Search Results: risk-taking-in-international-politics

Risk-Taking in International Politics

Prospect Theory in American Foreign Policy

Author: Rose McDermott

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472087877

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 3854

Discusses the way leaders deal with risk in making foreign policy decisions

Risk-taking in international politics

prospect theory in postwar American foreign policy

Author: Rose McDermott,Stanford University. Dept. of Political Science

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 758

View: 7778

Prospect Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis in the Asia Pacific

Rational Leaders and Risky Behavior

Author: Kai He,Huiyun Feng

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415656214

Category: Political Science

Page: 155

View: 7224

Why does North Korea behave erratically in pursuing its nuclear weapons program? Why did the United States prefer bilateral alliances to multilateral ones in Asia after World War II? Why did China become "nice"—no more military coercion—in dealing with the pro-independence Taiwan President Chen Shuibian after 2000? Why did China compromise in the negotiation of the Chunxiao gas exploration in 2008 while Japan became provocative later in the Sino-Japanese disputes in the East China Sea? North Korea’s nuclear behavior, U.S. alliance strategy, China’s Taiwan policy, and Sino-Japanese territorial disputes are all important examples of seemingly irrational foreign policy decisions that have determined regional stability and Asian security. By examining major events in Asian security, this book investigates why and how leaders make risky and seemingly irrational decisions in international politics. The authors take the innovative step of integrating the neoclassical realist framework in political science and prospect theory in psychology. Their analysis suggests that political leaders are more likely to take risky actions when their vital interests and political legitimacy are seriously threatened. For each case, the authors first discuss the weaknesses of some of the prevailing arguments, mainly from rationalist and constructivist theorizing, and then offer an alternative explanation based on their political legitimacy-prospect theory model. This pioneering book tests and expands prospect theory to the study of Asian security and challenges traditional, expected-utility-based, rationalist theories of foreign policy behavior.

Das Risiko und sein Preis

Skin in the Game

Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Publisher: Verlagsgruppe Random House GmbH

ISBN: 3641234522

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6775

Warum wir nur denen vertrauen sollten, die etwas zu verlieren haben Stehen wir für die Risiken ein, die wir verursachen? Zu viele der Menschen, die auf der Welt Macht und Einfluss haben, so Nassim Nicholas Taleb, müssen nicht wirklich den Kopf hinhalten für das, was sie tun und veranlassen. Intellektuelle, Journalisten, Bürokraten, Banker, ihnen vor allem wirft er vor, kein »Skin in the Game« zu haben. Weil sie den Preis nicht bezahlen müssen, wenn sie irren, fällen sie schlechte Entscheidungen. Taleb zeigt anhand vieler Beispiele, wie »Skin in the Game«, ein fundamentales Konzept des Risikomanagements, auf alle Bereiche unseres Lebens übertragen werden kann. Sein neues Buch, so provozierend und bahnbrechend wie »Der Schwarze Schwan«, fordert uns heraus, alles, was wir über Risiko und Verantwortung in Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft zu wissen glauben, neu zu denken.

Winning the War of Words

Selling the War on Terror from Afghanistan to Iraq

Author: Wojtek Mackiewicz Wolfe

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313349673

Category: History

Page: 137

View: 5736

Throughout history and especially during contemporary times, presidential rhetoric sets the foreign policy tone not only for Congress but mainly for the American public. Consequently, US foreign policy is actively marketed and spun to the American public. This book describes the marketing strategy of the War on Terror and how that strategy compelled public opinion towards supporting the spread of the War on Terror from Afghanistan to Iraq. The author investigates how President George W. Bush's initial framing of the September 11th attacks provided the platform for the creation of long term public support for the War on Terror and established early public support for U.S. action in Iraq. Mining public opinion data and nearly 1500 presidential speeches over a four year period, the book argues that presidential framing of threats and losses, not gains, contributed to public support for war in Afghanistan, war in Iraq, and President Bush's successful reelection campaign. President Bush's initial framing of the terrorist threat was introduced immediately after the September 11th attacks and reinforced throughout the Afghanistan invasion. During this time period, presidential threat framing established the broad parameters for the War on Terror and enabled the president to successfully market a punitive war in Afghanistan. Second, the president marketed the strategy of preemptive war and led the country into the more costly war in Iraq by focusing on the potentially global threat of terrorism and the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. President Bush's previous war rhetoric was repackaged into a leaner, more focused format in which the Iraq war became part of the War on Terror, resulting in increased support for the president and a successful reelection campaign. Finally, the author examines the withdraw vs. surge in Iraq debate bringing the book up to date. The book shows the influencing potential of presidential spin and of risky foreign policy in the Middle East, and presents a systematic analysis of how a president effectively pursued a marketing strategy that continues to show an enduring ability to influence public support. Even two years after the Iraq invasion, 52% of Americans believed that the U.S. should stay in Iraq until it is stabilized. This finding bypasses agenda setting explanations, which prescribes issue salience amongst the public for only one year. The large speech database available with the study will also be an added benefit to scholars seeking to teach undergraduate and graduate level qualitative research methods.

