Search Results: resolve-in-international-politics

Resolve in International Politics

Author: Joshua D. Kertzer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883644

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 5082

Why do some leaders and segments of the public display remarkable persistence in confrontations in international politics, while others cut and run? The answer given by policymakers, pundits, and political scientists usually relates to issues of resolve. Yet, though we rely on resolve to explain almost every phenomenon in international politics—from prevailing at the bargaining table to winning on the battlefield—we don't understand what it is, how it works, or where it comes from. Resolve in International Politics draws on a growing body of research in psychology and behavioral economics to explore the foundations of this important idea. Joshua Kertzer argues that political will is more than just a metaphor or figure of speech: the same traits social scientists and decision-making scholars use to comprehend willpower in our daily lives also shape how we respond to the costs of war and conflict. Combining laboratory and survey experiments with studies of great power military interventions in the postwar era from 1946 to 2003, Kertzer shows how time and risk preferences, honor orientation, and self-control help explain the ways leaders and members of the public define the situations they face and weigh the trade-offs between the costs of fighting and the costs of backing down. Offering a novel in-depth look at how willpower functions in international relations, Resolve in International Politics has critical implications for understanding political psychology, public opinion about foreign policy, leaders in military interventions, and international security.

Resolve in International Politics

Author: Joshua D. Kertzer

Publisher: Princeton Studies in Political Behavior

ISBN: 9780691171609

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 243

View: 1784

Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- CONTENTS -- List of Tables -- List of Figures -- Acknowledgments -- CHAPTER 1 Resolve in International Politics -- CHAPTER 2 An Interactionist Theory of Resolve -- CHAPTER 3 Experimental Microfoundations for Resolve: I -- CHAPTER 4 Experimental Microfoundations for Resolve: II -- CHAPTER 5 Resolve in Great Power Military Interventions, 1946-2003 -- CHAPTER 6 Conclusion: Taking Resolve Seriously -- APPENDIX A Supplementary Theoretical Materials -- APPENDIX B Supplementary Empirical Materials -- Bibliography -- Index

Resolve in International Politics

Author: Joshua D. Kertzer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691181080

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 8834

Why do some leaders and segments of the public display remarkable persistence in confrontations in international politics, while others cut and run? The answer given by policymakers, pundits, and political scientists usually relates to issues of resolve. Yet, though we rely on resolve to explain almost every phenomenon in international politics--from prevailing at the bargaining table to winning on the battlefield--we don't understand what it is, how it works, or where it comes from. Resolve in International Politics draws on a growing body of research in psychology and behavioral economics to explore the foundations of this important idea. Joshua Kertzer argues that political will is more than just a metaphor or figure of speech: the same traits social scientists and decision-making scholars use to comprehend willpower in our daily lives also shape how we respond to the costs of war and conflict. Combining laboratory and survey experiments with studies of great power military interventions in the postwar era from 1946 to 2003, Kertzer shows how time and risk preferences, honor orientation, and self-control help explain the ways leaders and members of the public define the situations they face and weigh the trade-offs between the costs of fighting and the costs of backing down. Offering a novel in-depth look at how willpower functions in international relations, Resolve in International Politics has critical implications for understanding political psychology, public opinion about foreign policy, leaders in military interventions, and international security.

Reputation And International Politics

Author: Jonathan Mercer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501724479

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 4040

Mercer examines reputation formation in a series of crises before World War I. He tests competing arguments, one from deterrence theory, the other from social psychology, to see which better predicts and explains how reputations form. He extends his findings to address contemporary crises such as the Gulf War, and considers how culture, gender and nuclear weapons affect reputation.

Statements of Resolve

Achieving Coercive Credibility in International Conflict

Author: Roseanne W. McManus

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107170346

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 9563

This book analyzes the conditions under which leaders can use resolved statements to effectively coerce foreign adversaries.

