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Social Physics

How Social Networks Can Make Us Smarter

Author: Alex Pentland

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 681

From one of the world’s leading data scientists, a landmark tour of the new science of idea flow, offering revolutionary insights into the mysteries of collective intelligence and social influence If the Big Data revolution has a presiding genius, it is MIT’s Alex “Sandy” Pentland. Over years of groundbreaking experiments, he has distilled remarkable discoveries significant enough to become the bedrock of a whole new scientific field: social physics. Humans have more in common with bees than we like to admit: We’re social creatures first and foremost. Our most important habits of action—and most basic notions of common sense—are wired into us through our coordination in social groups. Social physics is about idea flow, the way human social networks spread ideas and transform those ideas into behaviors. Thanks to the millions of digital bread crumbs people leave behind via smartphones, GPS devices, and the Internet, the amount of new information we have about human activity is truly profound. Until now, sociologists have depended on limited data sets and surveys that tell us how people say they think and behave, rather than what they actually do. As a result, we’ve been stuck with the same stale social structures—classes, markets—and a focus on individual actors, data snapshots, and steady states. Pentland shows that, in fact, humans respond much more powerfully to social incentives that involve rewarding others and strengthening the ties that bind than incentives that involve only their own economic self-interest. Pentland and his teams have found that they can study patterns of information exchange in a social network without any knowledge of the actual content of the information and predict with stunning accuracy how productive and effective that network is, whether it’s a business or an entire city. We can maximize a group’s collective intelligence to improve performance and use social incentives to create new organizations and guide them through disruptive change in a way that maximizes the good. At every level of interaction, from small groups to large cities, social networks can be tuned to increase exploration and engagement, thus vastly improving idea flow. Social Physics will change the way we think about how we learn and how our social groups work—and can be made to work better, at every level of society. Pentland leads readers to the edge of the most important revolution in the study of social behavior in a generation, an entirely new way to look at life itself. From the Trade Paperback edition.

How Behavior Spreads

The Science of Complex Contagions

Author: Damon Centola

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 353

A new, counterintuitive theory for how social networks influence the spread of behavior New social movements, technologies, and public-health initiatives often struggle to take off, yet many diseases disperse rapidly without issue. Can the lessons learned from the viral diffusion of diseases be used to improve the spread of beneficial behaviors and innovations? In How Behavior Spreads, Damon Centola presents over a decade of original research examining how changes in societal behavior--in voting, health, technology, and finance—occur and the ways social networks can be used to influence how they propagate. Centola's startling findings show that the same conditions accelerating the viral expansion of an epidemic unexpectedly inhibit the spread of behaviors. While it is commonly believed that "weak ties"—long-distance connections linking acquaintances—lead to the quicker spread of behaviors, in fact the exact opposite holds true. Centola demonstrates how the most well-known, intuitive ideas about social networks have caused past diffusion efforts to fail, and how such efforts might succeed in the future. Pioneering the use of Web-based methods to understand how changes in people's social networks alter their behaviors, Centola illustrates the ways in which these insights can be applied to solve countless problems of organizational change, cultural evolution, and social innovation. His findings offer important lessons for public health workers, entrepreneurs, and activists looking to harness networks for social change. Practical and informative, How Behavior Spreads is a must-read for anyone interested in how the theory of social networks can transform our world.

Spaces of Teaching and Learning

Integrating Perspectives on Research and Practice

Author: Robert A. Ellis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Education

Page: 243

View: 732

This integrated collection of perspectives on the spaces of teaching and learning uses ‘learning space’ to place educational practice in context. It considers the complex relationships involved in the design, management and use of contemporary learning spaces. It sheds light on some of the problems of connecting the characteristics of spaces to the practices and outcomes of teaching and learning. The contributions show how research into learning spaces can inform broader educational practices and how the practices of teaching, learning and design can inform research. The selection of chapters demonstrates the value of gathering together multiple sources of evidence, viewed through different epistemological lenses in order to push the field forward in a timely fashion. The book provides both a broad review of current practices as well as a deep-dive into particular educational and epistemological challenges that the various approaches adopted entail. Contrasts and commonalities between the different approaches emphasise the importance of developing a broad, robust evidence-base for practice in context. This is the inaugural book in the series Understanding Teaching-Learning Practice.