Risk Taking and Decision Making

Foreign Military Intervention Decisions

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804765073

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9010

Overconfidence and Risk Taking in Foreign Policy Decision Making

The Case of Turkey’s Syria Policy

Author: Imran Demir

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9783319849447

Category: Political Science

Page: 142

View: 3589

This book introduces a new perspective on risk seeking behaviour, developing a framework based on various cognitive theories, and applying it to the specific case-study of Turkey’s foreign policy toward Syria. The author examines why policy makers commit themselves to polices that they do not have the capacity to deliver, and develops an alternative theoretical model to prospect theory in explaining risk taking behaviour based on the concept of overconfidence. The volume suggests that overconfident individuals exhibit risk seeking behaviour that contradicts the risk averse behaviour of individuals in the domain of gain, as predicted by prospect theory. Using a set of testable hypothesis deduced from the model, it presents an empirical investigation of the causes behind Turkish decision makers’ unprecedented level of risk taking toward the uprising in Syria and the consequences of this policy.

Calculating Political Risk

Author: Catherine Althaus

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317973151

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 7572

Calculating Political Risk is rich and illuminating, and much more than a political science treatise. Althaus draws on diverse literature, extensive interviews and intriguing case studies to offer interdisciplinary, practical and nuanced insight. This book provides new perspectives and more precise language for making sense of a critical dimension of politics, policy-making and public management. Evert Lindquist, Director and Professor, School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, Canada This powerful new book is the first ever examination of the hard edge of how political risk - something faced by all political actors innumerable times every day - is calculated and used in decision-making. It opens with an outline of the historical and linguistic origins of risk, the various disciplinary understandings of risk, the risk society concept, and how risk has come to be so prominent in the context of environmental disaster and terrorism. The book then defines political risk and looks at its manifestations in the public sector, from project to high-level political risk. It also looks at risk identification versus risk management and compares the concept of political risk with the private sector practice of risk management. Unique research findings from interviews with over 100 risk practitioners and politicians provide a detailed look at how political actors calculate political risk. Case study-based chapters look in-depth at neat and discrete examples: risk calculation in state development plans in Australia; political risk identification and management in the UK during the mad cow crisis; and US government risk calculation in the post-September 11 context. The final chapters draw together the experiences and lessons learned from the case studies and practitioner insights to formulate a better understanding of what political risk is and what its calculation means in political practice. The author shows how political risk calculation provides a fresh perspective on policy analysis and identifies how political risk is relevant to a broader understanding of politics and political science, as well as policy formulation and implementation on the ground.

Das Kapital des Staates

Eine andere Geschichte von Innovation und Wachstum

Author: Mariana Mazzucato

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 395614001X

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 7345

Freie Märkte, smarte junge Erfinder und Wagniskapital treiben die Wirtschaft voran; der Staat stört dabei nur und muss daher nach Kräften zurückgedrängt werden. Wie ein Mantra wird dieser oberste Glaubensartikel des Neoliberalismus seit Jahrzehnten wiederholt – aber stimmt er auch? Die Ökonomin Mariana Mazzucato, die seit Jahren über den Zusammenhang zwischen Innovation und Wachstum forscht, beweist das Gegenteil: Wann und wo immer technologische Innovationen zu wirtschaftlichem Aufschwung und Wohlstand geführt haben, hatte ein aktiver Staat die Hand im Spiel. Von der Elektrifizierung bis zum Internet – Motor der Entwicklung, oft bis zur Markteinführung, war stets der Staat. Apples Welterfolg gründet auf Technologien, die sämtlich durch die öffentliche Hand gefördert wurden; innovative Medikamente, für die die Pharmaindustrie ihren Kunden gern hohe Entwicklungskosten in Rechnung stellt, stammen fast ausnahmslos aus staatlicher Forschung. Innovationen und nachhaltiges Wachstum, das derzeit alle fordern, werden also kaum von der Börse kommen. Viel eher von einem Staat, der seine angestammte Rolle neu besetzt, sein einzigartiges Kapital nutzt und mit langem Atem Zukunftstechnologien wie den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien vorantreibt. Ein brandaktuelles Buch, das die aktuelle Diskussion über die Zukunft der Wirtschaft und die Rolle des Staates vom Kopf auf die Füße stellt.

