Search Results: reputation-and-power

Reputation and Power

Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA

Author: Daniel Carpenter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400835119

Category: Political Science

Page: 856

View: 2814

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the most powerful regulatory agency in the world. How did the FDA become so influential? And how exactly does it wield its extraordinary power? Reputation and Power traces the history of FDA regulation of pharmaceuticals, revealing how the agency's organizational reputation has been the primary source of its power, yet also one of its ultimate constraints. Daniel Carpenter describes how the FDA cultivated a reputation for competence and vigilance throughout the last century, and how this organizational image has enabled the agency to regulate an industry as powerful as American pharmaceuticals while resisting efforts to curb its own authority. Carpenter explains how the FDA's reputation and power have played out among committees in Congress, and with drug companies, advocacy groups, the media, research hospitals and universities, and governments in Europe and India. He shows how FDA regulatory power has influenced the way that business, medicine, and science are conducted in the United States and worldwide. Along the way, Carpenter offers new insights into the therapeutic revolution of the 1940s and 1950s; the 1980s AIDS crisis; the advent of oral contraceptives and cancer chemotherapy; the rise of antiregulatory conservatism; and the FDA's waning influence in drug regulation today. Reputation and Power demonstrates how reputation shapes the power and behavior of government agencies, and sheds new light on how that power is used and contested. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.

Reputation and Power

Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA

Author: Daniel P. Carpenter

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691141794

Category: History

Page: 802

View: 680

"In this truly splendid, magisterial study, Carpenter thoroughly documents and narrates the FDA's struggle with the certainties of science, the uncertainties of politics, and the requirements of reputation, an asset that simultaneously granted the agency autonomy and then took it away through ever-increasing expectations of performance."--Richard Bensel, Cornell University "Deeply researched and subtly conceived, "Reputation and Power" demonstrates how much our modern system of drug regulation and clinical research owes to the scientific creativity and political skills of federal drug regulators over the past sixty years. It will be the standard work on the FDA for decades to come, while providing instructive lessons for how one can think critically about government regulation without recourse to the ideological lenses of the Left or the Right."--Harry M. Marks, history of medicine, Johns Hopkins University ""Reputation and Power" is by far the most thorough and penetrating study of the most powerful and important regulatory agency in the world--the U.S. Food and Drug Administration--and one of the best studies of any American regulatory agency. The book is essential reading for anyone seriously interested in American politics, public policy, administrative institutions, or health and medicine. This is an extraordinary work."--Paul Quirk, University of British Columbia "Carpenter has integrated an understanding of the FDA's legal history and programmatic responsibilities with a perceptive grasp of the personalities who shaped that history. His work surpasses in depth and scope all other accounts of the FDA with which I am familiar. No one in the future will be able to write seriously about the FDA's drug approval system without taking account of Carpenter's work. His curiosity knows no limits."--Richard A. Merrill, professor emeritus, University of Virginia, former FDA general counsel, and coauthor of "Food and Drug Law: Cases and Materials"

Reputation and Power

Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA

Author: Daniel Carpenter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691141800

Category: Political Science

Page: 856

View: 8264

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the most powerful regulatory agency in the world. How did the FDA become so influential? And how exactly does it wield its extraordinary power? Reputation and Power traces the history of FDA regulation of pharmaceuticals, revealing how the agency's organizational reputation has been the primary source of its power, yet also one of its ultimate constraints. Daniel Carpenter describes how the FDA cultivated a reputation for competence and vigilance throughout the last century, and how this organizational image has enabled the agency to regulate an industry as powerful as American pharmaceuticals while resisting efforts to curb its own authority. Carpenter explains how the FDA's reputation and power have played out among committees in Congress, and with drug companies, advocacy groups, the media, research hospitals and universities, and governments in Europe and India. He shows how FDA regulatory power has influenced the way that business, medicine, and science are conducted in the United States and worldwide. Along the way, Carpenter offers new insights into the therapeutic revolution of the 1940s and 1950s; the 1980s AIDS crisis; the advent of oral contraceptives and cancer chemotherapy; the rise of antiregulatory conservatism; and the FDA's waning influence in drug regulation today. Reputation and Power demonstrates how reputation shapes the power and behavior of government agencies, and sheds new light on how that power is used and contested.