الاقتصاد العجيب: اقتصادي مارق يبحث في الجانب الخفي من كل شي

Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything

Author: Steven D. Levitt

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 994

أيهما أشد خطراً، المسدس أم حوض السباحة؟ ما هي الأشياء المشتركة بين معلمي المدارس ومصارعي السومو؟ لماذا ما يزال تجار المخدرات يعيشون مع أمهاتهم؟ ما هو مقدار اهتمام الوالدين حقاً؟ ما هو تأثير قضية «رو» و«ويد» في جرائم العنف؟ قد لا تبدو هذه الأسئلة مثل الأسئلة النمطية التي يسألها الاقتصادي، لكن ستيفن د. ليفيت ليس اقتصادياً نمطياً؛ إنه عالم شجاع أكثر من أي شيء آخر، يدرس المادة والأحاجي في الحياة اليومية ــ من الغش والجريمة إلى الرياضة وتربية الأطفال ــ وتقوم استنتاجاته عادة على قلب الحكمة التقليدية رأساً على عقب. وغالباً ما يبدأ بتل كبير من المعطيات وبسؤال بسيط لم يطرح من قبل. إنه يهتم ببعض هذه الأسئلة مثل قضايا الحياة والموت، وبعضها الآخر ذو ميزات استثنائية دون شك. وهكذا يحتوي هذا الكتاب على حقل جديد من الدراسة، وهو (الاقتصاد العجيب). ومن خلال سرده للقصص الآسرة ومن النظرة العميقة غير المباشرة، يبين ليفيت وزميله ستيفن ج. دوبنر أن الاقتصاد -في جذوره- دراسة للحوافز ـــ كيف يحصل الناس على ما يريدون أو يحتاجون، لاسيما عندما يريد الناس الآخرون الشيء ذاته أو يحتاجونه. في كتابهما (الاقتصاد العجيب)، يشرع المؤلفان في استكشاف الجانب الخفي ـــ من كل شيء؛ الأعمال الداخلية لعصابة مخدرات، وحقيقة الوسطاء العقاريين، وأساطير تمويل الحملات. وقصص الغش لدى معلمي المدارس. وأسرار جمعية كوكلوكس كلان (العرقية). ومن هنا فإذا كانت الأخلاق تمثل كيف نريد للعالم أن يسير، فإن الاقتصاد يمثل كيف يعمل العالم فعلاً. صحيح إن قراء هذا الكتاب سيتسلحون بقصص وأحاجٍ تكفي لتروى في آلاف الحفلات، لكن كتاب (الاقتصاد العجيب) يستطيع أن يقدم أكثر من ذلك، إنه يعيد تعريف الطريقة التي ننظر بها إلى العالم الحديث تعريفاً حرفياً. العبيكان للنشر

كيف تقرأ كتاباً

Author: مورتيمر آدلر

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 376

View: 566

Sell Like a Team: The Blueprint for Building Teams that Win Big at High-Stakes Meetings

Author: Michael S. Dalis

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 522

Build a championship sales team that prepares, practices, and plays in sync—and closes every deal Gone are the days of meeting a client for lunch, chatting about your product, and closing the sale over dessert. Buyers today look very differently from those of the past. They make networked purchasing decisions by committee, with diverse roles, interests and backgrounds. With access to more information and a greater ability to share it, they demand value, access and alignment from their counterparties. Sales is now a team sport, and to win you have to build and manage selling squads that work in complete alignment—not just during client meetings, but before and after, as well. In Sell Like a Team, Michael Dalis, a senior consultant at the legendary sales training firm, The Richardson Company, guides you through the process of creating and managing selling squads that execute and win in every sales meeting or pitch. Winning selling squads are fueled by trust. There is an effective leader and every member knows his or her role. They plan, practice and make adjustments together. During customer meetings, they execute as a unit. And afterward, they debrief together so they can advance the sale, replicate the high points and eliminate the low ones in future meetings. In today’s competitive market, the difference between the winner and all the others is a lean at the tape. There’s a world of difference between teams that are qualified and those that win. This groundbreaking guide provides everything you need to create and organize selling squads that win more and win big.

