mandate that protection engineers develop a solid understanding of the related new technologies as well as of power system operations and economics in order to function proficiently. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Third Edition retains the fundamentals of protection relays and power system protection while incorporating new developments in the field. Thoroughly updated and revised, this third edition focuses on technological changes in the design of protective systems, the practical concerns of power system protection encountered by users, and the techniques for protecting typical facilities used in modern power systems. New to the Third Edition Expanded coverage of the requirements for generator intertie protection, generator protection, and generator excitation systems The latest technologies in microprocessor applications, including digital-based devices and designs Protection issues, such as capacitor bank protection, underfrequency and undervoltage load shedding, special protection schemes, DC tripping scheme designs, fault location, and event reports Building on the excellence of the preceding editions, this book will continue to serve as a basic reference for newcomers to the area as well as for experienced engineers. By sharing his first-hand experience with protection practices, the author offers valuable realistic insight into this field.

Protective Relay Principles

Author: Anthony M. Sleva

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420014174

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 5163

Improve Failure Detection and Optimize Protection In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer’s personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. Invaluable Insights from an Experienced Expert Protective Relay Principles focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures. The book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier to understand because they are equally relevant to older, electromechanical and solid-state relays, and newer, more versatile microprocessor-based relays. It introduces the applications, considerations, and setting philosophies used in transmission-line, distribution-line, and substation applications, covering concepts associated with general system operations and fault detection. Topics include relay load limits, cold load pickup, voltage recovery, and arc flash. The author also delves into the philosophies that engineers employ in both urban and rural areas, with a detailed consideration of setpoint function. Analysis of Key Concepts That Are Usually Just Glossed Over This versatile text is ideal for new engineers to use as a tutorial before they open the instruction manuals that accompany multi-function microprocessor-based relays. Guiding readers through the transient loading conditions that can result in relay misoperation, the author elaborates on concepts that are not generally discussed, but can be very helpful in specific applications. Readers will come away with an excellent grasp of important design considerations for working with overcurrent, over- and undervoltage, impedance, distance, and differential type relay functions, either individually or in combination. Also useful for students as a textbook, this book includes practical examples for many applications, and offers guidance for more unusual ones.

Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems

Author: Donald Reimert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420030485

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 592

View: 9436

Power outages have considerable social and economic impacts, and effective protection schemes are crucial to avoiding them. While most textbooks focus on the transmission and distribution aspects of protective relays, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is the first to focus on protection of motors and generators from a power generation perspective. It also includes workbook constructions that allow students to perform protection-related calculations in Mathcad® and Excel®. This text provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs. It also covers topics not found in other texts on the subject, including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit. The author clearly explains the potential for damage and damaging mechanisms related to each protection function and includes thorough derivations of complex system interactions. Such derivations underlie the various rule-of-thumb setting criteria, provide insight into why the rules-of-thumb work and when they are not appropriate, and are useful for post-incident analysis. The book's flexible approach combines theoretical discussions with example settings that offer quick how-to information. Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems integrates fundamental knowledge with practical tools to ensure students have a thorough understanding of protection schemes and issues that arise during or after abnormal operation.

Pilot Protective Relaying

Author: Elmore

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824781958

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 184

View: 1780

This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.

Power System Operations

Author: Antonio J. Conejo,Luis Baringo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319694073

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 7968

This textbook provides a detailed description of operation problems in power systems, including power system modeling, power system steady-state operations, power system state estimation, and electricity markets. The book provides an appropriate blend of theoretical background and practical applications, which are developed as working algorithms, coded in Octave (or Matlab) and GAMS environments. This feature strengthens the usefulness of the book for both students and practitioners. Students will gain an insightful understanding of current power system operation problems in engineering, including: (i) the formulation of decision-making models, (ii) the familiarization with efficient solution algorithms for such models, and (iii) insights into these problems through the detailed analysis of numerous illustrative examples. The authors use a modern, “building-block” approach to solving complex problems, making the topic accessible to students with limited background in power systems. Solved examples are used to introduce new concepts and each chapter ends with a set of exercises.