Florence Nightingale

Reputation and Power

Author: Francis Barrymore Smith

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780709923145

Category: Health reformers

Page: 216

View: 337

Nightingale, Florence

Reputation and Power , Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA

Pharmaceutical sciences, Pharmaceutical sciences

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467222119

Category: Education

Page: 52

View: 2718

Facts101 is your complete guide to Reputation and Power , Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

The Power of Reputation

Strengthen the Asset That Will Make or Break Your Career

Author: Chris Komisarjevsky

Publisher: AMACOM

ISBN: 0814417981

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 8851

We judge people in business the same way we judge those in our personal lives. We listen to what they say, watch how they behave, and take note of the results of their actions. Success is ultimately built on a foundation of character, communication, and trust. To accomplish our goals, people must believe in us. The Power of Reputation offers businesspeople an action plan for creating the kind of reputation that generates trust, inspires confidence, and paves the way for lasting success. Readers will discover how to: Identify and reinforce the values behind their reputation * Earn respect by respecting others * Engage people through constructive, open communication * Build strong connections by personalizing their approach to everything they do Featuring interviews with distinguished business figures and containing instructive real-world examples, this book reveals how to leverage the remarkable power of a reputation rooted in authenticity.

Preventing Regulatory Capture

Special Interest Influence and How to Limit it

Author: Daniel Carpenter,David A. Moss

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107036089

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 501

View: 2936

Leading scholars from across the social sciences present empirical evidence that the obstacle of regulatory capture is more surmountable than previously thought.

Faith and Power

Religion and Politics in the Middle East

Author: Bernard Lewis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199752812

Category: Religion

Page: 240

View: 2667

Bernard Lewis is recognized around the globe as one of the leading authorities on Islam. Hailed as "the world's foremost Islamic scholar" (Wall Street Journal ), as "a towering figure among experts on the culture and religion of the Muslim world" (Baltimore Sun ), and as "the doyen of Middle Eastern studies" (New York Times ), Lewis is nothing less than a national treasure, a trusted voice that politicians, journalists, historians, and the general public have all turned to for insight into the Middle East. Now, Lewis has brought together writings on religion and government in the Middle East, so different than in the Western world. The collection includes previously unpublished writings, English originals of articles published before only in foreign languages, and an introduction to the book by Lewis. Acclaim for What Went Wrong? A New York Times Bestseller "Replete with the exceptional historical insight that one has come to expect from the world's foremost Islamic scholar." --Karen Elliott House, Wall Street Journal Lewis has done us all--Muslim and non-Muslim alike--a remarkable service.... The book's great strength, and its claim upon our attention, [is that] it offers a long view in the midst of so much short-term and confusing punditry on television, in the op-ed pages, on campuses and in strategic studies think tanks." --Paul Kennedy, The New York Times Book Review Acclaim for From Babel to Dragomans "Lewis has long been considered the West's leading interpreter of Mideast culture and history, and this collection only solidifies his reputation."--National Review "For more than four decades, Lewis has been one of the most respected scholars and prolific writers on the history and politics of the Middle East. In this compilation of more than 50 journal articles and essays, he displays the full range of his eloquence, knowledge, and insight regarding this pivotal and volatile region."--Booklist

People Will Talk

Author: John Whitfield

Publisher: Gerald Duckworth & Co

ISBN: 0715644874

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 1296

What do psychopaths and expenses-fiddling MPs have in common? How can ebay save the economy? Why does a stranger influence your private life? The answer is reputation. 'This book is about how we work out how to trust people. And its flipside: how can I get other people to trust me? And if I can't, why not?' But there's plenty more to the essence of reputation. People Will Talk surveys experiments and theories of animal behaviour, economics, philosophy, sociology and literature in a deft explanation of our social behaviour - which holds some important lessons for everyday life. John Whitfield uncovers the central role reputation has always played, without us really noticing. He reveals exactly how much it influences human development and behaviour, including your reading of this book, and even explains some of the surreal social dynamics behind today's risk-taking bankers and obnoxiously-behaved celebrities.

