This tutorial reference takes the reader from use cases to complete architectures for real-time embedded systems using SysML, UML, and MARTE and shows how to apply the COMET/RTE design method to real-world problems. The author covers key topics such as architectural patterns for distributed and hierarchical real-time control and other real-time software architectures, performance analysis of real-time designs using real-time scheduling, and timing analysis on single and multiple processor systems. Complete case studies illustrating design issues include a light rail control system, a microwave oven control system, and an automated highway toll system. Organized as an introduction followed by several self-contained chapters, the book is perfect for experienced software engineers wanting a quick reference at each stage of the analysis, design, and development of large-scale real-time embedded systems, as well as for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in software engineering, computer engineering, and software design.
Offering comprehensive coverage of the convergence of real-time embedded systems scheduling, resource access control, software design and development, and high-level system modeling, analysis and verification Following an introductory overview, Dr. Wang delves into the specifics of hardware components, including processors, memory, I/O devices and architectures, communication structures, peripherals, and characteristics of real-time operating systems. Later chapters are dedicated to real-time task scheduling algorithms and resource access control policies, as well as priority-inversion control and deadlock avoidance. Concurrent system programming and POSIX programming for real-time systems are covered, as are finite state machines and Time Petri nets. Of special interest to software engineers will be the chapter devoted to model checking, in which the author discusses temporal logic and the NuSMV model checking tool, as well as a chapter treating real-time software design with UML. The final portion of the book explores practical issues of software reliability, aging, rejuvenation, security, safety, and power management. In addition, the book: Explains real-time embedded software modeling and design with finite state machines, Petri nets, and UML, and real-time constraints verification with the model checking tool, NuSMV Features real-world examples in finite state machines, model checking, real-time system design with UML, and more Covers embedded computer programing, designing for reliability, and designing for safety Explains how to make engineering trade-offs of power use and performance Investigates practical issues concerning software reliability, aging, rejuvenation, security, and power management Real-Time Embedded Systems is a valuable resource for those responsible for real-time and embedded software design, development, and management. It is also an excellent textbook for graduate courses in computer engineering, computer science, information technology, and software engineering on embedded and real-time software systems, and for undergraduate computer and software engineering courses.
WHAT IS THIS BOOKABOUT7 In recent times real-time computer systems have become increasingly complex and sophisticated. It has now become apparent that, to implement such schemes effectively, professional, rigorous software methods must be used. This includes analysis, design and implementation. Unfortunately few textbooks cover this area well. Frequently they are hardware oriented with limited coverage of software, or software texts which ignore the issues of real-time systems. This book aims to fill that gap by describing the total software design and is given development process for real-time systems. Further, special emphasis of microprocessor-based real-time embedded systems. to the needs WHAT ARE REAL-TIME COMPUTER SYSTEMS? Real-time systems are those which must produce correct responses within a definite time limit. Should computer responses exceed these time bounds then performance degradation and/or malfunction results. WHAT ARE REAL-TIME EMBEDDED COMPUTER SYSTEMS? Here the computer is merely one functional element within a real-time system; it is not a computing machine in its own right. WHO SHOULD READ THIS BOOK? Those involved, or who intend to get involved, in the design of software for real-time systems. It is written with both software and hardware engineers in mind, being suitable for students and professional engineers.
The comprehensive coverage and real-world perspective makes the book accessible and appealing to both beginners and experienced designers. Covers both the fundamentals of software design and modern design methodologies Provides comparisons of different development methods, tools and languages Blends theory and practical experience together Emphasises the use of diagrams and is highly illustrated
This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in software engineering to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when using software engineering methods to develop your embedded systems. With this book you will learn: The principles of good architecture for an embedded system Design practices to help make your embedded project successful Details on principles that are often a part of embedded systems, including digital signal processing, safety-critical principles, and development processes Techniques for setting up a performance engineering strategy for your embedded system software How to develop user interfaces for embedded systems Strategies for testing and deploying your embedded system, and ensuring quality development processes Practical techniques for optimizing embedded software for performance, memory, and power Advanced guidelines for developing multicore software for embedded systems How to develop embedded software for networking, storage, and automotive segments How to manage the embedded development process Includes contributions from: Frank Schirrmeister, Shelly Gretlein, Bruce Douglass, Erich Styger, Gary Stringham, Jean Labrosse, Jim Trudeau, Mike Brogioli, Mark Pitchford, Catalin Dan Udma, Markus Levy, Pete Wilson, Whit Waldo, Inga Harris, Xinxin Yang, Srinivasa Addepalli, Andrew McKay, Mark Kraeling and Robert Oshana. Road map of key problems/issues and references to their solution in the text Review of core methods in the context of how to apply them Examples demonstrating timeless implementation details Short and to- the- point case studies show how key ideas can be implemented, the rationale for choices made, and design guidelines and trade-offs
Chapter 5. Real-Time Building Blocks: Events and Triggers
Author: Erich Styger
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Category: Technology & Engineering
The previous chapter approaches embedded systems from a higher level of abstraction; from the system design architecture and how to apply design patterns for the implementation. This chapter introduces two fundamental concepts and design patterns in real-time systems: (a) the ability to set asynchronous event flags (events) and (b) the ability to have things triggered in a timely fashion (triggers). These two concepts are used both in systems with a real-time operating system (RTOS) and in systems not using an RTOS. The chapter starts with use cases and then develops different ways to implement events and triggers. It presents different implementation details and discusses the advantages and disadvantages. The sources for both event and trigger implementation are provided at the end of the chapter.
