Wanting Power, Seeing Threat, Justifying Force
Author: David G. Winter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Ever since Thucydides pondered reasons for the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, writers, philosophers, and social scientists have tried to identify factors that promote conflict escalation: for example, history (tomorrow's wars are often rooted in yesterday's conflicts), changing balance of power among nations, or domestic political forces. In the end, however, these "causes" are constructed by human beings and involve the memories, emotions, and motives of both the leaders and the led. In July 1914, the long-standing peace of Europe was shattered when the Sarajevo assassinations quickly escalated to World War I. In contrast, at the height of the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis could have easily plunged the world into a thermonuclear world war, but was ultimately peacefully resolved. Why the different outcomes? In Roots of War: Wanting Power, Seeing Threat, Justifying Force, David G. Winter identifies three psychological factors that contributed to the differences in these historical outcomes: the desire for power, exaggerated perception of the opponent's threat, and justification for using military force. Several lines of research establish how these factors lead to escalation and war: comparative archival studies of "war" and "peace" crises, laboratory experiments on threat perception, and surveys of factors leading people to believe that a particular war is "just." The research findings in Roots of War also demonstrate the importance of power in preserving peace through diplomatic interventions, past and present.
Power and the Roots of Conflict
Author: Stephen Van Evera
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
What causes war? How can military conflicts best be prevented? In this book, Stephen Van Evera frames five conditions that increase the risk of interstate war: false optimism about the likely outcome of a war, a first-strike advantage, fluctuation in the relative power of states, circumstances that allow nations to parlay one conquest into another, and circumstances that make conquest easy. According to Van Evera, all but one of these conditions-false optimism-rarely occur today, but policymakers often erroneously believe in their existence. He argues that these misperceptions are responsible for many modern wars, and explores both World Wars, the Korean War, and the 1967 Mideast War as test cases. Finally, he assesses the possibility of nuclear war by applying all five hypotheses to its potential onset. Van Evera's book demonstrates that ideas from the Realist paradigm can offer strong explanations for international conflict and valuable prescriptions for its control.
Author: Anthony Stevens
Publisher: A&C Black
Category: Political Science
"This is an indispensable work for anyone wishing to understand the psychological basis of war and terror, or hoping to discover ways in which the unimaginable catastrophe of nuclear or biological warfare may be averted."--BOOK JACKET.
An Inquiry Into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique
Author: William Minter
Publisher: William Minter
Of all the many violent chapters in recent Southern African history, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique since independence in 1975 have been the most protracted, complex and deadly for millions of civilians. William Minter argues that they represent a new kind of non-conventional warfare characteristic of the 'contra' period - neither classic guerrilla warfare nor straightforward external aggression, but comprising elements of civil war dominated by regional and global external powers. He examines the Unita and Renamo social structures, external interventions, patterns of military recruitment, conditioning, logistics and strategy, and the mistakes made by the Angolan and Mozambican states.
The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America's Vietnam
Author: Fredrik Logevall
Publisher: Random House Incorporated
A history of the four decades leading up to the Vietnam War offers insights into how the U.S. became involved, identifying commonalities between the campaigns of French and American forces while discussing relevant political factors.
A History of War in Chad
Author: M. J. Azevedo
Examining conflict and warfare in Chad from both historic and contemporary perspectives, Mario Azevedo explores not only how violence has permeated and become almost an intrinsic part of the fabric of the central-eastern Sudanic societies, but how foreign interference from centuries ago to the present-day have exacerbated rather than suppressed the violence. Although the main objective of the volume is to understand present Chad, it provides comprehensive and analytical discussion of Chad's violent past. This strategy goes beyond putting the blame on the unwise and ethnic policies at Francois Tombalbaye or Felix Malloum; instead, Roots of Violence clarifies the role of violence in both pre- and post-colonial Chad and, thus, demythologizes many of the assumptions held by scholars and non-scholars alike.
Origins and History of the Passions of War
Author: Barbara Ehrenreich
A study of the human attraction to violence and war ranges from the human sacrifices of the ancient world to the Holocaust, tracing the impulse to slaughter to the blood rites enacted by the earliest human hunters. Reprint. 17,500 first printing.
Thomas Merton's Advice to Peacemakers
Author: Forest, Jim
Publisher: Orbis Books
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Providing an intimate and timely view of Merton, this book traces the theme of peace and nonviolence in Merton's life and writings, drawing in particular on extensive correspondence with Jim Forest, a Merton biographer.
Author: Elizabeth A. Wood,William E. Pomeranz,E. Wayne Merry,Maxim Trudolyubov
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
In February 2014, Russia initiated a war in Ukraine, its reasons for aggression unclear. Each of this volume's authors offers a distinct interpretation of Russia's motivations, untangling the social, historical, and political factors that created this war and continually reignite its tensions. What prompted President Vladimir Putin to send troops into Crimea? Why did the conflict spread to eastern Ukraine with Russian support? What does the war say about Russia's political, economic, and social priorities, and how does the crisis expose differences between the EU and Russia regarding international jurisdiction? Did Putin's obsession with his macho image start this war, and is it preventing its resolution? The exploration of these and other questions gives historians, political watchers, and theorists a solid grasp of the events that have destabilized the region.