الغريزة اللغوية

كيف يبدع العقل اللغة

Author: ستيفن بنكر

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 640

View: 909

اللعب: كيف يصقل الدماغ ويطلق المخيلة وينعش الروح

Play: How it Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul

Author: Stuart Brown

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN:

Category: Self-Help

Page: 256

View: 606

نستكشف من خلال اللَّعب كيف يسير عالمنا، وكيف يتفاعل الأصدقاء مع بعضهم، ونتعلم تفسير كثير من الغموض والإثارة التي يمكن أن تواجهنا في الحياة؛ فربُّ الأسرة يستطيع من خلال اللَّعب مع عائلته وضع قوانين ودساتير تنظم حياة أولاده، فضلاً عن أنه يكتشف عن طريق هذه الأنشطة السلبيات فيقوِّمها، والإيجابيات فيعززها، ويشيع جوًّا من الألفة، ويزيد الترابط الاجتماعي، ويخلف ذكريات جميلة لا تُنسى. أما الأصدقاء، سواء أكانوا أصدقاء دراسة، أم مهنة، أم وظيفة، أم أيَّ مجال من مجالات الحياة، فإن اللَّعب يشيع في الفريق جوًّا من الألفة والمحبة، ويجدِّد الروابط، ويُقدِّم نشاطًا ودفعًا معنويًّا لزيادة العمل والإنتاج. إذًا، اللَّعب ليس للأطفال أو لتضييع الوقت بما لا طائل منه، وإنما هو أساس التفكير الحضاري، والجوهر الذي يجعل الحياة تنبض بالحيوية والنشاط، إنه لأفراد المجتمع كلهم على اختلاف فئاتهم، علاوة على أنه للأعمار كلها أيضًا. يبحث هذا الكتاب في فهم اللَّعب، واستخدامه في العثور على الحقائق التي تعتمل في أنفسنا، وكيفية التعبير عنها؛ إنه يدور حول تسخير القوة التي تشكلت في دواخلنا، تلك القوة التي تتيح لنا اكتشاف أعماقنا وتوسيع عالمنا. - هل تحب اللَّعب؟ - هل تظن أن اللَّعب مضيعة للوقت؟ - هل تلعب مع أطفالك؟ - هل تشعر بالذنب إذا فقدت بعض وقتك في اللَّعب؟ العبيكان 2017

النبي

Author: جبران خليل جبران

Publisher: Al Manhal

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 118

View: 224

النبي أشهر كتب جبران وهو يعتبر بحق رائعة جبران العالمية، مضمونه اجتماعي، مثالي وتأملي فلسفي، وهو يحوي خلاصة الآراء الجبرانية في الحب والزواج والأولاد والبيوت والثياب والبيع والشراء والحرية والقانون والرحمة والعقاب والدين والأخلاق والحياة والموت واللذة والجمال والكرم والشرائع وغيرها، وقد وردت على لسان نبي سمي ``المصطفى`` ورسالة النبي رسالة المتصوف المؤمن بوحدة الوجود، وبأن الروح تتعطش للعودة إلى مصدرها، وبأن الحب جوهر الحياة. وفي كتاب النبي يعبر جبران عن آرائه في الحياة عن طريق معالجته للعلاقات الإنسانية التي تربط الإنسان بالإنسان.

EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF CROWDS (HARRIMAN DEFINITIVE EDITION)

The classic guide to crowd psychology, financial folly and surprising superstition

Author: Charles Mackay

Publisher: Harriman House Limited

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 588

View: 579

"Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one..." Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds is the original guide to behavioural psychology - and how manias, follies and superstitions begin, spread and (eventually) pass. A hugely entertaining tour through financial scams and stock market bubbles, alchemical quests and prophecy wars, duelling bouts and relic hunts, the book is as insightful and memorable today as when it was first published almost 180 years ago. This edition comes with an exclusive foreword by Russell Napier, author of Anatomy of the Bear. Harriman Definitive Editions offer the best quality editions of the best financial books of all time. Beautifully typeset in new designs, accompanied by forewords by the best modern financial writers, printed and bound in high-quality hardcovers on acid-free paper - they are essential long-term additions to the portfolio of every investor and trader.

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