Search Results: scanning-electron-microscopy-and-x-ray-microanalysis

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

Author: Joseph I. Goldstein,Dale E. Newbury,Joseph R. Michael,Nicholas W.M. Ritchie,John Henry J. Scott,David C. Joy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493966766

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 550

View: 8535

This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners — engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers — will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope’s software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules – no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes an online supplement—an extensive "Database of Electron–Solid Interactions"—which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3

Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387857312

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 6957

Scanning electr on microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis can produce magnified images and in situ chemical information from virtually any type of specimen. The two instruments generally operate in a high vacuum and a very dry environment in order to produce the high energy beam of electrons needed for imaging and analysis. With a few notable exceptions, most specimens destined for study in the SEM are poor conductors and composed of beam sensitive light elements containing variable amounts of water. In the SEM, the imaging system depends on the specimen being sufficiently electrically conductive to ensure that the bulk of the incoming electrons go to ground. The formation of the image depends on collecting the different signals that are scattered as a consequence of the high energy beam interacting with the sample. Backscattered electrons and secondary electrons are generated within the primary beam-sample interactive volume and are the two principal signals used to form images. The backscattered electron coefficient ( ? ) increases with increasing atomic number of the specimen, whereas the secondary electron coefficient ( ? ) is relatively insensitive to atomic number. This fundamental diff- ence in the two signals can have an important effect on the way samples may need to be prepared. The analytical system depends on collecting the x-ray photons that are generated within the sample as a consequence of interaction with the same high energy beam of primary electrons used to produce images.

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

A Text for Biologists, Materials Scientists, and Geologists

Author: Joseph Goldstein,Dale E. Newbury,Patrick Echlin,David C. Joy,Charles Fiori,Eric Lifshin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461332737

Category: Science

Page: 673

View: 4923

This book has evolved by processes of selection and expansion from its predecessor, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), published by Plenum Press in 1975. The interaction of the authors with students at the Short Course on Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis held annually at Lehigh University has helped greatly in developing this textbook. The material has been chosen to provide a student with a general introduction to the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis suitable for application in such fields as biology, geology, solid state physics, and materials science. Following the format of PSEM, this book gives the student a basic knowledge of (1) the user-controlled functions of the electron optics of the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe, (2) the characteristics of electron-beam-sample inter actions, (3) image formation and interpretation, (4) x-ray spectrometry, and (5) quantitative x-ray microanalysis. Each of these topics has been updated and in most cases expanded over the material presented in PSEM in order to give the reader sufficient coverage to understand these topics and apply the information in the laboratory. Throughout the text, we have attempted to emphasize practical aspects of the techniques, describing those instru ment parameters which the microscopist can and must manipulate to obtain optimum information from the specimen. Certain areas in particular have been expanded in response to their increasing importance in the SEM field. Thus energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, which has undergone a tremendous surge in growth, is treated in substantial detail.

Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin,C.E. Fiori,Joseph Goldstein,David C. Joy,Dale E. Newbury

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475790279

Category: Medical

Page: 454

View: 5593

This book has its origins in the intensive short courses on scanning elec tron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis which have been taught annually at Lehigh University since 1972. In order to provide a textbook containing the materials presented in the original course, the lecturers collaborated to write the book Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (PSEM), which was published by Plenum Press in 1975. The course con tinued to evolve and expand in the ensuing years, until the volume of material to be covered necessitated the development of separate intro ductory and advanced courses. In 1981 the lecturers undertook the project of rewriting the original textbook, producing the volume Scan ning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (SEMXM). This vol ume contained substantial expansions of the treatment of such basic material as electron optics, image formation, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, a number of chapters, which had been included in the PSEM vol ume, including those on magnetic contrast and electron channeling con trast, had to be dropped for reasons of space. Moreover, these topics had naturally evolved into the basis of the advanced course. In addition, the evolution of the SEM and microanalysis fields had resulted in the devel opment of new topics, such as digital image processing, which by their nature became topics in the advanced course.

Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

Author: Robert Edward Lee

Publisher: Prentice Hall


Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 3664

Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Microanalysis, and Analytical Electron Microscopy

A Laboratory Workbook

Author: Charles E. Lyman,Dale E. Newbury,Joseph Goldstein,David B. Williams,Alton D. Romig Jr.,John Armstrong,Patrick Echlin,Charles Fiori,David C. Joy,Eric Lifshin,Klaus-Rüdiger Peters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461306353

Category: Science

Page: 407

View: 9281

During the last four decades remarkable developments have taken place in instrumentation and techniques for characterizing the microstructure and microcomposition of materials. Some of the most important of these instruments involve the use of electron beams because of the wealth of information that can be obtained from the interaction of electron beams with matter. The principal instruments include the scanning electron microscope, electron probe x-ray microanalyzer, and the analytical transmission electron microscope. The training of students to use these instruments and to apply the new techniques that are possible with them is an important function, which. has been carried out by formal classes in universities and colleges and by special summer courses such as the ones offered for the past 19 years at Lehigh University. Laboratory work, which should be an integral part of such courses, is often hindered by the lack of a suitable laboratory workbook. While laboratory workbooks for transmission electron microscopy have-been in existence for many years, the broad range of topics that must be dealt with in scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis has made it difficult for instructors to devise meaningful experiments. The present workbook provides a series of fundamental experiments to aid in "hands-on" learning of the use of the instrumentation and the techniques. It is written by a group of eminently qualified scientists and educators. The importance of hands-on learning cannot be overemphasized.