History and Neorealism

Author: Ernest R. May,Richard Rosecrance,Zara Steiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490923

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 483

Neorealists argue that all states aim to acquire power and that state cooperation can therefore only be temporary, based on a common opposition to a third country. This view condemns the world to endless conflict for the indefinite future. Based upon careful attention to actual historical outcomes, this book contends that, while some countries and leaders have demonstrated excessive power drives, others have essentially underplayed their power and sought less position and influence than their comparative strength might have justified. Featuring case studies from across the globe, History and Neorealism examines how states have actually acted. The authors conclude that leadership, domestic politics, and the domain (of gain or loss) in which they reside play an important role along with international factors in raising the possibility of a world in which conflict does not remain constant and, though not eliminated, can be progressively reduced.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership

Author: R. A. W. Rhodes,Paul 't Hart

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645869

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 1028

Political leadership has made a comeback. It was studied intensively not only by political scientists but also by political sociologists and psychologists, Sovietologists, political anthropologists, and by scholars in comparative and development studies from the 1940s to the 1970s. Thereafter, the field lost its way with the rise of structuralism, neo-institutionalism, and rational choice approaches to the study of politics, government, and governance. Recently, however, students of politics have returned to studying the role of individual leaders and the exercise of leadership to explain political outcomes. The list of topics is nigh endless: elections, conflict management, public policy, government popularity, development, governance networks, and regional integration. In the media age, leaders are presented and stage-managed—spun—as the solution to almost every social problem. Through the mass media and the Internet, citizens and professional observers follow the rise, impact, and fall of senior political officeholders at closer quarters than ever before. This Handbook encapsulates the resurgence by asking, where are we today? It orders the multidisciplinary field by identifying the distinct and distinctive contributions of the disciplines. It meets the urgent need to take stock. It brings together scholars from around the world, encouraging a comparative perspective, to provide a comprehensive coverage of all the major disciplines, methods, and regions. It showcases both the normative and empirical traditions in political leadership studies, and juxtaposes behavioural, institutional, and interpretive approaches. It covers formal, office-based as well as informal, emergent political leadership, and in both democratic and undemocratic polities.

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 6717

Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.

US Foreign Policy Decision-Making from Truman to Kennedy

Responses to International Challenges

Author: A. Hybel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137294868

Category: Political Science

Page: 249

View: 5671

The book has three objectives: to expose students to the ways different US presidents handled major foreign policy making problems; to test the explanatory value of alternative decision-making models; And to reintroduce students to a wide range of critical US foreign policy issues.

Leadership and Political Risk Taking - A comparative Analysis between Northern Ireland and the Basque Country

Author: Stefan Vedder

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640680731

Category: Political Science

Page: 14

View: 1102

Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Western Europe, grade: 1,0, University of Wales, Aberystwyth (Department of International Politics), language: English, abstract: Some argue tat most major conflicts are triggered by internal, elite-level activities. At the same time peace processes are often elite-driven with a relatively small number of people responsible for making final decisions. The following analysis examines different attempts in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country to contribute sustainably to a peace process on a political elite-level. It will be shown that the success of leadership and political risk-taking by elites is highly dependent on the circumstances. It will be shown that courageous elite decisions are doomed to have little effect if basic requirements are lacking. Simultaneously, even if the preconditions seem to be appropriate peace processes can fail due to a lack of commitment on the side of political leaders. The conflicts in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country show – up to a certain extent – notable similarities in their initial situations. In both cases nationalist movements tried/try to alter the state of autonomy in one part of the country. Both conflicts led to cruel violence and left numerous civilians dead. Both conflicts took and take politically place within the particular province and between the province and the federal government of the nation state (Spain/United Kingdom and Ireland). The nationalist movements in both cases are divided between a radical party (Batasuna/Sinn Fein) and a more moderate one (PNV/SDLP). These similarities compose a good starting point for a comparative analysis. Regarding the generalizability of the findings, two central restrictions must be made. First the small number of cases (only two) discussed in this paper limit the possibility to draw universal conclusions. In statistical terms the extent of the sample is insufficient to make a valid statement about the relation of the variables „leadership and political risk taking‟ and „development or outcome of a peace process‟. Another crucial point is that the variables in the two cases are not perfectly independent from each other as political decisions made in Northern Ireland are thought to have had an influence on the political sphere and thus on the peace process in general in the Basque Country.

The Hidden Hand

A Brief History of the CIA

Author: Richard H. Immerman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118835581

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 4182

The Hidden Hand is a succinct accessible and up-to-datesurvey of the Central Intelligence Agency’s history from itsinception in 1947 to the present. Covers both aspects of the CIA’s mission – thecollection and analysis of intelligence and the execution offoreign policy through covert, paramilitary operations De-mythologizes the CIA’s role in America’s globalaffairs while addressing its place within American political andpopular culture Written by an esteemed scholar and high-ranking officer in theintelligence community, drawing on the latest research Assesses the agency’s successes and failures, with an eyeto the complex and controversial nature of the subject

Islamophobia

The Ideological Campaign Against Muslims

Author: Stephen Sheehi

Publisher: SCB Distributors

ISBN: 9780932863997

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 5843

"Sheehi's analysis of Islamophobia as an ideological formation brings a much needed dose of fresh air and analytical clarity ... A worthy update of Said's seminal discussion of Orientalism and one that leaves few players in the contemporary foreign policy establishment, in particular so-called liberals, unscathed." Mark Levine, Author of why they Don't Hate us and Heavy Metal Islam.