The 48 Laws Of Power

Author: Robert Greene

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1847651348

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 463

View: 1781

'Machiavelli has a new rival, and Sun-tzu had better watch his back' - New York Times Robert Greene's laws are now famous: Law 1: Never outshine the master. Law 2: Never put too much trust in friends; learn how to use enemies. Law 3: Conceal your intentions. Law 4: Always say less than necessary. At work, in relationships, on the street or on the 6 o'clock News: the 48 Laws apply everywhere. For anyone with an interest in conquest, self-defence, wealth, power or simply being an educated spectator, The 48 Laws of Power is one of the most useful and entertaining books ever; it 'teaches you how to cheat, dissemble, feign, fight and advance your cause in the modern world.' (Independent on Sunday). Robert Greene will teach you the distilled wisdom of the masters - illustrated through the tactics, triumphs and failures from Elizabeth I to Henry Kissinger on how to get to the top and stay there. Wry, ironic and clever, this is an indispensable and witty guide to power. The perfect gift book for the power-hungry (and who doesn't want power?); this is the Concise Edition of an international bestseller. From the internationally bestselling author of Mastery, The Art Of Seduction, and The 33 Strategies Of War.

Negative Neighbourhood Reputation and Place Attachment

The Production and Contestation of Territorial Stigma

Author: Paul Kirkness,Andreas Tijé-Dra

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317089529

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 797

The concept of territorial stigma, as developed in large part by the urban sociologist Loïc Wacquant, contends that certain groups of people are devalued, discredited and tainted by the reputation of the place where they reside. This book argues that this theory is more relevant and comprehensive than others that have been used to frame and understand ostracised neighbourhoods and their populations (for example segregation and the racialisation of place) and allows for an inclusive interpretation of the many spatial facets of marginalisation processes. Advancing conceptual understanding of how territorial stigmatisation and its components unfold materially as well as symbolically, this book presents a wide range of case studies from the Global South and Global North, including an examination of recent policy measures that have been applied to deal with the consequences of territorial stigmatisation. It introduces readers to territorial stigmatisation’s strategic deployment but also illustrates, in a number of regional contexts, the attachments that residents at times develop for the stigmatised places in which they live and the potential counter-forces that are developed against territorial stigmatisation by a variety of different groups.

A Power Stronger Than Itself

The AACM and American Experimental Music

Author: George E. Lewis

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226477037

Category: Social Science

Page: 690

View: 9769

Founded in 1965 and still active today, the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM) is an American institution with an international reputation. George E. Lewis, who joined the collective as a teenager in 1971, establishes the full importance and vitality of the AACM with this communal history, written with a symphonic sweep that draws on a cross-generational chorus of voices and a rich collection of rare images. Moving from Chicago to New York to Paris, and from founding member Steve McCall’s kitchen table to Carnegie Hall, A Power Stronger Than Itself uncovers a vibrant, multicultural universe and brings to light a major piece of the history of avant-garde music and art.

Engines of Anxiety

Academic Rankings, Reputation, and Accountability

Author: Wendy Nelson Espeland,Michael Sauder

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448561

Category: Social Science

Page: 281

View: 8731

Students and the public routinely consult various published college rankings to assess the quality of colleges and universities and easily compare different schools. However, many institutions have responded to the rankings in ways that benefit neither the schools nor their students. In Engines of Anxiety, sociologists Wendy Espeland and Michael Sauder delve deep into the mechanisms of law school rankings, which have become a top priority within legal education. Based on a wealth of observational data and over 200 in-depth interviews with law students, university deans, and other administrators, they show how the scramble for high rankings has affected the missions and practices of many law schools. Engines of Anxiety tracks how rankings, such as those published annually by the U.S. News & World Report, permeate every aspect of legal education, beginning with the admissions process. The authors find that prospective law students not only rely heavily on such rankings to evaluate school quality, but also internalize rankings as expressions of their own abilities and flaws. For example, they often view rejections from “first-tier” schools as a sign of personal failure. The rankings also affect the decisions of admissions officers, who try to balance admitting diverse classes with preserving the school’s ranking, which is dependent on factors such as the median LSAT score of the entering class. Espeland and Sauder find that law schools face pressure to admit applicants with high test scores over lower-scoring candidates who possess other favorable credentials. Engines of Anxiety also reveals how rankings have influenced law schools’ career service departments. Because graduates’ job placements play a major role in the rankings, many institutions have shifted their career-services resources toward tracking placements, and away from counseling and network-building. In turn, law firms regularly use school rankings to recruit and screen job candidates, perpetuating a cycle in which highly ranked schools enjoy increasing prestige. As a result, the rankings create and reinforce a rigid hierarchy that penalizes lower-tier schools that do not conform to the restrictive standards used in the rankings. The authors show that as law schools compete to improve their rankings, their programs become more homogenized and less accessible to non-traditional students. The ranking system is considered a valuable resource for learning about more than 200 law schools. Yet, Engines of Anxiety shows that the drive to increase a school’s rankings has negative consequences for students, educators, and administrators and has implications for all educational programs that are quantified in similar ways.

