How Indonesia Became an Archipelagic State
Author: John G. Butcher,R.E. Elson
Publisher: NUS Press
Until the mid-1950s nearly all the waters lying between the far-flung islands of the Indonesian archipelago were as open to the ships of all nations as the waters of the great oceans. In order to enhance its failing sovereign grasp over the nation, as well as to deter perceived external threats to Indonesia’s national integrity, in 1957 the Indonesian government declared that it had “absolute sovereignty” over all the waters lying within straight baselines drawn between the outermost islands of Indonesia. At a single step, Indonesia had asserted its dominion over a vast swathe of what had hitherto been seas open to all, and made its lands and the seas it now claimed a single unified entity for the first time. International outrage and alarm ensued, expressed especially by the great maritime nations. Nevertheless, despite its low international profile, its relative poverty, and its often frail state capacity, Indonesia eventually succeeded in gaining international recognition for its claim when, in 1982, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea formally recognized the existence of a new category of states known as “archipelagic states” and declared that these states had sovereignty over their “archipelagic waters”. Sovereignty and the Sea explains how Indonesia succeeded in its extraordinary claim. At the heart of Indonesia’s archipelagic campaign was a small group of Indonesian diplomats. Largely because of their dogged persistence, negotiating skills, and willingness to make difficult compromises Indonesia became the greatest archipelagic state in the world.
Managing an Archipelagic State
Author: R. B. Cribb,Michele Ford
Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Category: Political Science
Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state, with more than 18,000 islands and over 7.9 million square kilometres of sea. The marine frontier presents the nation with both economic opportunities and political and strategic challenges. Indonesia has been affected more than most countries in the world by a slow revolution in the management of its waters. Whereas Indonesia's seas were once conceived administratively as little more than the empty space between islands, successive governments have become aware that this view is outmoded. The effective transfer to the seas of regulatory regimes that took shape on land, such as territoriality, has been an enduring challenge to Indonesian governments. This book addresses issues related to maritime boundaries and security, marine safety, inter-island shipping, the development of the archipelagic concept in international law, marine conservation, illegal fishing, and the place of the sea in national and regional identity.
Author: Myron H. Nordquist,Tommy Thong Bee Koh,John Norton Moore
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Freedom of the seas and passage rights is a highly topical subject for the international community that cuts across a broad spectrum of scholarly disciplines and maritime operations. The contents of the book include in-depth analysis of current international and regional approaches to freedom of navigation, transit passage through straits used for international navigation, archipelagic sea lanes passage, scientific research and hydrographic surveys in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), military surveys in the EEZ, as well as vessel source pollution and protection of the marine environment. Many of the chapters describe measures in place at multilateral and regional levels to improve information sharing and operational coordination. This collection will especially appeal to those concerned with freedom of the seas and passage rights. The CD accompanying the volume includes important documents such as the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea as well many PowerPoint presentations delivered at the conference. It also includes a draft index to the multi-volume series "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982: A Commentary." This book contains the edited papers and associated documents from the 32nd annual Virginia conference held in Singapore, January 9-10, 2008. Presentations were delivered by government officials, senior naval and coast guard commanders as well as by leading jurists and academics with impressive expertise in the law of the sea.
Author: Paul Michel Munoz
Publisher: Didier Millet,Csi
An approachable and well-researched history of the Malay Peninsula and insular Southeast Asia from its earliest times to the 16th century.
Cooperation, Interests and Strategies
Author: Senia Febrica
Category: Political Science
Indonesia is the largest archipelago state in the world comprising 17,480 islands, with a maritime territory measuring close to 6 million square kilometres. It is located between the two key shipping routes of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Indonesia’s cooperation in maritime security initiatives is vitally important because half of the world’s trading goods and oil pass through Indonesian waters, including the Straits of Malacca, the Strait of Sunda and the Strait of Lombok. This book analyses Indonesia’s participation in international maritime security cooperation. Using Indonesia as a case study, the book adopts mixed methods to assess emerging power cooperation and non-cooperation drawing from various International Relations theories and the bureaucratic politics approach. It addresses not only the topic of Indonesia’s cooperation but also engages in debates across the International Relations, political science and policy studies disciplines regarding state cooperation. Based on extensive primary Indonesian language sources and original interviews, the author offers a conceptual discussion on the reasons underlying emerging middle power participation or non-participation in cooperation agreements. The analysis offers a fresh perspective on the growing problems of maritime terrorism and sea robbery and how an emerging power deals with these threats at unilateral, bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. The book fills a significant gap in literature on Indonesian foreign policy making in the post-1998 era. It provides the first in-depth study of Indonesia’s decision making process in the area of maritime security and will thus be of interest to researchers in the field of comparative politics, international relations, security policy, maritime cooperation, port and shipping businesses and Southeast Asian politics and society.