Military Decision-Making Processes

Case Studies Involving the Preparation, Commitment, Application and Withdrawal of Force

Author: Kevin Dougherty

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 147660407X

Category: History

Page: 172

View: 2222

President Bill Clinton, speaking as might any commander-in-chief, on the eve of his decision to deploy ground troops to Bosnia in 1995, declared he had “no responsibility more grave than putting soldiers in harm’s way.” Such a statement suggests that a study of the decision-making process associated with the weighty matters of using force would be enlightening. Indeed, it is. The decision-making process is far from standardized nor is it simple. While all individuals associated with important decisions about national security and the lives of America’s service members take their responsibilities seriously, the processes by which they reach their conclusions are varied and complicated. The book traces eight traditional and emerging theories or models of decision-making by first explaining the components of each model and then by analyzing its practical application through three case studies. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of the utility and explanatory power of the particular model. Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here.

Thank You for Being Late

Ein optimistisches Handbuch für das Zeitalter der Beschleunigung

Author: Thomas L. Friedman

Publisher: BASTEI LÜBBE

ISBN: 3732554430

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 480

View: 6654

Zehn Jahre Smartphone haben eine neue Ära eingeläutet: Alles verändert sich, und zwar rasend schnell. Das schwindelerregende Tempo der Neuerungen löst bei manch einem ein Gefühl der Unsicherheit und Skepsis aus. Thomas L. Friedman lädt seine Leser ein, einen Moment innezuhalten und die Triebfedern der radikalen Umwälzungen zu betrachten: Technologie, Klimawandel und Vernetzung. Mit seinem neuen Buch bietet er optimistisch und gut verständlich Orientierung für unsere Zeit und zeigt, was eine erfolgreiche Zukunft möglich macht.

Still

Die Bedeutung von Introvertierten in einer lauten Welt

Author: Susan Cain

Publisher: Riemann Verlag

ISBN: 3641106214

Category: Psychology

Page: 464

View: 862

Selbstsicheres Auftreten und die Beherrschung von Small Talk sind nicht alles. Susan Cains glänzendes Plädoyer für die Qualitäten der Stillen. „Ein leerer Topf klappert am lautesten“. Aber wer der Welt etwas Bedeutendes schenken will, benötigt Zeit und Sorgfalt, um es in Stille reifen zu lassen. „Still“ ist ein Plädoyer für die Ruhe, die in unserer Welt des Marktgeschreis und der Klingeltöne zu verschwinden droht. Und für leise Menschen, die lernen sollten, zu ihrem „So-Sein“ zu stehen. Ohne sie hätten wir heute keine Relativitätstheorie, keinen „Harry Potter“, keine Klavierstücke Chopins, und auch die Suchmaschine „Google“ wäre nie entwickelt worden. „Still“ baut eine Brücke zwischen den Welten, kritisiert aber das gesellschaftliche Ungleichgewicht zugunsten der Partylöwen und Dampfplauderer. Es herrscht eine „extrovertierte Ethik“, die stille Wasser zwingt, sich anzupassen oder unterzugehen. Ihre Eigenschaften – Ernsthaftigkeit, Sensibilität und Scheu – gelten eher als Krankheitssymptome denn als Qualitäten. Zu unrecht, sagt Susan Cain, und stellt sich gegen den Trend, der „selbstbewusstes Auftreten“ verherrlicht. „Still“ ist das Kultbuch für Introvertierte, hilft aber auch Extrovertierten, ihre Mitmenschen besser zu verstehen.

Handbuch Internationale Beziehungen

Author: Frank Sauer,Carlo Masala

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531199188

Category: Political Science

Page: 1172

View: 3339

Das Handbuch Internationale Beziehungen ist die zweite, vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage des Handbuchs der Internationalen Politik. Das neue Handbuch vermittelt einen umfassenden Überblick über den state of the art der politikwissenschaftlichen Teildisziplin Internationale Beziehungen in deutscher Sprache. Es präsentiert theoretische und methodische Grundlagen der Forschung in den Internationalen Beziehungen und stellt die wesentlichen Akteure und Problemfelder der internationalen Politik vor. Das Nachschlagewerk richtet sich sowohl an Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler als auch an Studierende und die interessierte Öffentlichkeit.

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