Search Results: quantum-cosmology-a-fundamental-description-of-the-universe-lecture-notes-in-physics

Quantum Cosmology

A Fundamental Description of the Universe

Author: Martin Bojowald

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441982752

Category: Science

Page: 310

View: 6116

Consequences of quantum gravity on grander scales are expected to be enormous: only such a theory can show how black holes really behave and where our universe came from. Applications of loop quantum gravity to cosmology have especially by now shed much light on cosmic evolution of a universe in a fundamental, microscopic description. Modern techniques are explained in this book which demonstrate how the universe could have come from a non-singular phase before the big bang, how equations for the evolution of structure can be derived, but also what fundamental limitations remain to our knowledge of the universe before the big bang. The following topics will be covered in this book: Hamiltonian cosmology: a general basic treatment of isotropy, perturbations and their role for observations; useful in general cosmology. Effective equations: an efficient way to evaluate equations of quantum gravity, which is also useful in other areas of physics where quantum theory is involved. Loop quantization: a new formalism for the atomic picture of space-time; usually presented at a sophisticated mathematical level, but evaluated here from an intuitive physical side. The book will start with physical motivations, rather than mathematical developments which is more common in other expositions of this field. All the required mathematical methods will be presented, but will not distract the reader from seeing the underlying physics. Simple but representative models will be presented first to show the basic features, which are then used to work upwards to a general description of quantum gravity and its applications in cosmology. This will make the book accessible to a more general physics readership.

Symmetries and Groups in Contemporary Physics

Author: Chengming Bai,Jean-Pierre Gazeau,Mo-Lin Ge

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814518565

Category: Mathematics

Page: 664

View: 6207

This volume focuses on developments in the field of group theory in its broadest sense and is of interest to theoretical and experimental physicists, mathematicians, and scientists in related disciplines who are interested in the latest methods and applications. In an increasingly ultra-specialized world, this volume will demonstrate the interchange of ideas and methods in theoretical and mathematical physics. Contents:The Wigner MedalThe Hermann Weyl PrizePlenary SessionParallel Sessions:Nonlinear SciencesQuantum AlgebrasSuperintegrable HamiltoniansApplications in BiologyQuantum Information and Representation TheoryFinite Quantum Systems and Combinatorial PhysicsSymmetries in String Theory and SupergravityLoop Quantum GravityTensor and Group Field Theories for Quantum GravityConformal Field TheoriesSupersymmetry and Quantum GroupsApplications in Particle and Nuclear PhysicsGeneral Quantum Mechanics and Its Mathematical Methods Involving Group TheoryPoster Session Readership: Researchers and specialists in group theory and its applications to mathematics, physics and other fields in natural science. Keywords:Symmetries;Group Theory;Quantum Physics;Coherent States;Quantum Information;Nonlinear Physics;Supersymmetry;Quantum Gravity;Strings;Conformal Fields;Tensor Fields;Mathematical Biology;Particle Physics;Quantum Algebras;Foundations Of Quantum Mechanics;Combinatorial PhysicsKey Features:Wide range of topics in theoretical and mathematical physicsContains the most recent developments in innovative fields like quantum information, physics and biology, quantum gravity (e.g., strings, loop, tensor fields approaches), combinatorial physicsCross-sectional view of these developments given by prominent specialists, be they promising young scientists (e.g. Gurau, Chiribella, etc.) or confirmed researchers (e.g., Lewandowski, Batchelor, Wang, Murakami, Busch, etc.)

Quantum Cosmology and Baby Universes

Author: S Coleman,J B Hartle,T Piran,S Weinberg

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814602590

Category:

