Complexity in Political and Social Life
Author: Robert Jervis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Political Science
Based on more than three decades of observation, Robert Jervis concludes in this provocative book that the very foundations of many social science theories--especially those in political science--are faulty. Taking insights from complexity theory as his point of departure, the author observes that we live in a world where things are interconnected, where unintended consequences of our actions are unavoidable and unpredictable, and where the total effect of behavior is not equal to the sum of individual actions. Jervis draws on a wide range of human endeavors to illustrate the nature of these system effects. He shows how increasing airport security might actually cost lives, not save them, and how removing dead trees (ostensibly to give living trees more room) may damage the health of an entire forest. Similarly, he highlights the interconnectedness of the political world as he describes how the Cold War played out and as he narrates the series of events--with their unintended consequences--that escalated into World War I. The ramifications of developing a rigorous understanding of politics are immense, as Jervis demonstrates in his critique of current systemic theories of international politics--especially the influential work done by Kenneth Waltz. Jervis goes on to examine various types of negative and positive feedback, bargaining in different types of relationships, and the polarizing effects of alignments to begin building a foundation for a more realistic, more nuanced, theory of international politics. System Effects concludes by examining what it means to act in a system. It shows how political actors might modify their behavior in anticipation of system effects, and it explores how systemic theories of political behavior might account for the role of anticipation and strategy in political action. This work introduces powerful new concepts that will reward not only international relations theorists, but also all social scientists with interests in comparative politics and political theory.
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
This valuable reference delineates the ground water quality concerns associated with the planning and usage of septic tank systems. Septic tank systems represent a significant source of ground water pollution in the United States. Since many existing systems are exceeding their design life by several-fold, the usage of synthetic organic chemicals in the household and for system cleaning is increasing, and larger-scale systems are being designed and used.
Author: Eishi H. Ibe
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book provides the reader with knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. The author covers faults and failures in ULSI devices induced by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha–rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn how to make numerical models from physical insights, to determine the kind of mathematical approaches that should be implemented to analyze radiation effects. A wide variety of prediction, detection, characterization and mitigation techniques against soft–errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them, and explains how electronic systems including servers and routers are shut down due to environmental radiation. Provides an understanding of how electronic systems are shut down due to environmental radiation by constructing physical models and numerical algorithms Covers both terrestrial and avionic–level conditions Logically presented with each chapter explaining the background physics to the topic followed by various modelling techniques, and chapter summary Written by a widely–recognized authority in soft–errors in electronic devices Code samples available for download from the Companion Website This book is targeted at researchers and graduate students in nuclear and space radiation, semiconductor physics and electron devices, as well as other areas of applied physics modelling. Researchers and students interested in how a variety of physical phenomena can be modelled and numerically treated will also find this book to present helpful methods.
Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System
Publisher: National Academies Press
How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.
Author: Richard A. Deitrich,V. Gene Erwin
Publisher: CRC Press
This book dissects the effects of ethanol on the major neurotransmitter systems affected by ethanol and correlates these actions with the behavioral consequences. The subject is approached first from the perspective of the neurochemical system and the behaviors resulting from ethanol's effects on that system. The behaviors themselves are discussed in later chapters. Some older theories of the effects of ethanol such as the membrane fluidization hypothesis are evaluated in light of new and updated information. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as the structural damage in the brain by long term ethanol exposure are also discussed.
Anatomy and Physiology
Author: Kalyani Premkumar
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
This textbook is focused on the anatomy and physiology needs of massage therapy students and practitioners. It gives extensive coverage of the major body systems- integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous -crucial for massage therapy. It also provides an overview of other body systems so students have a well-rounded understanding of anatomy and physiology. (Midwest).
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
Publisher: Organization for Economic
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a "generator pays" principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
How the Effects of Rules Vary Across New and Established Democracies
Author: Robert G. Moser,Ethan Scheiner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
Electoral Systems and Political Context illustrates how political and social context conditions the effects of electoral rules. The book examines electoral behavior and outcomes in countries that use 'mixed-member' electoral systems – where voters cast one ballot for a party list under proportional representation (PR) and one for a candidate in a single member district (SMD). Based on comparisons of outcomes under the two different rules used in mixed-member systems, the book highlights how electoral systems' effects – especially strategic voting, the number of parties and women's representation – tend to be different in new democracies from what one usually sees in established democracies. Moreover, electoral systems such as SMDs are usually presumed to constrain the number of parties irrespective of the level of social diversity, but this book demonstrates that social diversity frequently shapes party fragmentation even under such restrictive rules.