The Roots of World War I and the Risk of U.S.-China Conflict
Author: Richard N. Rosecrance,Steven E. Miller
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Political Science
A century ago, Europe's diplomats mismanaged the crisis triggered by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and the continent plunged into World War I, which killed millions, toppled dynasties, and destroyed empires. Today, as the hundredth anniversary of the Great War prompts renewed debate about the war's causes, scholars and policy experts are also considering the parallels between the present international system and the world of 1914. Are China and the United States fated to follow in the footsteps of previous great power rivals? Will today's alliances drag countries into tomorrow's wars? Can leaders manage power relationships peacefully? Or will East Asia's territorial and maritime disputes trigger a larger conflict, just as rivalries in the Balkans did in 1914?In The Next Great War?, experts reconsider the causes of World War I and explore whether the great powers of the twenty-first century can avoid the mistakes of Europe's statesmen in 1914 and prevent another catastrophic conflict. They find differences as well as similarities between today's world and the world of 1914 -- but conclude that only a deep understanding of those differences and early action to bring great powers together will likely enable the United States and China to avoid a great war.ContributorsAlan Alexandroff, Graham Allison, Richard N. Cooper, Charles S. Maier, Steven E. Miller, Joseph S. Nye Jr., T. G. Otte, David K. Richards, Richard N. Rosecrance, Kevin Rudd, Jack Snyder, Etel Solingen, Arthur A. Stein, Stephen Van Evera
Author: Teresa Noel Celsi
A biography of the senator from South Carolina who fought for the South's interests and to keep the institution of slavery.
Author: John W. Dower
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
A Pulitzer Prize-winning historian presents a comparative analysis of September 11 and the subsequent War on Terror with Pearl Harbor and World War II, addressing institutional failures of intelligence and imagination and the driving forces behind Pan-Asian and Pan-Islam movements. Reprint. A National Book Award Finalist.
Military Dissent and Politics in the Vietnam Era
Author: Robert Buzzanco
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Depicts U.S. political leaders as the consistent driving force behind America's Vietnam commitment.
Merton, Berrigan, Yoder, and Muste at the Gethsemani Abbey Peacemakers Retreat
Author: Gordon Oyer
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
2015 Thomas Merton "Louie" award winner for a publication that provides "fresh direction and provocative insight to Merton Studies," presented by the International Thomas Merton Society. In the fall of 1964, Trappist monk Thomas Merton prepared to host an unprecedented gathering of peace activists. "About all we have is a great need for roots," he observed, "but to know this is already something." His remark anticipated their agenda--a search for spiritual roots to nurture sound motives for "protest." This event's originality lay in the varied religious commitments present. Convened in an era of well-kept faith boundaries, members of Catholic (lay and clergy), mainline Protestant, historic peace church, and Unitarian traditions participated. Ages also varied, ranging from twenty-three to seventy-nine. Several among the fourteen who gathered are well known today among faith-based peace advocates: the Berrigan brothers, Jim Forest, Tom Cornell, John Howard Yoder, A. J. Muste, and Merton himself. During their three days together, insights and wisdom from these traditions would intersect and nourish each other. By the time they parted, their effort had set down solid roots and modeled interreligious collaboration for peace work that would blossom in coming decades. Here for the first time, the details of those vital discussions have been reconstructed and made accessible to again inspire and challenge followers of Christ to confront the powers and injustices of today.
The Zionist Expulsion of the Palestinians
Author: Rosemarie M. Esber
Publisher: Arabicus Books & Media, LLC
"Under the Cover of War presents a critical examination of the last six months of the British Palestine mandate, November 1947 to mid-May 1948. Unpublished military and diplomatic sources and new, original refugee interviews support the Palestinians account of their Nakba (catastrophe)"--Provided by publisher.
The Conspiratorial Heritage
Author: David McKnight
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Political Science
An examination of Britain's relations with China from the end of the World War II to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. This volume demonstrates how Britain's effort to recover something of its pre-war commercial pre-eminence in China were handicapped by its post-war financial weakness.
Author: Raymond Case Kelly
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
A concise study using archeological and ethnographic evidence to refute current theories about the origin of war
The Financial Roots of Democracy
Author: James MacDonald
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
For the greater part of recorded history the most successful and powerful states were autocracies; yet now the world is increasingly dominated by democracies. In A Free Nation Deep in Debt, James Macdonald provides a novel answer for how and why this political transformation occurred. The pressures of war finance led ancient states to store up treasure; and treasure accumulation invariably favored autocratic states. But when the art of public borrowing was developed by the city-states of medieval Italy as a democratic alternative to the treasure chest, the balance of power tipped. From that point on, the pressures of war favored states with the greatest public creditworthiness; and the most creditworthy states were invariably those in which the people who provided the money also controlled the government. Democracy had found a secret weapon and the era of the citizen creditor was born. Macdonald unfolds this tale in a sweeping history that starts in biblical times, passes via medieval Italy to the wars and revolutions of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and ends with the great bond drives that financed the two world wars.