Page: 368

View: 9345

The subject of Quantum Cosmology is concerned with providing a quantum mechanical description of the universe as a whole and, within that description, to constructing a theory of the universe's initial condition whose predictions can be compared with observation. The recent progress in this area has profound implications for physics at all scales. The lectures at this School describe these theories and their implications. They cover basic quantum mechanics of cosmology, proposals for theories of initial conditions, and their application to the prediction of the large scale features of our universe. A special emphasis of the School is the implication of topological fluctuations of spacetime (wormholes, baby universes) for the observed coupling constants of the low energy interactions of elementary particles and as a potential explanation for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Contents: Hamiltonian Formulation of General Relativity (C Teitelboim)The Quantum Mechanics of Cosmology (J B Hartle)Introductory Lectures on Quantum Cosmology (J J Halliwell)Wormholes and Non-Simply Connected Manifolds (S W Hawking)Baby Universes (A Strominger)Critique of Colemans Theory of the Vanishing Cosmological Constant (L Susskind) Readership: High energy physicists and cosmologists. Keywords:Jerusalem;Cosmology;Quantum Cosmology;Quantum Mechanics;Quantum Gravity;Cosmological Constant;General Relativity;Wormholes;Baby Universe

The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

Celebrating Stephen Hawking's Contributions to Physics

Author: G. W. Gibbons,E. P. S. Shellard,S. J. Rankin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521820813

Category: Science

Page: 879

View: 2406

Based on lectures given in honour of Stephen Hawking's sixtieth birthday, this book comprises contributions from some of the world's leading theoretical physicists. It begins with a section containing chapters by successful scientific popularisers, bringing to life both Hawking's work and other exciting developments in physics. The book then goes on to provide a critical evaluation of advanced subjects in modern cosmology and theoretical physics. Topics covered include the origin of the universe, warped spacetime, cosmological singularities, quantum gravity, black holes, string theory, quantum cosmology and inflation. As well as providing a fascinating overview of the wide variety of subject areas to which Stephen Hawking has contributed, this book represents an important assessment of prospects for the future of fundamental physics and cosmology.

Quantum Cosmology - The Supersymmetric Perspective - Vol. 1

Fundamentals

Author: Paulo Vargas Moniz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642115756

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 5324

We read in order to know we are not alone, I once heard, and perhaps it could also be suggested that we write in order not to be alone, to endorse, to promote continuity. The idea for this book took about ten years to materialize, and it is the author’s hope that its content will constitute the beginning of further explorations beyond current horizons. More speci cally, this book appeals to the reader to engage upon and persevere with a journey, moving through the less well explored territories in the evolution of the very early universe, and pushing towards new landscapes. P- haps, during or after consulting this book, this attitude and this willingness will be embraced by someone, somewhere, and this person will go on to enrich our quantum cosmological description of the early universe, by means of a clearer supersymm- ric perspective. It is to these creative and inquisitive ‘young minds’ that the book is addressed. The reader will not therefore nd in this book all the answers to all the problems regarding a supersymmetric and quantum description of the early universe, and this remark is substantiated in the book by a list of unresolved and challenging problems, itself incomplete.

Vom Universum zu den Elementarteilchen

Eine erste Einführung in die Kosmologie und die fundamentalen Wechselwirkungen

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662466465

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 7079

Das Buch stellt die Grundlagen der modernen Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie, sowie die aktuellen offenen Fragen bis zur Stringtheorie dar. Es enthält elementare Einführungen in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, die klassische und Quanten-Feldtheorie. Die wesentlichen Aspekte dieser Konzepte und viele Phänomene werden mit Hilfe einfacher Rechnungen verstanden, wobei keine höheren mathematischen oder physikalischen Kenntnisse vorausgesetzt werden. Ebenfalls behandelt werden unter anderem der Big Bang, dunkle Materie und dunkle Energie, sowie die Funktionsweise des Beschleunigers LHC. Neu in dieser dritten Auflage ist die Beschreibung der Entdeckung des Higgs-Bosons und dessen Produktions- und Zerfallsprozesse.