The Art & Science of Protective Relaying, C. Russell Mason, 2015

Protective Relaying

Author: C. Russell Mason

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 357

View: 1941

We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive partsÐthe big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these. The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination. These aspects are as follows: A. Normal operation B. Prevention of electrical failure. C. Mitigation of the effects of electrical failure. The term Ònormal operationÓ assumes no failures of equipment, no mistakes of personnel, nor Òacts of God.Ó It involves the minimum requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Some of the considerations are: A. Choice between hydro, steam, or other sources of power. B. Location of generating stations. C. Transmission of power to the load. D. Study of the load characteristics and planning for its future growth. E. Metering F. Voltage and frequency regulation. G. System operation. E. Normal maintenance. The provisions for normal operation involve the major expense for equipment and operation, but a system designed according to this aspect alone could not possibly meet present-day requirements. Electrical equipment failures would cause intolerable outages. There must be additional provisions to minimize damage to equipment and interruptions to the service when failures occur. Two recourses are open: (1) to incorporate features of design aimed at preventing failures, and (2) to include provisions for mitigating the effects of failure when it occurs. Modern 2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING power-system design employs varying degrees of both recourses, as dictated by the economics of any particular situation. Notable advances continue to be made toward greater reliability. But also, increasingly greater reliance is being placed on electric power. Consequently, even though the probability of failure is decreased, the tolerance of the possible harm to the service is also decreased. But it is futile-or at least not economically justifiable-to try to prevent failures completely. Sooner or later the law of diminishing returns makes itself felt. Where this occurs will vary between systems and between parts of a system, but, when this point is reached, further expenditure for failure prevention is discouraged. It is much more profitable, then, to let some failures occur and to provide for mitigating their effects. The type of electrical failure that causes greatest concern is the short circuit, or ÒfaultÓ as it is usually called, but there are other abnormal operating conditions peculiar to certain elements of the system that also require attention. Some of the features of design and operation aimed at preventing electrical failure are: A. Provision of adequate insulation. B. Coordination of insulation strength with the capabilities of lightning arresters. C. Use of overhead ground wires and low tower-footing resistance. D. Design for mechanical strength to reduce exposure, and to minimize the likelihood of failure causable by animals, birds, insects, dirt, sleet, etc. E. Proper operation and maintenance practices. Some of the features of design and operation for mitigating the effects of failure are: A. Features that mitigate the immediate effects of an electrical failure. 1. Design to limit the magnitude of short-circuit current.1 a. By avoiding too large concentrations of generating capacity. b. By using current-limiting impedance. 2. Design to withstand mechanical stresses and heating owing to short-circuit currents. 3. Time-delay undervoltage devices on circuit breakers to prevent dropping loads during momentary voltage dips. 4. Ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). B. Features for promptly disconnecting the faulty element. 1. Protective relaying. 2. Circuit breakers with sufficient interrupting capacity. 3. Fuses. C. Features that mitigate the loss of the faulty element. 1. Alternate circuits. 2. Reserve generator and transformer capacity. 3. Automatic reclosing. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING 3 D. Features that operate throughout the period from the inception of the fault until after its removal, to maintain voltage and stability. 1. Automatic voltage regulation. 2. Stability characteristics of generators. E. Means for observing the electiveness of the foregoing features. 1. Automatic oscillographs. 2. Efficient human observation and record keeping. F. Frequent surveys as system changes or additions are made, to be sure that the foregoing features are still adequate. Thus, protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures occur. When we say that relays Òprotect,Ó we mean that, together with other equipment, the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. Therefore, the capabilities and the application requirements of protective-relaying equipments should be considered concurrently with the other features.2 This statement is emphasized because there is sometimes a tendency to think of the protective-relaying equipment after all other design considerations are irrevocably settled. Within economic limits, an electric power system should be designed so that it can be adequately protected. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit, or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. Circuit breakers are generally located so that each generator, transformer, bus, transmission line, etc., can be completely disconnected from the rest of the system. These circuit breakers must have sufficient capacity so that they can carry momentarily the maximum short-circuit current that can flow through them, and then interrupt this current; they must also withstand closing in on such a short circuit and then interrupting it according to certain prescribed standards.3 Fusing is employed where protective relays and circuit breakers are not economically justifiable. Although the principal function of protective relaying is to mitigate the effects of short circuits, other abnormal operating conditions arise that also require the services of protective relaying. This is particularly true of generators and motors. A secondary function of protective relaying is to provide indication of the location and type of failure. Such data not only assist in expediting repair but also, by comparison with 4 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING human observation and automatic oscillograph records, they provide means for analyzing the effectiveness of the fault-prevention and mitigation features including the protective relaying itself. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Let us consider for the moment only the relaying equipment for the protection against short circuits. There are two groups of such equipmentÐone which we shall call ÒprimaryÓ relaying, and the other Òback-upÓ relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.