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

Third Edition

Author: Joseph Goldstein,Joseph I. Goldstein,Dale E. Newbury,David C. Joy,Patrick Echlin,Charles E. Lyman,Eric Lifshin,Linda Sawyer,Dale E. (National Institute of Standards and Technology Newbury, Gaithersburg MD USA),Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distinguished Scientist and Director Electron Microscope Facility David C Joy,J.R. Michael,Charles E. (Lehigh University Lyman, Bethlehem PA USA),J.R. (Sandia National Laboratories Michael, Albuquerque NM USA)

Publisher: Boom Koninklijke Uitgevers

ISBN: 9780306472923

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 689

View: 9506

This text provides students as well as practitioners (engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers) with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis.


Author: Graham Lawes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9788126517305


Page: 124

View: 6122

Analytische Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie

Eine Einführung für den Praktiker

Author: Jürgen Thomas,Thomas Gemming

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3709114403

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 9502

Die Autoren des Buches fassen ihre im Zuge vielseitiger Lehrtätigkeit gesammelten Erfahrungen zu häufig gestellten Fragen und Problemen von Anfängern im Umgang mit dem analytischen Transmissionselektronenmikroskop anschaulich zusammen. Dabei bilden Erklärungen anhand einfacher Modellvorstellungen und Hinweise zur praktischen Umsetzung des Erlernten die Schwerpunkte des Buches. Dieses praxisnahe Lehrbuch bietet somit eine klare und verständliche Einführung für all jene, die für Ihre Arbeit das Transmissionselektronenmikroskop verwenden wollen, jedoch noch nicht speziell dafür ausgebildet sind.


Physik · Technik · Ergebnisse

Author: Manfred von Ardenne

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642473482

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 5031

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology

Techniques and Applications

Author: Weilie Zhou,Zhong Lin Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387396209

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 522

View: 3026

This book presents scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fundamentals and applications for nanotechnology. It includes integrated fabrication techniques using the SEM, such as e-beam and FIB, and it covers in-situ nanomanipulation of materials. The book is written by international experts from the top nano-research groups that specialize in nanomaterials characterization. The book will appeal to nanomaterials researchers, and to SEM development specialists.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis

Author: Ludwig Reimer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662135620

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 6659

The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron specimen interactions, imaging modes, the interpretation of micrographs and the use of quantitative modes "in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). lt forms a counterpart to Transmission Electron Microscopy (Vol. 36 of this Springer Series in Optical Sciences) . The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Münster and from a German text entitled Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie (Springer-Verlag), published in collaboration with my colleague Gerhard Pfefferkorn. In the introductory chapter, the principles of the SEM and of electron specimen interactions are described, the most important imaging modes and their associated contrast are summarized, and general aspects of eiemental analysis by x-ray and Auger electron emission are discussed. The electron gun and electron optics are discussed in Chap. 2 in order to show how an electron probe of small diameter can be formed, how the elec tron beam can be blanked at high frequencies for time-resolving exper iments and what problems have tobe taken into account when focusing.

X-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope

Author: John A. Chandler

Publisher: North Holland

ISBN: 9780720406078

Category: Fiction

Page: 231

View: 8572

Industrial Applications Of Electron Microscopy

Author: Zhigang Li

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824745760

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 7779

Providing proven strategies for solutions to research, development, and production dilemmas, this reference details the instrumentation and underlying principles for utilization of electron microscopy in the manufacturing, automotive, semiconductor, photographic film, pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, forensic, glass, and pulp and paper industries. The book covers safety, calibration, and troubleshooting techniques, as well as methods in sample preparation and image collection, interpretation, and analysis. It includes contributions from microscopy experts based at major corporations and scientists from universities and major research centers.

Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis in the Electron Microscope

Author: DC Bell,AJ Garratt-Reed

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 0203483421

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 7430

This book provides an in-depth description of x-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. Includes information about hardware design as well as the physics of x-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system which optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical method is more suitable for their planned application.

Einsicht durch Meditation

Die Achtsamkeit des Herzens

Author: Jack Kornfield,Joseph Goldstein

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783936855388


Page: 301

View: 9560


Author: Wolfgang Grellmann,Sabine Seidler

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446443908

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 760

View: 7520

Die enormen Zuwachsraten in der Kunststofferzeugung und -anwendung erhöhen die Forderung nach aussagekräftigen Mess- und Auswerteverfahren in der Kunststoffprüfung. Durch die Fortschritte in der elektronischen Messtechnik haben sich sowohl die klassischen Prüfverfahren weiterentwickelt als auch völlig neuartige Methoden etabliert. Die Aussagekraft dieser Kenngrößen zur Quantifizierung der Zusammenhänge zwischen der Mikrostruktur und den makroskopischen Eigenschaften wird dargestellt. Zusätzliche Informationen über die ablaufenden Schädigungsprozesse und -mechanismen können durch die Anwendung gekoppelter zerstörungsfreier Kunststoffprüfverfahren bzw. hybrider Methoden der Kunststoffdiagnostik gewonnen werden. An Hand von Beispielen zur Optimierung von Kunststoffen und Verbunden sowie zur Bewertung von Bauteileigenschaften wird ein werkstoffwissenschaftlich begründeter Einblick in die moderne Kunststoffprüfung vermittelt.

Electron Microscopy of Polymers

Author: Goerg H. Michler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540363521

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 473

View: 5518

The study of polymers by electron microscopy (EM) needs special techniques, precautions and preparation methods, including ultramicrotomy. General characteristics of the different techniques of EM, including scanning force microscopy, are given in this hands-on book. The application of these techniques to the study of morphology and properties, particularly micromechanical properties, is described in detail. Examples from all classes of polymers are presented.

X-ray Microanalysis in Biology

Experimental Techniques and Applications

Author: D. C. Sigee

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521415309

Category: Medical

Page: 337

View: 5175

This book describes an integrated approach to the use of X-ray microanalysis in biology.

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