From the Universe to the Elementary Particles

A First Introduction to Cosmology and the Fundamental Interactions

Author: Ulrich Ellwanger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642243754

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 5023

In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Zeit

Author: Stephen Hawking

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644008612

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 1334

Ist das Universum unendlich oder begrenzt? Hat die Raumzeit einen Anfang, den Urknall? Dehnt sie sich aus? Wird sie wieder in sich zusammenstürzen? Liefe die Zeit dann rückwärts? Welchen Platz im Universum nehmen wir ein? Und ist in den atemberaubenden Modellen der Kosmologen noch Platz für einen Gott? – Es sind existenzielle Fragen, mit denen sich Stephen Hawking befasst, Fragen, die Forschung und Lehre in den Zentren der modernen Physik ebenso bestimmen wie die Diskussion von Geisteswissenschaftlern. Dieses Meisterwerk eines Jahrhundert-Genies hat unsere Weltsicht verändert. Zugleich hat Stephen Hawking damit neue Maßstäbe für die Erklärung komplexer physikalischer Zusammenhänge gesetzt. In diesem Buch, weltweit inzwischen über zehn Millionen Mal verkauft, ist das Credo des großen Physikers enthalten und lebendig. «Der Physiker Stephen Hawking ist im Begriff, die Formel zu finden, die das Universum erklärt.» ZEIT-Magazin

Quantum Gravity

From Theory to Experimental Search

Author: Domenico J. W. Giulini,Claus Kiefer,Claus Lämmerzahl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540408109

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 7482

The relation between quantum theory and the theory of gravitation remains one of the most outstanding unresolved issues of modern physics. According to general expectation, general relativity as well as quantum (field) theory in a fixed background spacetime cannot be fundamentally correct. Hence there should exist a broader theory comprising both in appropriate limits, i.e., quantum gravity. This book gives readers a comprehensive introduction accessible to interested non-experts to the main issues surrounding the search for quantum gravity. These issues relate to fundamental questions concerning the various formalisms of quantization; specific questions concerning concrete processes, like gravitational collapse or black-hole evaporation; and the all important question concerning the possibility of experimental tests of quantum-gravity effects.

Der Urknall

Die Geburt des Universums

Author: Joe Silk

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642934803

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 4570

Sieben kurze Lektionen über Physik

Author: Carlo Rovelli

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644052212

Category: Science

Page: 96

View: 5975

Hundert schmale Seiten reichen, um die Physik der Moderne zu erklären Wo kommen wir her? Was können wir wissen? Seit ihren umwälzenden Entdeckungen im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert spüren Physiker den Kräften und Teilchen nach, die die Welt im Innersten und Äußersten zusammenhalten. Für jedermann verständlich, hat Carlo Rovelli dieses zauberhafte Buch darüber geschrieben. Es stürmte in wenigen Wochen an die Spitze der italienischen Bestsellerliste und wird derzeit in fast zwanzig Sprachen übersetzt. In eleganten, klaren Sätzen erklärt Rovelli die Physik der Moderne: Einstein und die Relativitätstheorie, Max Planck und die Quantenmechanik, die Entstehung des Universums, Schwarze Löcher, die Elementarteilchen, die Beschaffenheit von Raum und Zeit – und die Loop-Theorie, sein ureigenstes Arbeitsfeld. Ein Buch, das jeder verstehen kann – ein Lesevergnügen zum Staunen, Genießen und Mitreden können. «Von Natur aus wollen wir immer mehr wissen und immer weiter lernen. Unser Wissen über die Welt wächst. Uns treibt der Drang nach Erkenntnis und lernend stoßen wir an Grenzen. In den tiefsten Tiefen des Raumgewebes, im Ursprung des Kosmos, im Wesen der Zeit, im Schicksal der Schwarzen Löcher und im Funktionieren unseres eigenen Denkens. Hier, an den Grenzen unseres Wissens, wo sich das Meer unseres Nichtwissens vor uns auftut, leuchten das Geheimnis der Welt, die Schönheit der Welt, und es verschlägt uns den Atem.», schreibt Carlo Rovelli.

