These are the papers from the 2012 Cambridge Tax Law History Conference revised and reviewed for publication. The papers include new studies of: income tax law rewrite projects 1914Â?1956; law and administration in capital allowances 1878Â? 1950; the 'full amount' in income tax legislation; Sir Josiah Stamp and double income tax; early German income tax treaties and laws concerned with double tax avoidance (1869Â?1908); the policy of the medicine stamp duty; 'Danegeld' Â? from Danish tribute to English land tax; religion and charity, a historical perspective; 'Plaintive Glitterati'; a collision of accounting and law, dividends from pre-1914 profits in Australia; the history and development of the taxation profession in the UK and Australia; an inquiry into Dutch to British Colonial Malacca 1824Â?1839; the taxation history of China; taxing bachelors in America: 1895Â?1939; Dutch Tax reform under Napoleon; and the last decade of estate duty. The Publisher and authors have dedicated this volume to the memory of John Tiley, Emeritus Professor of the Law of Taxation at the University of Cambridge, who died as it was going to press. The Cambridge History of Tax conferences were his idea and he was responsible for their planning. He also edited all six volumes in the series.
This important and comprehensive volume vividly depicts the current status of women and girls in West Bengal. The analysis has been conducted in the framework of the socio-economic and politico-cultural ambience that has characterized the state in recent decades. The contributors highlight both areas of strength and vulnerability and clearly demonstrate that the status of women cannot be conceived as monolithic or static--it has many facets and is in a state of constant flux. The analysis of macro data is supported by revealing micro studies based on field surveys and an examination of cultural trends.
Minorities and the State discusses the plight of two numerically significant religious minority groups: Hindus in Bangladesh and Muslims in West Bengal, India. The political vicissitudes in India and Bangladesh have stirred up questions relating to citizenship, nationality, and identity. In this volume, academics from India, Bangladesh, and Japan examine the formation of minority identity at the time of partition of India in 1947 and in subsequent decades. The articles emphasize the crises and coping strategies, migration, and state- and local-level politics affecting minorities. By utilizing data from varied sources like field work, archival research, and secondary sources, this volume explores deprivation and different dimensions of minority life from political, economic, civil society, gender, and literary perspectives.
Childhoods, Bildungsmoratorium and the Middle Classes of Urban West Bengal
Author: Hia Sen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
Within Childhood Research starkly different theoretical and empirical concerns characterize the global south-north divide. Hia Sen attempts to bridge the gap in Childhood Research which usually addresses childhoods differently according to their 'developing/developed', 'western/non-western' contexts, and finds its middle ground in the context of the urban middle classes in contemporary West Bengal. The author documents areas such as leisure practices and everyday lives of school children in India for three cohorts, where it is possible to have a comparative perspective of childhoods given the existing rich ethnographic and historical research on childhoods in other cultural contexts.
The Economics of Agrarin Change under Population Pressure
Author: Ester Boserup
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Business & Economics
This book sets out to investigate the process of agrarian change from new angles and with new results. It starts on firm ground rather than from abstract economic theory. Upon its initial appearance, it was heralded as "a small masterpiece, which economic historians should read--and not simply quote"--Giovanni Frederico, Economic History Services. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth remains a breakthrough in the theory of agricultural development. In linking ethnography with economy, developmental studies reached new heights. Whereas "development" had been seen previously as the transformation of traditional communities by the introduction (or imposition) of new technologies, Ester Boserup argues that changes and improvements occur from within agricultural communities, and that improvements are governed not simply by external interference, but by those communities themselves Using extensive analyses of the costs and productivity of the main systems of traditional agriculture, Ester Boserup concludes that technical, economic, and social changes are unlikely to take place unless the community concerned is exposed to the pressure of population growth.