Nowadays embedded and real-time systems contain complex software. The complexity of embedded systems is increasing, and the amount and variety of software in the embedded products are growing. This creates a big challenge for embedded and real-time software development processes and there is a need to develop separate metrics and benchmarks. “Embedded and Real Time System Development: A Software Engineering Perspective: Concepts, Methods and Principles” presents practical as well as conceptual knowledge of the latest tools, techniques and methodologies of embedded software engineering and real-time systems. Each chapter includes an in-depth investigation regarding the actual or potential role of software engineering tools in the context of the embedded system and real-time system. The book presents state-of-the art and future perspectives with industry experts, researchers, and academicians sharing ideas and experiences including surrounding frontier technologies, breakthroughs, innovative solutions and applications. The book is organized into four parts “Embedded Software Development Process”, “Design Patterns and Development Methodology”, “Modelling Framework” and “Performance Analysis, Power Management and Deployment” with altogether 12 chapters. The book is aiming at (i) undergraduate students and postgraduate students conducting research in the areas of embedded software engineering and real-time systems; (ii) researchers at universities and other institutions working in these fields; and (iii) practitioners in the R&D departments of embedded system. It can be used as an advanced reference for a course taught at the postgraduate level in embedded software engineering and real-time systems.
The demands of increasingly complex embedded systems and associated performance computations have resulted in the development of heterogeneous computing architectures that often integrate several types of processors, analog and digital electronic components, and mechanical and optical components—all on a single chip. As a result, now the most prominent challenge for the design automation community is to efficiently plan for such heterogeneity and to fully exploit its capabilities. A compilation of work from internationally renowned authors, Model-Based Design for Embedded Systems elaborates on related practices and addresses the main facets of heterogeneous model-based design for embedded systems, including the current state of the art, important challenges, and the latest trends. Focusing on computational models as the core design artifact, this book presents the cutting-edge results that have helped establish model-based design and continue to expand its parameters. The book is organized into three sections: Real-Time and Performance Analysis in Heterogeneous Embedded Systems, Design Tools and Methodology for Multiprocessor System-on-Chip, and Design Tools and Methodology for Multidomain Embedded Systems. The respective contributors share their considerable expertise on the automation of design refinement and how to relate properties throughout this refinement while enabling analytic and synthetic qualities. They focus on multi-core methodological issues, real-time analysis, and modeling and validation, taking into account how optical, electronic, and mechanical components often interface. Model-based design is emerging as a solution to bridge the gap between the availability of computational capabilities and our inability to make full use of them yet. This approach enables teams to start the design process using a high-level model that is gradually refined through abstraction levels to ultimately yield a prototype. When executed well, model-based design encourages enhanced performance and quicker time to market for a product. Illustrating a broad and diverse spectrum of applications such as in the automotive aerospace, health care, consumer electronics, this volume provides designers with practical, readily adaptable modeling solutions for their own practice.
A recent survey stated that 52% of embedded projects are late by 4-5 months. This book can help get those projects in on-time with design patterns. The author carefully takes into account the special concerns found in designing and developing embedded applications specifically concurrency, communication, speed, and memory usage. Patterns are given in UML (Unified Modeling Language) with examples including ANSI C for direct and practical application to C code. A basic C knowledge is a prerequisite for the book while UML notation and terminology is included. General C programming books do not include discussion of the contraints found within embedded system design. The practical examples give the reader an understanding of the use of UML and OO (Object Oriented) designs in a resource-limited environment. Also included are two chapters on state machines. The beauty of this book is that it can help you today. . Design Patterns within these pages are immediately applicable to your project Addresses embedded system design concerns such as concurrency, communication, and memory usage Examples contain ANSI C for ease of use with C programming code
Today's embedded and real-time systems contain a mix of processor types: off-the-shelf microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSPs), and custom processors. The decreasing cost of DSPs has made these sophisticated chips very attractive for a number of embedded and real-time applications, including automotive, telecommunications, medical imaging, and many others—including even some games and home appliances. However, developing embedded and real-time DSP applications is a complex task influenced by many parameters and issues. DSP Software Development Techniques for Embedded and Real-Time Systems is an introduction to DSP software development for embedded and real-time developers giving details on how to use digital signal processors efficiently in embedded and real-time systems. The book covers software and firmware design principles, from processor architectures and basic theory to the selection of appropriate languages and basic algorithms. The reader will find practical guidelines, diagrammed techniques, tool descriptions, and code templates for developing and optimizing DSP software and firmware. The book also covers integrating and testing DSP systems as well as managing the DSP development effort. Digital signal processors (DSPs) are the future of microchips! Includes practical guidelines, diagrammed techniques, tool descriptions, and code templates to aid in the development and optimization of DSP software and firmware