Power, Privilege, and the Post

The Katharine Graham Story

Author: Carol Felsenthal

Publisher: Seven Stories Press

ISBN: 9781888363869

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 511

View: 1483

Katherine Graham's story has all the elements of the phoenix rising from the ashes, and in Carol Felsenthal's unauthorized biography, Power, Privilege, and the Post, Graham's personal tragedies and triumphs are revealed. The homely and insecure daughter of the Jewish millionaire and owner of The Washington Post, Eugene Myer, Kay married the handsome, brilliant and power hungry Phillip Graham in 1940. By 1948 Kay's father had turned control of The Washington Post over to Phil, who spent the next decade amassing a media empire that included radio and TV stations. But, as Felsenthal shows, he mostly focused on building the reputation of the Post and positioning himself as a Washington power-player. Plagued by manic depression, Phil's behavior became more erratic and outlandish, and his downward spiral ended in 1963 when he took his own life. Surprising the newspaper industry, Kay Graham took control of the paper, beginning one of the most unprecedented careers in media history. Felsenthal weaves her exhaustive research into a perceptive portrayal of the Graham family and an expert dissection of the internal politics at the Post, and a portrait of one of a unique, tragic, and ultimately triumphant figure of twentieth-century America.

Buzkashi

Game and Power in Afghanistan, Third Edition

Author: G. Whitney Azoy

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478607823

Category: Social Science

Page: 183

View: 4704

Much has happened since Buzkashi: Game and Power in Afghanistan first appeared in 1982; the past three decades have devastated Afghanistan. What began as the ethnography of a game has grown into a study recognized worldwide as the preeminent analysis of Afghan political dynamics. Replete with significant updates, including a new chapter featuring interviews with warlords regarding their sponsorship of buzkashi, this richly illustrated Third Edition remains the first and only full-scale anthropological examination of a single sport, as well as a beautifully written longitudinal case study about the games social significance. A master storyteller, Azoy first shows how the game of buzkashi is played and introduces readers to its rich history, its roots in tradition, and the implicit and explicit meanings attached to it. Next, readers learn how the author shifted from his Kabul diplomatic life to rural fieldwork in northern Afghanistan and a 40-year journey toward understanding the complexities of this ancient wild card game. Vivid with firsthand descriptions, Azoys book reveals buzkashi as a metaphor for chaos and an arena in the struggle for political control. This new edition, as one reviewer puts it, turns a great book into a classic.

Money and Power

How Goldman Sachs Came to Rule the World

Author: William D. Cohan

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0385534973

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 9527

The bestselling author of the acclaimed House of Cards and The Last Tycoons turns his spotlight on to Goldman Sachs and the controversy behind its success. From the outside, Goldman Sachs is a perfect company. The Goldman PR machine loudly declares it to be smarter, more ethical, and more profitable than all of its competitors. Behind closed doors, however, the firm constantly straddles the line between conflict of interest and legitimate deal making, wields significant influence over all levels of government, and upholds a culture of power struggles and toxic paranoia. And its clever bet against the mortgage market in 2007—unknown to its clients—may have made the financial ruin of the Great Recession worse. Money and Power reveals the internal schemes that have guided the bank from its founding through its remarkable windfall during the 2008 financial crisis. Through extensive research and interviews with the inside players, including current CEO Lloyd Blankfein, William Cohan constructs a nuanced, timely portrait of Goldman Sachs, the company that was too big—and too ruthless—to fail.