Who Fights for Reputation

The Psychology of Leaders in International Conflict

Author: Keren Yarhi-Milo

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889987

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 4005

How psychology explains why a leader is willing to use military force to protect or salvage reputation In Who Fights for Reputation, Keren Yarhi-Milo provides an original framework, based on insights from psychology, to explain why some political leaders are more willing to use military force to defend their reputation than others. Rather than focusing on a leader's background, beliefs, bargaining skills, or biases, Yarhi-Milo draws a systematic link between a trait called self-monitoring and foreign policy behavior. She examines self-monitoring among national leaders and advisers and shows that while high self-monitors modify their behavior strategically to cultivate image-enhancing status, low self-monitors are less likely to change their behavior in response to reputation concerns. Exploring self-monitoring through case studies of foreign policy crises during the terms of U.S. presidents Carter, Reagan, and Clinton, Yarhi-Milo disproves the notion that hawks are always more likely than doves to fight for reputation. Instead, Yarhi-Milo demonstrates that a decision maker's propensity for impression management is directly associated with the use of force to restore a reputation for resolve on the international stage. Who Fights for Reputation offers a brand-new understanding of the pivotal influence that psychological factors have on political leadership, military engagement, and the protection of public prestige.

How Statesmen Think

The Psychology of International Politics

Author: Robert Jervis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400885337

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 3209

Robert Jervis has been a pioneering leader in the study of the psychology of international politics for more than four decades. How Statesmen Think presents his most important ideas on the subject from across his career. This collection of revised and updated essays applies, elaborates, and modifies his pathbreaking work. The result is an indispensable book for students and scholars of international relations. How Statesmen Think demonstrates that expectations and political and psychological needs are the major drivers of perceptions in international politics, as well as in other arenas. Drawing on the increasing attention psychology is paying to emotions, the book discusses how emotional needs help structure beliefs. It also shows how decision-makers use multiple shortcuts to seek and process information when making foreign policy and national security judgments. For example, the desire to conserve cognitive resources can cause decision-makers to look at misleading indicators of military strength, and psychological pressures can lead them to run particularly high risks. The book also looks at how deterrent threats and counterpart promises often fail because they are misperceived. How Statesmen Think examines how these processes play out in many situations that arise in foreign and security policy, including the threat of inadvertent war, the development of domino beliefs, the formation and role of national identities, and conflicts between intelligence organizations and policymakers.

Strong Borders, Secure Nation

Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes

Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828876

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 7311

As China emerges as an international economic and military power, the world waits to see how the nation will assert itself globally. Yet, as M. Taylor Fravel shows in Strong Borders, Secure Nation, concerns that China might be prone to violent conflict over territory are overstated. The first comprehensive study of China's territorial disputes, Strong Borders, Secure Nation contends that China over the past sixty years has been more likely to compromise in these conflicts with its Asian neighbors and less likely to use force than many scholars or analysts might expect. By developing theories of cooperation and escalation in territorial disputes, Fravel explains China's willingness to either compromise or use force. When faced with internal threats to regime security, especially ethnic rebellion, China has been willing to offer concessions in exchange for assistance that strengthens the state's control over its territory and people. By contrast, China has used force to halt or reverse decline in its bargaining power in disputes with its militarily most powerful neighbors or in disputes where it has controlled none of the land being contested. Drawing on a rich array of previously unexamined Chinese language sources, Strong Borders, Secure Nation offers a compelling account of China's foreign policy on one of the most volatile issues in international relations.

Knowing the Adversary

Leaders, Intelligence, and Assessment of Intentions in International Relations

Author: Keren Yarhi-Milo

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140085041X

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 2305

States are more likely to engage in risky and destabilizing actions such as military buildups and preemptive strikes if they believe their adversaries pose a tangible threat. Yet despite the crucial importance of this issue, we don't know enough about how states and their leaders draw inferences about their adversaries' long-term intentions. Knowing the Adversary draws on a wealth of historical archival evidence to shed new light on how world leaders and intelligence organizations actually make these assessments. Keren Yarhi-Milo examines three cases: Britain's assessments of Nazi Germany's intentions in the 1930s, America's assessments of the Soviet Union's intentions during the Carter administration, and the Reagan administration's assessments of Soviet intentions near the end of the Cold War. She advances a new theoretical framework—called selective attention—that emphasizes organizational dynamics, personal diplomatic interactions, and cognitive and affective factors. Yarhi-Milo finds that decision makers don't pay as much attention to those aspects of state behavior that major theories of international politics claim they do. Instead, they tend to determine the intentions of adversaries on the basis of preexisting beliefs, theories, and personal impressions. Yarhi-Milo also shows how intelligence organizations rely on very different indicators than decision makers, focusing more on changes in the military capabilities of adversaries. Knowing the Adversary provides a clearer picture of the historical validity of existing theories, and broadens our understanding of the important role that diplomacy plays in international security.