Bajo Fishing Activity in the Australian Fishing Zone
Author: Natasha Stacey
Publisher: ANU E Press
Category: Sports & Recreation
Under a Memorandum of Understanding between Indonesia and Australia, traditional Indonesian fishermen are permitted access to fish in a designated area inside the 200 nautical mile Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ). However, crew and vessels are regularly apprehended for illegal fishing activity outside the permitted areas and, after prosecution in Australian courts, their boats and equipment are destroyed and the fishermen repatriated to Indonesia. This is an ethnographic study of one group of Indonesian maritime people who operate in the AFZ. It concerns Bajo people who originate from villages in the Tukang Besi Islands, Southeast Sulawesi. It explores the social, cultural, economic and historic conditions which underpin Bajo sailing and fishing voyages in the AFZ. It also examines issues concerning Australian maritime expansion and Australian government policies, treatment and understanding of Bajo fishing. The study considers the concept of "traditional" fishing regulating access to the MOU area based on use of unchanging technology, and consequences arising from adherence to such a view of "traditional"; the effect of Australian maritime expansion on Bajo fishing activity; the effectiveness of policy in providing for fishing rights and stopping illegal activity, and why Bajo continue to fish in the AFZ despite a range of ongoing restrictions on their activity.
Author: Brian Russell Roberts,Michelle Ann Stephens
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Departing from conventional narratives of the United States and the Americas as fundamentally continental spaces, the contributors to Archipelagic American Studies theorize America as constituted by and accountable to an assemblage of interconnected islands, archipelagoes, shorelines, continents, seas, and oceans. They trace these planet-spanning archipelagic connections in essays on topics ranging from Indigenous sovereignty to the work of Édouard Glissant, from Philippine call centers to US militarization in the Caribbean, and from the great Pacific garbage patch to enduring overlaps between US imperialism and a colonial Mexican archipelago. Shaking loose the straitjacket of continental exceptionalism that hinders and permeates Americanist scholarship, Archipelagic American Studies asserts a more relevant and dynamic approach for thinking about the geographic, cultural, and political claims of the United States within broader notions of America. Contributors Birte Blascheck, J. Michael Dash, Paul Giles, Susan Gillman, Matthew Pratt Guterl, Hsinya Huang, Allan Punzalan Isaac, Joseph Keith, Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel, Brandy Nalani McDougall, Ifeoma Kiddoe Nwankwo, Craig Santos Perez, Brian Russell Roberts, John Carlos Rowe, Cherene Sherrard-Johnson, Ramón E. Soto-Crespo, Michelle Ann Stephens, Elaine Stratford, Etsuko Taketani, Alice Te Punga Somerville, Teresia Teaiwa, Lanny Thompson, Nicole A. Waligora-Davis
Early Modern China and Europe
Author: Yue Zhuang,Andrea Riemenschnitter
Publisher: NUS Press
The exchange of landscape practice between China and Europe from 1500–1800 is an important chapter in art history. While the material forms of the outcome of this exchange, like jardin anglo-chinoisand Européenerie are well documented, this book moves further to examine the role of the exchange in identity formation in early modern China and Europe. Proposing the new paradigm of “entangled landscapes”, drawing from the concept of “entangled histories”, this book looks at landscape design, cartography, literature, philosophy and material culture of the period. Challenging simplistic, binary treatments of the movements of “influences” between China and Europe, Entangled Landscapes reveals how landscape exchanges entailed complex processes of appropriation, crossover and transformation, through which Chinese and European identities were formed. Exploring these complex processes via three themes—empire building, mediators’ constraints, and aesthetic negotiations, this work breaks new ground in landscape and East-West studies. Interdisciplinary and revisionist in its thrust, it will also benefit scholars of history, human geography and postcolonial studies.
A Catalyst for Peace
Author: Kishore Mahbubani,Jeffery Sng
Publisher: NUS Press
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a miracle. Why? In an era of growing cultural pessimism, many thoughtful individuals believe that different civilizations – especially Islam and the West – cannot live together in peace. The ten countries of ASEAN provide a thriving counter-example of civilizational co-existence. Here 625m people live together in peace. This miracle was delivered by ASEAN. In an era of growing economic pessimism, where many young people believe that their lives will get worse in coming decades, Southeast Asia bubbles with optimism. In an era where many thinkers predict rising geopolitical competition and tension, ASEAN regularly brings together all the world’s great powers. Stories of peace are told less frequently than stories of conflict and war. ASEAN’s imperfections make better headlines than its achievements. But in the hands of Kishore Mahbubani and Jeffery Sng, the good news story is also a provocation and a challenge to the rest of the world.
Author: George McTurnan Kahin
Publisher: SEAP Publications
Professor Kahin's classic 1952 study, reprinted for a contemporary audience. An immediate, vibrant portrait of a nation in the age of revolution, featuring interviews with many of the chief players. With new illustrations and a new introduction by Benedict R. O'G. Anderson.