Reputation

What It Is and Why It Matters

Author: Gloria Origgi

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140088859X

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 4577

A compelling exploration of how reputation affects every aspect of contemporary life Reputation touches almost everything, guiding our behavior and choices in countless ways. But it is also shrouded in mystery. Why is it so powerful when the criteria by which people and things are defined as good or bad often appear to be arbitrary? Why do we care so much about how others see us that we may even do irrational and harmful things to try to influence their opinion? In this engaging book, Gloria Origgi draws on philosophy, social psychology, sociology, economics, literature, and history to offer an illuminating account of an important yet oddly neglected subject. Origgi examines the influence of the Internet and social media, as well as the countless ranking systems that characterize modern society and contribute to the creation of formal and informal reputations in our social relations, in business, in politics, in academia, and even in wine. She highlights the importance of reputation to the effective functioning of the economy and e-commerce. Origgi also discusses the existential significance of our obsession with reputation, concluding that an awareness of the relationship between our reputation and our actions empowers us to better understand who we are and why we do what we do. Compellingly written and filled with surprising insights, Reputation pins down an elusive subject that affects everyone.

Negotiation and Power in Dialogic Interaction

Author: Edda Weigand,Marcelo Dascal

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027298327

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 303

View: 2405

The topic of negotiation has turned out to be of crucial interdisciplinary interest for our understanding of what we are doing in language use. Are we exchanging meanings defined in advance and presupposing equal understanding on the basis of a rule-governed system, or are we negotiating meaning and understanding in the framework of an open dialogic universe? Negotiation, on the one hand, can be taken as the name of a specific dialogue type or action game of bargaining. On the other hand, it represents a methodological concept for describing and explaining dialogic interaction which replaces the orthodox view of pattern transference. The papers collected in this volume deal with both versions of the concept of negotiation. This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the International Conference on Pragmatics and Negotiation at Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in June, 1999. The dialogic aspect was taken as the key concept to guide the present selection.

The Crucible

Author: Arthur Miller

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101042465

Category: Drama

Page: 176

View: 7423

A haunting examination of groupthink and mass hysteria in a rural community The place is Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, an enclave of rigid piety huddled on the edge of a wilderness. Its inhabitants believe unquestioningly in their own sanctity. But in Arthur Miller's edgy masterpiece, that very belief will have poisonous consequences when a vengeful teenager accuses a rival of witchcraft—and then when those accusations multiply to consume the entire village. First produced in 1953, at a time when America was convulsed by a new epidemic of witch-hunting, The Crucible brilliantly explores the threshold between individual guilt and mass hysteria, personal spite and collective evil. It is a play that is not only relentlessly suspenseful and vastly moving but that compels readers to fathom their hearts and consciences in ways that only the greatest theater ever can. "A drama of emotional power and impact" —New York Post

Dangerous Ambition

Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson: New Women in Search of Love and Power

Author: Susan Hertog

Publisher: Ballantine Books

ISBN: 034552943X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 512

View: 2909

Born in the 1890s on opposite sides of the Atlantic, friends for more than forty years, Dorothy Thompson and Rebecca West lived strikingly parallel lives that placed them at the center of the social and historical upheavals of the twentieth century. In Dangerous Ambition, Susan Hertog chronicles the separate but intertwined journeys of these two remarkable women writers, who achieved unprecedented fame and influence at tremendous personal cost. American Dorothy Thompson was the first female head of a European news bureau, a columnist and commentator with a tremendous following whom Time magazine once ranked alongside Eleanor Roosevelt as the most influential woman in America. Rebecca West, an Englishwoman at home wherever genius was spoken, blazed a trail for herself as a journalist, literary critic, novelist, and historian. In a prefeminist era when speaking truth to power could get anyone—of either gender—ostracized, blacklisted, or worse, these two smart, self-made women were among the first to warn the world about the dangers posed by fascism, communism, and appeasement. But there was a price to be paid, Hertog shows, for any woman aspiring to such greatness. As much as they sought voice and power in the public forum of opinion and ideas, and the independence of mind and money that came with them, Thompson and West craved the comforts of marriage and home. Torn between convention and the opportunities of the new postwar global world, they were drawn to men who were as ambitious and hungry for love as themselves: Thompson to the brilliant, volatile, and alcoholic Nobel Prize winner Sinclair Lewis; West to her longtime lover H. G. Wells, the lusty literary eminence whose sexual and emotional demands doomed any chance they may have had at love. Tragically, both arrangements produced troubled sons, whose anger and jealousy at their mothers’ iconic fame eroded their sense of personal success. Brimming with fresh insights obtained from previously sealed archives, this penetrating dual biography is a story of twinned lives caught up in the crosscurrents of world events and affairs of the heart—and of the unique trans-Atlantic friendship forged by two of the most creative and complex women of their time. From the Hardcover edition.

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