Advances in the Interplay Between Quantum and Gravity Physics

Author: Peter G. Bergmann,V. de Sabbata

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402005923

Category: Science

Page: 554

View: 8813

In this XVII Course of the International School of Cosmology and Gravitation devoted to "ADVANCES IN THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN QUANTUM AND GRAVITY PHYSICS" we have considered different aspects of the influence of gravity on quantum systems. In order to achieve this aim, in many lectures, seminars and discussions we have strengthened the interplay between gravity and quantum systems starting from the situation in the early universe based on astrophysical observations, up to the earthly based experiments with atom interferometry for probing the structure of space-time. Thus we have had timely lectures on the quantum field and horizon of a black hole including reviews of the problem of black holes thermodynamics and entropy, quantum information, quantum black holes, quantum evaporation and Hawking radiation, recent advances in stockastic gravity. We have also discussed quantum fluctuations in inflationary universe, quantum effects and reheating after inflation, and superplanckian energies in Hawking radiation. In this regard the subject of spinors in purely affine space-time and Dirac matter according to Weyl in the generalized theory of gravitation were developed . The dualism between space-time and matter has been deeply analyzed in order to see why, for general relativity, this is an obstacle for quantization of the theory. Also canonical Gravity and Mach's principle, torsion and curvature as commutator for Quantum Gravity and Dirac Geometry of real space-time were analysed, together with the problem of 5-Dimensional Projective Unified Field theory and Multidimensional Gravity and Cosmology.

Ein Universum aus Nichts

... und warum da trotzdem etwas ist

Author: Lawrence M. Krauss

Publisher: Albrecht Knaus Verlag

ISBN: 3641091144

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 8117

Eine Reise zu den Ursprüngen unseres Universums Warum gibt es alles und nicht nichts? Worüber sich Philosophen seit Jahrhunderten den Kopf zerbrechen, darauf weiß die Physik Antwort: Nach den neuesten Erkenntnissen kann durchaus alles aus dem Nichts entstanden sein. Und mit Lawrence Krauss ist das gar nicht so schwer zu verstehen. Ironisch, böse und zugleich mit einem Augenzwinkern weiß Krauss selbst die Erkenntnis, dass wir aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach auch im Nichts verschwinden werden, höchst amüsant zu präsentieren, und schont dabei niemanden: weder Philosophen noch Theologen noch sich selbst. Die Frage nach der Entstehung unseres Universums ist eine der bemerkenswertesten Erkundungsreisen, die die Menschheit je unternommen hat. Einstein, Hubble, Relativitätstheorie, Inflation und Quantenmechanik – kein Bereich der Kosmologie, über den Lawrence Krauss nicht verständlich und vor allem spannend zu erzählen weiß. Dabei fragt er immer auch nach den Quellen unseres Wissens: Wie hat sich unsere Vorstellung vom Ursprung aller Dinge entwickelt? Weshalb wissen wir, was wir heute wissen? Und warum können wir davon ausgehen, dass das auch stimmt? Mit Ein Universum aus Nichts hat er ein Buch geschrieben, das schlau macht – voller Seitenhiebe gegen die theologische Zunft und alle anderen esoterischen Welterklärungen. Ganz ohne Berechnungen.

Analogue Gravity Phenomenology

Analogue Spacetimes and Horizons, from Theory to Experiment

Author: Daniele Faccio,Francesco Belgiorno,Sergio Cacciatori,Vittorio Gorini,Stefano Liberati,Ugo Moschella

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331900266X

Category: Science

Page: 439

View: 7083

Analogue Gravity Phenomenology is a collection of contributions that cover a vast range of areas in physics, ranging from surface wave propagation in fluids to nonlinear optics. The underlying common aspect of all these topics, and hence the main focus and perspective from which they are explained here, is the attempt to develop analogue models for gravitational systems. The original and main motivation of the field is the verification and study of Hawking radiation from a horizon: the enabling feature is the possibility to generate horizons in the laboratory with a wide range of physical systems that involve a flow of one kind or another. The years around 2010 and onwards witnessed a sudden surge of experimental activity in this expanding field of research. However, building an expertise in analogue gravity requires the researcher to be equipped with a rather broad range of knowledge and interests. The aim of this book is to bring the reader up to date with the latest developments and provide the basic background required in order to appreciate the goals, difficulties, and success stories in the field of analogue gravity. Each chapter of the book treats a different topic explained in detail by the major experts for each specific discipline. The first chapters give an overview of black hole spacetimes and Hawking radiation before moving on to describe the large variety of analogue spacetimes that have been proposed and are currently under investigation. This introductory part is then followed by an in-depth description of what are currently the three most promising analogue spacetime settings, namely surface waves in flowing fluids, acoustic oscillations in Bose-Einstein condensates and electromagnetic waves in nonlinear optics. Both theory and experimental endeavours are explained in detail. The final chapters refer to other aspects of analogue gravity beyond the study of Hawking radiation, such as Lorentz invariance violations and Brownian motion in curved spacetimes, before concluding with a return to the origins of the field and a description of the available observational evidence for horizons in astrophysical black holes.