Author: E. Aspinall,G. van Klinken
Category: SOCIAL SCIENCE
The popular 1998 reformasi movement that brought down President Suharto’s regime demanded an end to illegal practices by state officials, from human rights abuse to nepotistic investments. Yet today, such practices have proven more resistant to reform than people had hoped. Many have said corruption in Indonesia is "entrenched". We argue it is precisely this entrenched character that requires attention. What is state illegality entrenched in and how does it become entrenched? This involves studying actual cases. Our observations led us to rethink fundamental ideas about the nature of the state in Indonesia, especially regarding its socially embedded character. We conclude that illegal practices by state officials are not just aberrations to the state, they are the state. Almost invariably, illegality occurs as part of collective, patterned, organized and collaborative acts, linked to the competition for political power and access to state resources. While obviously excluding many without connections, corrupt behaviour also plays integrative and stabilizing functions. Especially at the lower end of the social ladder, it gets a lot of things done and is often considered legitimate.
Author: Angel Rabasa,Peter Chalk
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Category: Political Science
Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, is undergoing a profound transformation that could lead to a variety of outcomes, from the consolidation of democracy to return to authoritarianism or military rule, to radical Islamic rule, or to violent disintegration. The stakes are high, for Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. The authors examine the trends and dynamics that are driving Indonesia's transformation, outline possible strategic futures and their implications for regional stability, and identify options the United States might pursue in the critical challenge of influencing Indonesia's future course. Steps the United States might take now include support for Indonesia's stability and territorial integrity, reestablishment of Indonesian-U.S. military cooperation and interaction, aid in rebuilding a constructive Indonesian role in regional security, and support for development of a regional crisis reaction force. A continued strong U.S. presence in the Asia-Pacific region will reinforce the U.S. role as regional balancer.
Author: Vivian Louis Forbes
Category: Political Science
This book examines the delimited maritime boundaries of Indonesia with its neighbours. It features carefully drawn maps based on the geographical coordinates of the defined maritime boundaries; the reproduction of a complete set of the primary documents with direct relation to the boundaries; and a comprehensive narrative on the geography and the historical development of the archipelagic State. Indonesia has an immense maritime domain that encompasses much of the sea between Australia and the Asian mainland. In addition, Indonesia is itself made up largely of water: in excess of 17,000 islands, Indonesia’s archipelagic and territorial waters together form about three-fifths of the country’s sovereign territory. This book offers readers clear, accessible information on the maritime boundaries of the world’s largest archipelagic state.
Challenges, Politics, and Power
Author: Angel Rabasa,John Haseman
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Category: Political Science
The military is one of the few institutions that cut across the divides of Indonesian society. As it continues to play a critical part in determining Indonesia's future, the military itself is undergoing profound change. The authors of this book examine the role of the military in politics and society since the fall of President Suharto in 1998. They present several strategic scenarios for Indonesia, which have important implications for U.S.-Indonesian relations, and propose goals for Indonesian military reform and elements of a U.S. engagement policy.
Author: Donald R. Rothwell,Tim Stephens
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The law of the sea provides for the regulation, management and governance of the ocean spaces that cover over two-thirds of the Earth's surface. This book provides a contemporary explanation of the foundational principles of the law of the sea, a critical overview of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and an analysis of subsequent developments including the many bilateral, regional and global agreements that supplement the Convention. The second edition of this acclaimed text takes as its focus the rules and institutions established by the Convention on the Law of the Sea and places the achievements of the Convention in both historical and contemporary context. All of the main areas of the law of the sea are addressed including the foundations and sources of the law, the nature and extent of the maritime zones, the delimitation of overlapping maritime boundaries, the place of archipelagic and other special states in the law of the sea, navigational rights and freedoms, military activities at sea, and marine resource and conservation issues such as fisheries, marine environmental protection and dispute settlement. As the Convention is now well over a quarter of a century old, the book takes stock of contemporary oceans issues that are not adequately addressed by the Convention. Overarching challenges facing the law of the sea are considered, including how new maritime security initiatives can be reconciled with traditional navigational rights and freedoms, and the need for stronger legal and policy responses to protect the global ocean environment from climate change and ocean acidification.
The Chosabu Reports on Syonan
Author: Gregg Huff,Shinobu Majima
Publisher: National University of Singapore Press
For forty-four months during World War II, the Japanese occupied Singapore, renaming it Syonan and setting out to drastically change life on the island. As part of the occupation, the Japanese created a research bureau, the Chosabu, to study occupied Singapore. The bureau's detailed reports on the economy covered prices, wages, currency, rationing, living standards, food production, and industrialization. Syonan's military and civilian administrators drew on them when formulating social and economic policies. The reports were notoriously difficult to read, and so this exceptional translation by Gregg Huff and Shinobu Majima is a true linguistic accomplishment. These records are an invaluable record of life during this tumultuous period and are especially important as the Japanese destroyed most records of their wartime administration, leaving the Chosabu reports as one of the few first-hand sources to have survived. Introductory chapters by the editors position the reports against wartime events in Singapore and examine the careers of the Chosabu authors and the places they occupy in the history of Japanese economic thought.