Security and International Politics in the South China Sea

Towards a Co-operative Management Regime

Author: Sam Bateman,Ralf Emmers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134030703

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 739

The South China Sea has long been regarded as a major source of tension and instability in East Asia. Managing the risk of possible conflict over disputed claims in the South China Sea has been a significant challenge for regional relations. This book explores international politics and security in the South China Sea. It outlines the history of the South China Sea disputes, and the efforts that have been made to resolve these, assessing the broader strategic significance of the region for major geopolitical powers. In addition, new challenges have emerged of resource management, environmental protection, and most recently, of the security and safety of shipping against the threats of piracy and maritime terrorism. The book discusses the convergence of traditional and non-traditional security issues now appearing to provide a basis for co-operation in the South China Sea. It shows how the challenge of establishing co-operative relations is now being met, largely through agreement between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China in 2002 on the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea, and a range of recent measures for functional co-operation.

Leaders at War

How Presidents Shape Military Interventions

Author: Elizabeth N. Saunders

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461477

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 9699

One of the most contentious issues in contemporary foreign policy—especially in the United States—is the use of military force to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states. Some military interventions explicitly try to transform the domestic institutions of the states they target; others do not, instead attempting only to reverse foreign policies or resolve disputes without trying to reshape the internal landscape of the target state. In Leaders at War, Elizabeth N. Saunders provides a framework for understanding when and why great powers seek to transform foreign institutions and societies through military interventions. She highlights a crucial but often-overlooked factor in international relations: the role of individual leaders. Saunders argues that leaders’ threat perceptions—specifically, whether they believe that threats ultimately originate from the internal characteristics of other states—influence both the decision to intervene and the choice of intervention strategy. These perceptions affect the degree to which leaders use intervention to remake the domestic institutions of target states. Using archival and historical sources, Saunders concentrates on U.S. military interventions during the Cold War, focusing on the presidencies of Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. After demonstrating the importance of leaders in this period, she also explores the theory’s applicability to other historical and contemporary settings including the post–Cold War period and the war in Iraq.

International Conflict Resolution 2nd Ed.

Author: Charles Hauss

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0826489117

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 7764

Using a broad range of case studies, this book examines conflict and the international relations facing the world today.

Of Friends and Foes

Reputation and Learning in World Politics

Author: Mark J. C. Crescenzi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190609524

Category: International relations

Page: 208

View: 3336

Do reputations affect world politics? Crescenzi develops a theory of reputation dynamics to identify when reputations form and how they affect world politics. He identifies patterns of reputation's influence in cooperation and conflict. Reputations for conflict exacerbate crises while reputations for cooperation and reliability make future cooperation more likely.

Fighting for Status

Hierarchy and Conflict in World Politics

Author: Jonathan Renshon

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400885345

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 3397

There is widespread agreement that status or standing in the international system is a critical element in world politics. The desire for status is recognized as a key factor in nuclear proliferation, the rise of China, and other contemporary foreign policy issues, and has long been implicated in foundational theories of international relations and foreign policy. Despite the consensus that status matters, we lack a basic understanding of status dynamics in international politics. The first book to comprehensively examine this subject, Fighting for Status presents a theory of status dissatisfaction that delves into the nature of prestige in international conflicts and specifies why states want status and how they get it. What actions do status concerns trigger, and what strategies do states use to maximize or salvage their standing? When does status matter, and under what circumstances do concerns over relative position overshadow the myriad other concerns that leaders face? In examining these questions, Jonathan Renshon moves beyond a focus on major powers and shows how different states construct status communities of peer competitors that shift over time as states move up or down, or out, of various groups. Combining innovative network-based statistical analysis, historical case studies, and a lab experiment that uses a sample of real-world political and military leaders, Fighting for Status provides a compelling look at the causes and consequences of status on the global stage.