The Deep Universe

Saas-Fee Advanced Course 23. Lecture Notes 1993. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy

Author: A.R. Sandage,R.G. Kron,M.S. Longair

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540589139

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 8119

Written by three celebrated astronomers renowned for their excellence in both research and teaching, the central theme is approached in three complementary ways: the smooth evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present structures of matter; as a meandering road paved by our observations of stars, galaxies, and clusters; and how these approaches have been gradually developed and intertwined in the historical process leading to modern-day cosmology.

The Logic of Nature, Complexity and New Physics

From Quark-Gluon Plasma to Superstrings, Quantum Gravity and Beyond - Proceedings of the International School of Subnuclear Physics

Author: Antonino Zichichi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812832467

Category: Electronic books

Page: 688

View: 2629

From August 29 to September 7, 2006, a large group of distinguished lecturers and young physicists coming from various countries around the world met in Erice, Italy, at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture (EMFCSC) for the 44th course of the International School of Subnuclear Physics: OC The Logic of Nature, Complexity and New Physics: From Quark-Gluon Plasma to Superstrings, Quantum Gravity and BeyondOCO.This book is a collection of lectures given during the course, covering the most recent advances in theoretical physics and the latest results from current experimental facilities. Following one of the aims of the School, which is to encourage and promote young physicists to achieve recognition at an international level, the students who have distinguished themselves for their excellence in research have been given the opportunity to publish their presentations in this volume.

Einführung in die moderne Kosmologie

Author: Andrew Liddle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527670920

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 9753

Dank sich stets verbessernder boden- und weltraumgestützter Teleskope stehen der Kosmologie inzwischen Daten zur Verfügung, die Rückschlüsse auf immer frühere Phasen des Universums und Vergleiche mit Modellvorstellungen erlauben. Daher gewinnt die Kosmologie in den Astronomiekursen der Universitäten beständig an Wichtigkeit. Die "Einführung in die Moderne Kosmologie" ist eine anschauliche und leicht verständliche Darstellung moderner kosmologischer Konzepte, die neben zahlreichen Beispielen und Übungsaufgaben auch Hinweise und Endergebnisse enthält, sodass das Erlernte sofort ausprobiert und kontrolliert werden kann. Das Buch ist klar eingeteilt und behandelt in sechs separaten Kapiteln Themen für Fortgeschrittene, darunter relativistische Kosmologie und Neutrino-Kosmologie. Die vorliegende Übersetzung der zweiten Auflage wurde wesentlich ergänzt und erweitert und umfasst neueste Beobachtungsergebnisse sowie zusätzliches Material zur empirischen Kosmologie und Strukturbildung.

Theory of Gravitational Interactions

Author: Maurizio Gasperini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 8847026911

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 5890

This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be of particular value to undergraduate students pursuing a theoretical or astroparticle curriculum. It can also be used by those teaching related subjects, by PhD students and young researchers working in different scientific sectors but wishing to enlarge their spectrum of interests, and, in general, by all scholars interested in the modern aspects and problems of gravitational interaction.

Raum, Zeit, Materie

Author: Hermann Weyl

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: 5880098028

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7115

Birth of the universe and fundamental physics

proceedings of the international workshop held in Rome, Italy, 18-21 May 1994

Author: F. Occhionero,N. Occhionero

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783540600244

Category: Cosmology

Page: 387

View: 946

The articles collected in this volume cover topics ranging from Planck-scale physics to galaxy clustering. They deal with various new ideas from cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics that might lead to a better understanding of our physical universe. Among the topics covered are inflationary models, nucleosynthesis, dark matter, large-scale clustering, cosmic microwave background radiations and more. The book addresses researchers but it also gives a good overview of the subject for graduate students in astrophysics and particle physics.

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