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Stonehenge is arguably the greatest prehistoric monument in western Europe; as a World Heritage Site it ranks in significance with such sites as the Acropolis of Athens, the Pyramids of Giza, Great Zimbabwe and Machu Picchu. Stonehenge sits at the heart of a landscape rich in other monuments and remains of the Neolithic period and Bronze Age that are also part of the World Heritage Site. Recent research by English Heritage’s landscape archaeologists within the Stonehenge World Heritage Site has led to the identification of previously unknown sites and, perhaps even more importantly, the re-interpretation of known sites, including Stonehenge itself. This work has been carried out alongside recent and on-going independent research initiatives conducted by a number of academic institutions, involving international co-operation. This book presents the most significant findings of the English Heritage research and shows how it integrates with the results of work undertaken by colleagues in other research bodies. It traces human influence on the landscape from prehistoric times to the very recent past and presents an up-to-date synthesis of the results of recent fieldwork. It will be of value to anyone interested in Stonehenge itself, in megalithic monuments, in the Neolithic period and Bronze Age of Europe and in the historic evolution of chalkland landscapes.
Perched on the chalk uplands of Salisbury Plain, the megaliths of Stonehenge offer one of the most recognizable outlines of any ancient structure. Its purpose – place of worship, sacrificial arena, giant calendar – is unknown, but its story is one of the most extraordinary of any of the world's prehistoric monuments. Constructed in several phases over a period of some 1500 years, beginning c. 3000 BC, Stonehenge's key elements are its 'bluestones' , transported from West Wales by unexplained means, and sarsen stones quarried from the nearby Marlborough Downs. Francis Pryor delivers a rigorous account of the nature and history of Stonehenge, but also places the enigmatic stones in a wider cultural context, exploring how antiquarians, scholars, writers, artists, 'the heritage industry' – and even neopagans – have interpreted the site over the centuries.
A Field Guide to the Megalithic Sites of Britain and Ireland
Author: Andy Burnham
This is the only book about standing stones created by the whole community of megalith enthusiasts, as represented by the archaeologists, photographers, theorists and stones aficionados who post on the Megalithic Portal. It offers unparalleled coverage of Britain and Ireland's Neolithic and Bronze Age sites: where they are, what to look out for, how to understand them. Featuring 1,000+ sites (500 with full photographic profiles), the book includes many places not covered elsewhere. An introductory essay by archaeologist Vicki Cummings helps readers interpret the sites and surrounding landscape through prehistoric eyes. Throughout the book are feature articles by different contributors on a huge range of topics, from archaeological analysis of key sites (including Stonehenge, Avebury, Durrington Walls, the Dartmoor stone rows, Grimes Graves, the Cumbrian axe factories, Newgrange and many more), reports on cutting-edge excavations at sites such as Must Farm and Ness of Brodgar, as well as discussions of 'mysteries', such as otherworldly experiences, dowsing, healing sites, archaeoastronomy and sacred geometry. Up-to-date archaeological approaches, such as sensory and experimental archaeology, are also explained. Andy Burnham's introduction offers tips for megalith enthusiasts in the field, as well as 'how to' features on drone photography and 3D modelling. With its stunning contemporary design combined with a durable flexi binding, this is a volume to gift and to treasure, to pore over at home and take out on expeditions.
A Field Guide to the Megalithic Sites of Britain and Ireland
Author: Andy Burnham
This ebook covers both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It could easily have been filled with sites from the Republic�s southwest alone, the counties of Cork and Kerry being famed for their wedge tombs and their stone circles (often in absolutely beautiful locations) that include Drombeg, Derreenataggart, Ardgroom, Shronebirrane, Uragh and many others. Otherwise, visitors tend to head for the cluster of sites around Newgrange (Co. Meath) to the east. That there were once even more prehistoric monuments in this rich farmland was revealed in the sweltering summer of 2018, when the parched earth showed up previously undetected sites as cropmarks. Also included in this ebook are many lesser-known but wonderful sites from the north and east of Ireland, such as the vast megalithic complexes of Beaghmore, Carrowmore and Carrowkeel. Each of these will take a whole day to explore fully, so allow plenty of time. The Old Stones of Ireland is part of a series covering the megalithic and other prehistoric sites of Britain and Ireland. The series is published together as The Old Stones: A Field Guide to the Megalithic Sites of Britain and Ireland, available as a book and an ebook.
This volume reports on the archaeological works undertaken between 1998 and 2003 as part of the A303 Stonehenge Improvement highway scheme promoted by the Highways Agency. The A303 trunk road and the A344 which pass Stonehenge are widely agreed to have a detrimental effect on its setting and on other archaeological features within the World Heritage Site. Around Stonehenge there is noise and visual intrusion from traffic and also air pollution. Each year nearly one million people visit the World Heritage Site and surroundings, using visitor facilities intended to cater for a much smaller number. Many plans that might improve this situation have been examined, involving partnership working across many organisations. Common to all these has been the aim of removing traffic from the area of Stonehenge and at the same time addressing highways issues with regard to road capacity and safety. This volume sets out the objectives of the extensive programme of archaeological work that was undertaken to inform the planning of the highway scheme, the methods used, the results obtained, and to explain something of the significance of works which provided a 12 km transect across the WHS and beyond: the first of its kind ever undertaken.
This collection of papers discuss World Trade Law and focus on the contested nature of World Heritage at sites as diverse as The Netherlands, Ellis Island (USA), post-colonial Mesoamerica, Cambodia, Fiji, Kyrgyzstan, and Vietnam. In addition, eight research notes explore heritage interpretation in the USA, Lebanon, Peru, Indonesia, Singapore, Tasmania and India.
This volume represents a detailed discussion of the structural history of Stonehenge, arrived at by the integration of evidence from primary records of excavations carried out between 1901 and 1964. These major campaigns of excavation and recording include those of Prof William Gowland (1901); Lt-Col william Hawley (1919-26); Profs Stuart Piggott and Richard Atkinson with J F Stone (1950, 53-5,56,58 and 64) and some smaller, previously unpublished campaigns as well as more recent, small-scale excavations which are already published.The evidence for the use of the monument from the Middle Neolithic to the present day is discussed in terms of its landscape and social settings. The evidence for the rephasing of the monument, including artefactual and ecofactual assemblages, details of the radiocarbon dating programm, geophysical surveys, transcripts of all available field plans, sections, and stone elevations is presented together with a variety of summary lists, concordances, and a guide to the site archive.A new suite of radiocarbon determinations has been obtained which redefines our understanding of the sequence of construction and use of the monument and augments the surviving archaeological evidence.
Conceived and designed for use by landscape practitioners and stewards as well as educators, scholars and students, this bibliography contains over 500 annotated citations referenced by subject, author and geographic indices. It includes English language publications, with a predominant focus on landscape preservation philosophy, research, preservation planning, practice, treatment, management and maintenance. These techniques are often represented in the form of illustrated case studies. Literature from diverse disciplines has been included. Entries are from books, tech. reports, scholarly journals, and published conf. proceed.
Living with Cultural Diversity in the Third Millennium BC
Author: Mats Larsson
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Social Science
Collaboration by the universities of Sheffield and Kalmar and Stockholm in Sweden led to two conferences being held. The second, held at Sheffield in 2006, sought collaboration and the sharing of information on archaeological data and theoretical thought on material culture diversity in the third millennium BC. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume arranged under three headings: material culture diversity in the Baltic; British Beaker burials and the Beaker People Project; Stonehenge and the Stonehenge Riverside Project. General overviews and wide-ranging discussions are joined by results from particular field orr laboratory projects.