Negotiating the Nonnegotiable

How to Resolve Your Most Emotionally Charged Conflicts

Author: Daniel Shapiro

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0670015563

Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Page: 319

View: 754

"Find out how to successfully resolve your most emotionally charged conflicts. In this landmark book, world-renowned Harvard negotiation expert Daniel Shapiro presents a groundbreaking, practical method to reconcile your most contentious relationships and untangle your toughest conflicts. Before you get into your next conflict, read Negotiating the Nonnegotiable. It is not just "another book on conflict resolution," but a crucial step-by-step guide to resolve life's most emotionally challenging conflicts--whether between spouses, a parent and child, a boss and an employee, or rival communities or nations. These conflicts can feel nonnegotiable because they threaten your identity and trigger what Shapiro calls the Tribes Effect, a divisive mind-set that pits you against the other side. Once you fall prey to this mind-set, even a trivial argument with a family member or colleague can mushroom into an emotional uproar. Shapiro offers a powerful way out, drawing on his pioneering research and global fieldwork in consulting for everyone from heads of state to business leaders, embattled marital couples to families in crisis. And he also shares his insights from negotiating with three of the world's toughest negotiators--his three young sons. This is a must read to improve your professional and personal relationships"--

Fighting for Credibility

US Reputation and International Politics

Author: Frank P. Harvey,John Mitton

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1487520549

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 7260

Focusing on cases of asymmetric US encounters with smaller powers since the end of the Cold War, Harvey and Mitton reveal that reputations matter for credibility in international politics. This dynamic and deeply documented study successfully brings reputation back to the table of foreign diplomacy.

Economic Interdependence and War

Author: Dale C. Copeland

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400852706

Category: Political Science

Page: 504

View: 7366

Does growing economic interdependence among great powers increase or decrease the chance of conflict and war? Liberals argue that the benefits of trade give states an incentive to stay peaceful. Realists contend that trade compels states to struggle for vital raw materials and markets. Moving beyond the stale liberal-realist debate, Economic Interdependence and War lays out a dynamic theory of expectations that shows under what specific conditions interstate commerce will reduce or heighten the risk of conflict between nations. Taking a broad look at cases spanning two centuries, from the Napoleonic and Crimean wars to the more recent Cold War crises, Dale Copeland demonstrates that when leaders have positive expectations of the future trade environment, they want to remain at peace in order to secure the economic benefits that enhance long-term power. When, however, these expectations turn negative, leaders are likely to fear a loss of access to raw materials and markets, giving them more incentive to initiate crises to protect their commercial interests. The theory of trade expectations holds important implications for the understanding of Sino-American relations since 1985 and for the direction these relations will likely take over the next two decades. Economic Interdependence and War offers sweeping new insights into historical and contemporary global politics and the actual nature of democratic versus economic peace.

Diplomacy

Communication and the Origins of International Order

Author: Robert F. Trager

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108327087

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8348

How do adversaries communicate? How do diplomatic encounters shape international orders and determine whether states go to war? Diplomacy, from alliance politics to nuclear brinkmanship, almost always operates through a few forms of signaling: choosing the scope of demands on another state, risking a breach in relations, encouraging a protégé, staking one's reputation, or making a diplomatic approach all convey specific sorts of information. Through rich history and analyses of diplomatic network data from the Confidential Print of the British Empire, Trager demonstrates the lasting effects that diplomatic encounters have on international affairs. The Concert of Europe, the perceptions of existential threat that formed before the World Wars, the reduction in Cold War tensions known as détente, and the institutional structure of the current world order were all products of inferences about intentions drawn from the statements of individuals represented as the will of states. Diplomacy explains how closed-door conversations create stable orders and violent wars.

Democratic Militarism

Voting, Wealth, and War

Author: Jonathan D. Caverley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139917307

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8333

Why are democracies pursuing more military conflicts, but achieving worse results? Democratic Militarism shows that a combination of economic inequality and military technical change enables an average voter to pay very little of the costs of large militaries and armed conflict, in terms of both death and taxes. Jonathan Caverley provides an original statistical analysis of public opinion and international aggression, combined with historical evidence from the late Victorian British Empire, the US Vietnam War effort, and Israel's Second Lebanon War. This book undermines conventional wisdom regarding democracy's exceptional foreign policy characteristics, and challenges elite-centered explanations for poor foreign policy. This accessible and wide ranging book offers a new account of democratic warfare, and will help readers to understand the implications of the revolution in military affairs.

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