Power System Relaying

Author: Stanley H. Horowitz,Arun G. Phadke

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118701518

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 4218

With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative. New features of the Fourth Edition include: an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS. phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines. revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration. Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.

Modern Solutions for Protection, Control, and Monitoring of Electric Power Systems

Author: Hector J. Altuve Ferrer,Edmund O. Schweitzer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780972502634

Category: Electric power systems

Page: 361

View: 8543

Modern Solutions for Protection, Control,and Monitoring of Electric Power Systems, Edited by Héctor J. Altuve Ferrer and Edmund O. Schweitzer, III ¿ publishing on June 1, 2010 ¿ addresses the concerns and challenges of protection, control, communications and power system engineers. It also presents solutions relevant to decision-making personnel at electric utilities and industries, and is appropriate for university students and faculty.Approaches, technology solutions and examples explained in this book provide engineers with tools to help meet today¿s power system requirements, including:- Reduced security margins resulting from limitations on new transmission lines and generating stations.- Variable and less predictable power flows stemming from new generation sources and free energy markets.- Modern protection, control, and monitoring solutions to prevent and mitigate blackouts.- Increased communications and automation (sometimes referred to as the ¿smart grid¿)Modern Solutions brings together the combined expertise of engineers working on power system operation, planning, asset management, maintenance, protection, control, monitoring, and communications. Authors include Allen D. Risley, Armando Guzmán Casillas, Brian A. McDermott, Daquing Hou, David A. Costello, David J. Dolezilek, Demtrios Tziouvaras, Edmund O. Schweitzer, III, Gabriel Benmouyal, Gregary C. Zweigle, Héctor J. Altuve Ferrer, Joseph B. Mooney, Michael J. Thompson, Ronald A. Schwartz, and Veselin Skendzic.

Fundamentals of Power System Protection

Author: Paithankar Y. G.,S. R. Bhide

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 8120341236

Category: Electric power systems

Page: 366

View: 9204

Electrical Transients in Power Systems

Author: Allan Greenwood

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 751

View: 6789

The principles of the First Edition--to teach students and engineers the fundamentals of electrical transients and equip them with the skills to recognize and solve transient problems in power networks and components--also guide this Second Edition. While the text continues to stress the physical aspects of the phenomena involved in these problems, it also broadens and updates the computational treatment of transients. Necessarily, two new chapters address the subject of modeling and models for most types of equipment are discussed. The adequacy of the models, their validation and the relationship between model and the physical entity it represents are also examined. There are now chapters devoted entirely to isolation coordination and protection, reflecting the revolution that metal oxide surge arresters have caused in the power industry. Features additional and more complete illustrative material--figures, diagrams and worked examples. An entirely new chapter of case studies demonstrates modeling and computational techniques as they have been applied by engineers to specific problems.

Analyzing and Applying Current Transformers

Author: Stanley E. Zocholl

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780972502627

Category: Electric transformers

Page: 95

View: 5431

High Voltage Engineering

Fundamentals

Author: Peter Kuffel,W. S. Zaengl

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483285650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 508

View: 3151

Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and overvoltages and insulation coordination.

Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing

Author: Paul Gill

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420017551

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1000

View: 5662

The second edition of a bestseller, this definitive text covers all aspects of testing and maintenance of the equipment found in electrical power systems serving industrial, commercial, utility substations, and generating plants. It addresses practical aspects of routing testing and maintenance and presents both the methodologies and engineering basics needed to carry out these tasks. It is an essential reference for engineers and technicians responsible for the operation, maintenance, and testing of power system equipment. Comprehensive coverage includes dielectric theory, dissolved gas analysis, cable fault locating, ground resistance measurements, and power factor, dissipation factor, DC, breaker, and relay testing methods.

Protective Relaying

Theory and Applications

Author: Walter A. Elmore

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824709723

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 780

Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes microprocessor techniques and troubleshooting strategies in clear and straightforward language.

Digital Protection

Protective Relaying from Electromechanical to Microprocessor

Author: Lakneshwar Prakash Singh

Publisher: New Age International

ISBN: 9788122410532

Category: Digital electronics

Page: 272

View: 9945

The Present Edition Of The Book Contains Almost All The Topics Connected With Protection Schemes. The Book, Which Consists Of Ten Main Chapters And Two Appendices, Starts With The Chapter On Introduction, And Includes Chapters On Fundamental And Basic Theory Of Protection Schemes, Definition Of Various Terms, Different Types Of Protective Relaying Schemes, Generalized Mathematical Theory Of Protective Relay, Relay As A Comparator, Single Input, Dual Input And Multi- Input Comparator, Different Types And Arrangement Of Protection Schemes For Various Components And Detailed Studies Of Electromechanical, Electronics, Static And Digital Relaying Schemes. The Digital Protection Of Synchronous Machines, Transformer And Transmission Line Based, Both On Fundamental And Travelling Wave Phenomena, Are Dealt With In Detail. Also Included In The Present Edition, Are The Related Topics Such As Theory And Design Of Dynamic Test Bench, P.C. Based Relay Setting And Coordination, P.C. Based Short Circuit Studies And Ultra High Speed Relaying Schemes.The Present Edition Which Contains Almost All The Topics Of Current Interest In The Area Of Protective Relaying, Will Certainly Be Very Useful To The Teachers, Students And Engineers Working With The Utilities. The Present Edition Is The Result Of Teaching By The Author To The Undergraduate And Postgraduate Level Classes And Supervising Several Doctoral And Master Thesis And Graduate Level Projects In The Area Of Power System Protection At The Indian Institute Of Technology, Kanpur, For More Than Two Decades. The Content Of The Present Edition Has Been Class-Tested For Several Years At The Undergraduate And Postgraduate Level Classes At L.L.T., Kanpur. It Has Also Been Tested In Several Intensive Courses Offered By The Author Under Qip And Other Schemes To The Teachers Of Academic Institutions And Also Engineers Working With Utilities.

Power System Protection 1

Principles and Components

Author: Electricity Training Association,Institution of Electrical Engineers

Publisher: IET

ISBN: 0852968345

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 525

View: 773

A set of four volumes compiled by leading authorities in the electricity supply industry and manufacturing companies to provide a comprehensive treatment of power system protection.

Gas Insulated Substations

Author: Hermann J. Koch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118570723

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 490

View: 1840

Comprehensive reference covering all aspects of gas insulated substations including basic principles, technology, use & application, design, specification, testing and ownership issues This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor’s tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, operation and maintenance is discussed. This chapter includes information on repair, extensions, retrofit or upgrade, and overloading. Finally applications are covered along with concepts of layout, typical layouts, mixed technology substations, and then other topics such as life cycle assessment, environmental impact, and project management. A one-stop, complete reference text on gas insulated substations (GIS), large-capacity and long-distance electricity transmission, which are of increasing importance in the power industry today Details advanced and basic material, accessible for both existing GIS users and those planning to adopt the technology Discusses both the practical and theoretical aspects of GIS Written by acknowledged GIS experts who have been involved in the development of the technology from the start

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