Fluids, Components, and System Effects
Author: George E. Totten,David K. Wills,Dierk G. Feldmann
Publisher: ASTM International
Category: Technology & Engineering
Based on a December 1999 symposium held in Reno, this collection of 41 papers reviews new technologies being developed to address hydraulic wear and failure problems. The main subjects are tribological design, failure analysis, improved materials, seals, and the effects of fluids on hydraulic pump w
System Effects and the Problem of Prediction
Author: Jeffrey Friedman
The complexity of the modern world makes it difficult to predict the effects of political actions. In his 1992 book, System Effects, Robert Jervis underscored this difficulty by pointing to various sources of complexity when people interact. For example, they may misperceive each othere(tm)s perceptions, leading their actions to backfire or create unintended side effects. In this collection, scholars of international relations, law, network analysis, political philosophy, and political science examine why questions of societal complexity have become unfashionable in some social sciences and fashionable in others. And they discuss whether complex social interactions tie our hands: if our actions are unpredictable, should we, and can we, stop acting? Among the contributors are noted legal theorist Richard Posner; Philip E. Tetlock, the worlde(tm)s leading expert on the predictive shortcomings of "experts"; and Jervis himself, who contributes a retrospective look at his 1992 book and its lessons. This book was originally published as a special issue of Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society.
Human Exposures and Their Health Effects
Author: Morton Lippmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Health & Fitness
A comprehensive guide to assessing the health effects of environmental toxicants in nonoccupational settings Now in a second edition, Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects continues to offer a unique perspective on a topic that is usually focused on exposure and effects in industrial settings. Fully revised and expanded, it presents comprehensive, cutting-edge information on the effects of human exposure to selected chemicals and physical agents in nonoccupational environments. Dr. Morton Lippmann assembles expert contributions by leading authorities on each of the twenty-five environmental agents examined, providing a critical review of the accumulated evidence concerning their known or likely impact on human health, especially after long-term exposure. Six new chapters have been added to this edition, discussing ambient particulate matter, chromium, mercury, noise, pesticides, and ultraviolet radiation. Existing chapters have been updated to include the most current information on performing risk assessments for established toxicants-from asbestos and benzene to the sick building syndrome. In the closing chapters, the authors place the discussion in a broader social and scientific context, exploring such issues as individual and community risk, environmental engineering for risk reduction, pulmonary medicine, and lessons learned in the industrial sector. Supplemented with more than 100 illustrations and photographs, and with a view to future research trends, Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects is an indispensable guide for public health officials, industrial hygienists, epidemiologists, and primary care physicians involved in risk assessment and management for exposed individuals and populations.
Author: Kenneth D. Frederick,Norman J. Rosenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume characterizes the current state of natural science and socioeconomic modeling of the impacts of climate change and current climate variability on forests, grasslands, and water. It identifies what can be done currently with impact assessments and suggests how to undertake such assessments. Impediments to linking biophysical and socioeconomic models into integrated assessments for policy purposes are identified, and recommendations for future research activities to improve the state of the art and remove these impediments to model integration are provided. This book is for natural and social scientists with an interest in the impacts of climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their socioeconomic impacts, and policy makers interested in understanding the status of current assessment capabilities and in identifying priority areas for future research.
Principles and Practice
Author: Douglas I Katz, MD,Ross D Zafonte, DO,Nathan D Zasler, MD, FAAPM&R, FAADEP, DAAPM
Publisher: Demos Medical Publishing
A Doody's Core Title 2012 Brain Injury Medicine: Principles and Practice is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of the management issues involved in caring for the person with brain injury - from early diagnosis and evaluation through the post-acute period and rehabilitation. It is the definitive core text needed by all practitioners in this area, including physiatrists, neurologists, psychologists, nurses, and other health care professionals. Written by over 100 acknowledged leaders in the field, and containing hundreds of tables, graphs, and photographic images, the text deals with issues of neuroimaging and neurodiagnostic testing, prognosis and outcome, acute care, rehabilitative care, treatment of specific populations, neurologic problems following injury, neuromusculoskeletal problems, and general management issues. Key features include: Emphasis on a disease state management approach to patient assessment and treatment Promotion of a holistic, biopsychosocial model of patient assessment and care Review of current expert consensus on practice guidelines Exploration of epidemiologic and basic pathophysiologic aspects of brain injury Examination of clinical issues throughout the continuum of rehabilitative care Cutting edge, practical information based on the authors' extensive clinical experience that will positively impact patients and families following brain injury
Wherefrom, Whereto, and Why?
Author: Antony Taylor
Publisher: Nova Publishers
This book traces the fascinating development of the New Zealand Prison System which includes the history of penology prior to the phenomenon coming there. But this book is not only a history: it is also an exploration of more complex managerial and social issues concerning crime and its treatment, including the interweaving of different penal policies that have brought the situation to where it is today. As such, it raises psychological issues of isolation in all shades of confinement, captivity, and deprivation that will appeal to everyone who is trying to grapple with the administrative, clinical, and legal problems they create. The work also traces the origins of imprisonment as a strategy used by rulers and ruling classes to retain their power, and more recently by duly elected governments to maintain social control and good order in their communities.